The Making Of Music

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20070613

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

8/30.

Venice

Uncle and nephew Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica, inspiring travellers who passed through the Serene City.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

An uncle and nephew, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica, using the space as a stage for many voices.

20070618

11/30.

The Sun King

Jean-Baptiste Lully, despite his reputation as a notorious libertine, became the composer to Louis XIV.

His music, used in extravagant court dances and spectacles, helped to establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

Read by Laurence Fox and Benedict Cumberbatch

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer to Louis XIV, wrote music for dances and spectacles, which helped establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

20070620

13/30.

The Puritans.

Despite destroying church organs across the land, Oliver Cromwell privately not only appreciated music but also employed composers who used to work for the king to write for him and his new regime.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Oliver Cromwell may have sent his Parliamentary visitor William Dowsing to smash up organs in churches, but privately Cromwell not only liked music, but employed composers who used to work for the King to write for him.

20070621

14/30.

The Restoration

The return of Charles II from exile heralded a revival in English music.

Among several composers to emerge was Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11.

Read by Simon Russell Beale

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

The return of Charles II from exile provoked great changes in the music world.

The emergence of composer Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11, marked a revival in English music.

20070622

15/30.

Bach in Leipzig

From a bustling town in Germany, a civic employee produced some of the most sublime church music ever written.

Despite being frequently at loggerheads with his employers, Johann Sebastian Bach continued to compose at a prolific rate.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

20070626

17/30.

Handel

German-born composer George Frideric Handel made English music great.

He invented English oratorio and his Messiah became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Under a German king, a German composer made English music great.

He invented English oratorio, and wrote works such as The Messiah, which became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

20070627

17/30.

Rameau and the Philosophes.

Paris during the 1750s was the centre of a clash of cultural ideas, with music at the forefront.

The Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments raged about absolutism and enlightenment.

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

18/30.

In the 1750s, the Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments about absolutism and enlightenment were played out.

Including music by Rameau and Pergolesi.

20070628

19/30.

Music and Society

By the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric.

Concerts and dances were regularly held in cities such as Bath and Oxford, and playing the piano was the accomplishment of every young lady.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Music and Society in late 18th century England

In the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric all over the country.

Including music by Linley and Arne.

20070629

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

20/30.

Haydn and the Esterhazys

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Joseph Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand.

Of his prolific output, Haydn himself admitted that he was cut off from the outside world and forced to become original.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand.

20070703

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

22/30.

Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro

As France teetered towards revolution, the play on which Mozart's masterpiece was based was banned in its original form by Louis XVI.

The story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was described by Napoleon as the revolution in action.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

As France was on the brink of a revolution, the story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was, in Napoleon's words, 'the revolution in action'.

20070704

23/30.

The French Revolution

One night in April 1792, a young French captain spent the night writing a marching tune.

La Marseillaise became a national anthem, and music inspired by the revolution was everywhere.

Read by Laurence Fox.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including music by Mehul, Gossec and others.

20070705

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

24/30.

Beethoven

The great German composer worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution and at his peak when Napoleon's empire was at its zenith.

His music matches the ferment of the times.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Beethoven worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution, and at his peak when Napoleon invaded Vienna.

Including the Piano Sonata No 21 (Waldstein) and the Op 95 Quartet.

20070706

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

25/30.

Beethoven's Eroica

The original dedication to Napoleon was removed from the manuscript of Beethoven's Symphony No 3, allegedly by the composer's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

The manuscript of the symphony originally bore a dedication to Napoleon, but this was scratched off, presumably by Beethoven's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

20070709

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

26/30.

Schubert and the Piano

Vienna in the 1820s.

The piano became mass manufactured and improved in quality.

Schubert gave the piano personality, and his pieces were the lifeblood of a new kind of music making.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including Schubert's Fantasies and Impromptus.

20070710

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

27/30.

Weber and German Romanticism

Carl Maria Von Weber gave audiences what they wanted - storms and disasters, wild beasts and blood.

Although German unification was a generation away, by drawing on folk tales, Weber wanted to create a German sensibility.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Benedict Cumberbatch.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including extracts from Der Freischutz.

20070711

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

28/30.

Virtuosi

In the 1820s and 30s, audiences craved virtuosi performances.

Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage - the performer as magician had arrived.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage, and the performer as magician had arrived.

20070712

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

29/30.

Grand Opera

In the first half of the 19th Century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera.

Donizetti, Rossini and Bellini's new operas were greeted with frenzy on the streets.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

With excerpts from Rossini's William Tell and The Barber of Seville.

20070713

30/30.

Albertopolis

The Royal Albert Hall opened in 1871 and celebrated a Prince Consort who championed both music and culture.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including Sullivan's Te Deum.

20070910

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

1/30.

The Shock of The Future

As nationalism swept across Europe, composers such as Brahms looked to the past for inspiration.

Others, such as Liszt and Wagner, wanted their music to embrace the future.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

31/60.

As Nationalism swept across Europe, composers were divided between those who looked to the past for inspiration, like Brahms, and those, like Liszt and Wagner, who wanted their music to embrace the future.

Including piano music by Schumann, and Liszt's Tasso.

20070911

2/30.

Mother Russia

Glinka wanted Russian music to reflect the distinctiveness of his own country.

He inspired a new generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

32/60.

Glinka inspired a generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

Including works by Borodin, Mussorgsky and Tchaikovsky.

20070912

3/30.

Viva Verdi.

Giuseppe Verdi's work is inseparable from politics.

The famous slave chorus from Nabucco, one of his earliest operas, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their unofficial anthem.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

33/60.

Nabucco, one of his earliest works, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their anthem.

20070913

4/30.

My Country.

In the late 19th century, European music began to express the desire for nation states.

Composers such as Smetana and Sibelius expressed their dream of a nation in their music.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

34/60.

In the late 19th century, European composers began to express their dream of a nation in their music.

Music includes Ma vlast by Smetana and Finlandia by Sibelius.

20070914

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

5/30.

Wagner.

The theatre established by Wagner at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for philosophers, artists and musicians.

But what has his influence been on the subsequent development of classical music?

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

35/60.

Wagner's theatre at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for many of the 19th century's most notable philosophers, artists and musicians.

Including excerpts from The Ring.

20070917

6/30.

Exotic Paris

In the 1890s, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into a new century.

He produced music that was original and daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

Read by Simon Russell Beale

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

36/60.

In 1890s France, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into the new century.

He produced music that was original, daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

Including L'apres midi d'un faune, Pelleas et Melisande and Pagodes.

20070918

7/30.

Fakes and Mystics

Mysticism was in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century.

Russian composer Alexander Scriabin spent his musical life trying to depict the mystical in his work.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

37/60.

The fashion for mysticism at the beginning of the 20th century played a part in musical history.

Scriabin, a Russian composer, spent his career trying to depict the mystical in his work, such as in Prometheus, the Poem of Fire.

20070928

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

15/30.

Jazz

A new musical form emerged, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues.

But how did it influence classical composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie?

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

44/60.

It bubbled up from the streets, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues.

But how did jazz influence classical composers like Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie? Music includes Stravinsky's Ragtime, Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand and Lambert's The Rio Grande.

20071002

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

17/30.

Music for the Masses

Composers such as Ralph Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff were encouraging participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

47/60.

A new democracy started to rise in music as composers like Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff encouraged participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time.

Plus music by Weill and Hindemith.

20071003

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

18/30.

Cinema

The film industry became the great patron of music in the 20th century.

Max Steiner, whose composing credits included Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, said that film music should be felt and not heard.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

48/60.

Including music by Max Steiner, who wrote scores for Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, and said film music 'should be felt and not heard'.

0620070611

Full performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

6/30.

The Reformation

Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Including music by Martin Luther.

Martin Luther changed religion and religious music.

He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

20The Depression20071005

Despite the Wall Street crash and falling record sales, music was booming.

Radio was reaching millions, swing bands entertained at speakeasies and Porgy and Bess had its premiere.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

50/60.

22Those Who Got Away20071009

Many musicians escaped the jackbooted shadow of Hitler's Europe.

Bela Bartok and Arnold Schoenberg fled to America, while others such as Berthold Goldschmidt came to England.

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

23Britain Victorious|20071010

British composers responded to the war and its aftermath.

Benjamin Britten's Peter Grimes, first performed in June 1945, spoke to an audience that had been shaped by the experience of war.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

24The Modernists20071011

John Cage, Olivier Messiaen and Pierre Boulez were in the forefront of a new generation of postwar composers.

They wanted to sweep away the past and make music speak for a new world.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

25Leonard Bernstein20071012

The great American composer's music embraced the classical and the popular.

His 1957 musical West Side Story filled concert halls and theatres all over the world.

0208Pre-war Vienna20070919

The Austrian capital was one of the most culturally important cities in the world.

Alongside the ideas of Freud and the paintings of Klimt, composer Schoenberg was exploring new sounds that he would eventually make his own.

Read by Tom Hollander.

0209Elgar20070920

Does the music of the quintessentially English composer merely express jingoistic nationalism, or is there a deeper understanding of English values?

0210A Riot20070921

Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris on its premiere in May 1913.

Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece?

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0211The End Of The Hapsburgs20070924

With the Austro-Hungarian empire in its last years, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

41/60.

The End of the Hapsburgs

As the Austro-Hungarian Empire was disintegrating, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people by drawing on the culture of the new Czech lands that were forming.

Including music by Janacek and Bartok.

0212The Path To War20070925

Many composers were shaped by the horrors of the First World War.

Some, like Ralph Vaughan Williams and Arnold Schoenberg, were drafted themselves, and their experiences were reflected in their music.

Read by Tom Hollander.

0213Out Of Fashion20070926

After the First World War, some composers were looking for a radical shift in classical music.

Others, such as Richard Strauss and Sergei Rachmaninov, carried on writing in traditional styles.

0214Revolution In Russia20070927

The Russian Revolution had a huge impact on music.

For some composers it symbolised freedom, but for many others it meant the opposite.

0216Into The Past20071001

In the 1920s, French composers such as Poulenc and Ravel looked back to yesteryear to give a new dimension to modern composers.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0219Stalin20071004

When the Russian dictator came to power he wanted music that expressed 'socialist realism'.

How did composers like Shostakovich and Prokofiev fare under the Stalinist regime?

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

0221Second World War, Those Who Stayed Put20071008

The war inspired many masterpieces, including Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time, Tippet's A Child of Our Time and Dmitiri Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, which was largely written during the 900-day siege of the city.

0226The Sixties20071015

Modern composers such as Stockhausen, John Tavener and Peter Maxwell Davies tried to make their voices heard above the noise of pop culture.

0228The Impact Of Technology20071017

Composers experimented with electronics to extend the boundaries of possible sounds.

Music was used to create the sounds of machines.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0230A Time Of Plenty20071018

British composers play a significant part in contemporary music.

John Tavener's Song for Athene was played at Princess Diana's funeral.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0230Dissent20071016

Composers in the 1960s and 70s expressed their rage against the system.

Hans Werner Henze used his music to communicate his loathing of Fascism and Henryk Gorecki found a musical voice to inspire a spiritual renewal in Eastern Europe.

0230 LASTThe Making Of Music20071019

The final programme in the series looks back at a journey which began in the early monasteries and continued through the Renaissance to the present day.

Where have we come to and what is the current state of classical music?

R307The Counter Reformation20070612

Including music by Palestrina who became embroiled by accident in the politics of the high church.

R310The Birth Of Opera20070615

Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600.

Including music by Peri, Caccini and Monteverdi.

R31620070625

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series on how history has shaped classical music through the centuries.

16/30.

Bach's St Matthew Passion.

Johann Sebastian's recurring choral theme, inherited from his Lutheran predecessors, had a profound effect on the history of music.

R321Mozart20070702

When Mozart was born composers needed patrons, but by the end of his life the world had changed.

The age where the composer was a musical servant was beginning to fade away, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of this.

R340A Riot20070921

In May 1913, the first night of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris.

Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece of the age?

R421Mozart20070702

In the middle of the 18th century composers needed patrons, but by the end of Mozart's life the world had changed.

The composer as servant was becoming a thing of the past, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of it.