Jazz Junctions

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2010120820160317 (R2)

In this final episode of Jazz Junctions, trumpeter Guy Barker examines recent junctions in jazz and considers where the music is heading in the 21st century. He looks at the impact of advancing technology, institutionalised jazz education, and the increasing influence of traditional music from around the world. Is jazz still developing or is it now static, with the old styles constantly being replayed?

Guy Barker investigates recent jazz and looks to its future, with the help of musicians Roy Haynes, Terry Gibbs, Kenny Burrell, Albert 'Tootie' Heath, Wayne Shorter, Evan Parker, Ed Shaughnessy, Peter Erskine, Billy Taylor, John Scofield, Eddie Bert and Robin Eubanks as well as critics Ira Gitler, Bruce Boyd Raeburn, Dan Morgenstern, Scott Yanow and Ted Gioia.

20101208

A Love Supreme2010112420160303 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way. Episode eight, A Love Supreme, looks at jazz's progression into more and more complicated and original ideas with two new paths for jazz emerging in the 1960s: free jazz and jazz-rock.

John Coltrane led the way with free jazz, recording whole albums of purely improvised music. Or were they? Can any jazz be completely free from tradition? And what role did the civil rights movement play in free jazz's development?

On the other side, jazz musicians were joining forces with rock musicians to create a hybrid music: jazz-rock and then fusion. Pianos and double basses were replaced by keyboards and bass guitars, as jazz improvisation sat on top of rock beats. Seminal jazz-rock albums such as Miles Davis' Bitches Brew were well-received and new life was breathed into a seemingly dying art form.

Guy Barker traces the different paths of free jazz and jazz-rock through brand new interviews with McCoy Tyner, Wayne Shorter, Ron Carter, Peter Erskine, Reggie Workman, Randy Brecker, Larry Coryell, Lou Donaldson, John Scofield, Evan Parker, Jane Ira Bloom, Roswell Rudd; alongside archive of Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, Archie Shepp, Elvin Jones (1927-2004), Amiri Baraka, Nat Hentoff and John Coltrane (1926-1967) himself. The John Coltrane interview with August Blume is used with kind permission of The Slought Foundation.

A Love Supreme20101124

Belonging - European Jazz20101201

Belonging - European Jazz2010120120160310 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way. In the penultimate episode, Belonging, he focuses on European Jazz.

Although jazz is generally considered to be an American music, its relationship with Europe is as old as the music itself. But is European jazz a separate branch of music or is it, in essence, the same as American jazz? Guy asks if you have to be American to play real jazz; whether there a distinctive European sound; and what role Europe's classical and folk music traditions play in its jazz. He also asks if the future of jazz in fact lies on this side of the Atlantic.

Guy looks at the journey of European jazz through brand new interviews with Kenny Burrell, Albert "Tootie" Heath, Evan Parker, John Surman, Peter Erskine, George Mraz, Gunther Schuller, Stuart Nicholson, Geoffrey Smith and Howard Mandel; alongside archive of Stéphane Grappelli (1908-1997), Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), Johnny Griffin (1928-2008), Ronnie Scott (1927-1996) and Tubby Hayes (1935-1973).

Birth Of The Cool2010111720160225 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way. Episode seven, Birth Of The Cool, charts the emergence of a modal style of playing and the importance of Miles Davis.

Miles Davis' series of recordings released as Birth Of The Cool remains one of the defining, pivotal moments in jazz. Miles was seeking a more relaxed alternative to bebop and began to experiment with a new group, the nonet, which recorded in 1949. Featuring unusual instrumentation and several notable musicians such as Gerry Mulligan and Lee Konitz, the music marked a major development in post-bebop jazz.

Miles' work in the 1950s led to one of jazz's most important new elements: the modal style. This was a new approach to harmony in which chord changes were far less frequent, thereby encouraging far more melodic improvisation based on a specific scale or key, as heard in jazz's biggest selling album of all time, Kind Of Blue. Jazz musicians on the West Coast began to develop this more relaxed style, playing without the ferocity of bebop, which became known as the "Cool School". Gerry Mulligan and Chet Baker formed the first piano-less quartet creating a sparse and utterly beautiful texture to their jazz.

Guy Barker looks at the rise of Cool Jazz with contributions from jazz legends Dave Brubeck, Jimmy Cobb, Gunther Schuller, Chico Hamilton, Bill Crow, John Surman, and jazz authorities Lewis Porter, Ted Gioia, Dan Morgenstern and Loren Schoenberg. There further archive contributions from Gil Evans* (1912-1988) and Gerry Mulligan (1927-1996).

Birth of the Cool20101117

Birth of the Cool20101117

Body and Soul20101027

Body and Soul2010102720160128 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

With his seminal recording of Body and Soul on 11 October 1939, Coleman Hawkins changed jazz. Never before had a musician played with such daring over a popular song, his fluid improvisation almost instantly departing from the original melody both harmonically and rhythmically, in a way that signalled a departure from the customs of 1930s jazz.

Despite Hawkins' not thinking much of the performance at the time, the record was extremely popular; but more importantly from a historical perspective, Hawkins became an inspiration to a younger generation of jazz musicians, most notably Charlie Parker. Hawkins had sown a seed in the mind of the young upstarts who would go on to change the shape of jazz, and the importance of this recording of Body and Soul should not be underestimated.

Guy Barker examines Coleman Hawkins' place in jazz and his legacy, by way of brand new interviews with Billy Taylor, Albert 'Tootie' Heath, Kenny Burrell, Ira Gitler, Junior Mance, Roy Haynes, Bill Crow, Dick Hyman, Ted Gioia, Gunther Schuller, Dan Morgenstern, and Geoffrey Smith; and of course, rare archive of the man himself, Coleman Hawkins.

Body and Soul2010102720160128 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

With his seminal recording of Body and Soul on 11 October 1939, Coleman Hawkins changed jazz. Never before had a musician played with such daring over a popular song, his fluid improvisation almost instantly departing from the original melody both harmonically and rhythmically, in a way that signalled a departure from the customs of 1930s jazz.

Despite Hawkins' not thinking much of the performance at the time, the record was extremely popular; but more importantly from a historical perspective, Hawkins became an inspiration to a younger generation of jazz musicians, most notably Charlie Parker. Hawkins had sown a seed in the mind of the young upstarts who would go on to change the shape of jazz, and the importance of this recording of Body and Soul should not be underestimated.

Guy Barker examines Coleman Hawkins' place in jazz and his legacy, by way of brand new interviews with Billy Taylor, Albert 'Tootie' Heath, Kenny Burrell, Ira Gitler, Junior Mance, Roy Haynes, Bill Crow, Dick Hyman, Ted Gioia, Gunther Schuller, Dan Morgenstern, and Geoffrey Smith; and of course, rare archive of the man himself, Coleman Hawkins.

Jazz on the Record20101006

Jazz On The Record2010100620160107 (R2)

Guy Barker explores the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance, or one person's idea. Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Renowned jazz trumpeter and composer Guy Barker explores each of these junctions by hearing from the musicians who were there and made it happen, shaping the music as they went. The series features rare archive of jazz greats such as Louis Armstrong, John Coltrane, Coleman Hawkins, Gerry Mulligan and Earl Hines.

There are new interviews with the world's greatest living jazz musicians, such as McCoy Tyner, Wayne Shorter, Ron Carter, Buddy DeFranco, Jimmy Cobb, Kenny Burrell, Reggie Workman, Lou Donaldson, Dave Brubeck, Terry Gibbs, Sir Charles Thompson, Peter Erskine, Larry Coryell, Jeff 'Tain' Watts, Junior Mance, Dick Hyman, Billy Taylor and Albert 'Tootie' Heath. Plus commentary from leading jazz authorities Ted Gioia, Loren Schoenberg, Dan Morgenstern, Stuart Nicholson, Geoffrey Smith and Scott Yanow.

Over ten episodes, Jazz Junctions will take in the following turning points and musicians: the first jazz record; Louis Armstrong and the birth of the jazz solo; Benny Goodman and the Big Band era; Coleman Hawkins and the beginnings of modern jazz; Frank Sinatra and the "sing" era; Miles Davis and the birth of cool; free jazz and jazz-rock; European jazz; and the shape of jazz to come.

Part one, Jazz on the Record, begins in February 1917, with the release of the first jazz record: Livery Stable Blues by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, led by cornettist Nick LaRocca. Hitherto, jazz had been played on the streets and in the clubs, but only by those who were there to witness it. Recording the music meant that it could be listened to again and again by people all over the world, and most importantly, the music could be studied and imitated. The journey had begun.

But was it that simple? Why was the first record of a black music by a white group? Were they really the first? Was it even jazz? Why has this first great moment in jazz's history caused so much controversy over the years? Leading UK jazz trumpeter Guy Barker travels back to 1910s New Orleans to try to unravel the circumstances surrounding the birth of recorded jazz. The programme features interviews with Dick Hyman, Jimmy LaRocca, Ted Gioia and Scott Yanow; plus archive of Jelly Roll Morton and Nick LaRocca himself.

Jazz Today

Jazz Today20101208

In this final episode of Jazz Junctions, trumpeter Guy Barker examines recent junctions in jazz and considers where the music is heading in the 21st century.

He looks at the impact of advancing technology, institutionalised jazz education, and the increasing influence of traditional music from around the world.

Is jazz still developing or is it now static, with the old styles constantly being replayed?

Guy Barker investigates recent jazz and looks to its future, with the help of musicians Roy Haynes, Terry Gibbs, Kenny Burrell, Albert 'Tootie' Heath, Wayne Shorter, Evan Parker, Ed Shaughnessy, Peter Erskine, Billy Taylor, John Scofield, Eddie Bert and Robin Eubanks as well as critics Ira Gitler, Bruce Boyd Raeburn, Dan Morgenstern, Scott Yanow and Ted Gioia.

Guy Barker examines recent junctions in jazz and considers where the music is heading.

Oop Bop Sh'Bam20101110

Oop Bop Sh'bam2010111020160211 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way. Episode six, Oop Bop Sh'Bam! charts the emergence of bebop.

One of the most important developments in the entire history of jazz was bebop: it signalled the decline of the big band and the rebirth of the small group, and led the way with new harmonic and rhythmic vocabulary. Bebop had been incubating since 1939 with Coleman Hawkins' seminal recording of Body and Soul paving the way and, that same year, young saxophonist Charlie "Yardbird" Parker was trying to develop new ways of playing jazz, using the higher intervals of the chords as a basis for improvisation.

Along with like-minded musicians such as trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and pianist Thelonious Monk, Parker developed this new musical language at jam sessions at New York clubs like Minton's Playhouse. But, because of the 1942-1944 American Federation of Musicians' recording ban, it was not until 1945 that bop began to have a substantial effect on the jazz world.

Bebop led to a massive jazz rift: many of the older jazz musicians rejected the angular melodies, the break-neck speeds and the extreme virtuosity required to perform bebop, denouncing it with cutting comments; although some older musicians such as Benny Goodman and Coleman Hawkins did embrace the new style, with varying degrees of success. But for young jazz musicians in the 1940s, bebop represented a return of jazz to its small-group roots, and an exciting opportunity to be part of something new and to lead the music in a new direction from which it has never looked back.

Guy Barker looks at the rise of bebop with the help of Sir Charles Thompson, Bill Crow, Jeff "Tain" Watts, Eddie Bert, Jimmy Cobb, Ed Shaughnessy, Terry Gibbs, Albert "Tootie" Heath, Loren Schoenberg and Ira Gitler. There are also archive contributions from Sonny Rollins, Billy Eckstine, Jay McShann, Ross Rusell and Charlie Parker himself.

Swing! Swing! Swing!20101020

Swing! Swing! Swing!2010102020160121 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance, or one person's idea. Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Part three, Swing! Swing! Swing! looks at Benny Goodman, the 'King of Swing'. In early 1935, Benny Goodman and his Orchestra were starting to attract attention with weekly appearances on the Let's Dance radio show, broadcast from New York. For most of the show, the band mainly played the unexciting sweet arrangements popular at the time, which failed to excite the East Coast audience. Although they weren't aware of it, the band had developed a following on the West Coast where listeners, three hours behind, were regularly treated to an extra hour of music, featuring hot jazz arrangements by the likes of Fletcher Henderson.

In July 1935, the band set out on a coast-to-coast tour, often receiving an indifferent reception. By August, Goodman found himself on the West coast and was ready to throw in the towel. Then, on 21 August 1935, everything changed. Amidst a lukewarm reception at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles, in a do-or-die move, Benny Goodman decided to bring out some of Fletcher Henderson's hot arrangements into the otherwise fairly standard and unexciting set. Unbeknownst to him, this was the music the West Coast audience had been waiting for, the music they'd heard in the final hour of the Let's Dance shows. They went crazy and within days Goodman had become a national star. The Swing era had begun!

Guy Barker looks at this momentous junction in jazz, the effect it had on the jazz world, featuring new interviews with Frank Foster, George Avakian, Ted Gioia, Ed Shaughnessy, Buddy DeFranco, Gary Giddins, Scott Yanow and Loren Schoenberg; and archive from Fletcher Henderson, Artie Shaw, Teddy Wilson and John Hammond.

Swing! Swing! Swing!2010102020160121 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance, or one person's idea. Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Part three, Swing! Swing! Swing! looks at Benny Goodman, the 'King of Swing'. In early 1935, Benny Goodman and his Orchestra were starting to attract attention with weekly appearances on the Let's Dance radio show, broadcast from New York. For most of the show, the band mainly played the unexciting sweet arrangements popular at the time, which failed to excite the East Coast audience. Although they weren't aware of it, the band had developed a following on the West Coast where listeners, three hours behind, were regularly treated to an extra hour of music, featuring hot jazz arrangements by the likes of Fletcher Henderson.

In July 1935, the band set out on a coast-to-coast tour, often receiving an indifferent reception. By August, Goodman found himself on the West coast and was ready to throw in the towel. Then, on 21 August 1935, everything changed. Amidst a lukewarm reception at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles, in a do-or-die move, Benny Goodman decided to bring out some of Fletcher Henderson's hot arrangements into the otherwise fairly standard and unexciting set. Unbeknownst to him, this was the music the West Coast audience had been waiting for, the music they'd heard in the final hour of the Let's Dance shows. They went crazy and within days Goodman had become a national star. The Swing era had begun!

Guy Barker looks at this momentous junction in jazz, the effect it had on the jazz world, featuring new interviews with Frank Foster, George Avakian, Ted Gioia, Ed Shaughnessy, Buddy DeFranco, Gary Giddins, Scott Yanow and Loren Schoenberg; and archive from Fletcher Henderson, Artie Shaw, Teddy Wilson and John Hammond.

The Birth Of The Solo20101013

The Birth Of The Solo2010101320160114 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance, or one person's idea. Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Part two, The Birth Of The Solo, considers the legacy of Louis Armstrong. The real soul of all jazz is improvisation, but early jazz musicians were more inclined to extemporise collectively around the melody rather than to perform fully improvised solos. All that changed with the advent of early jazz's greatest improviser and pioneer, Louis Armstrong.

Recordings such as West End Blues, Cornet Chop Suey and Potato Head Blues led the way in a whole new direction for jazz musicians. But where did Louis get his inspiration from? Were his solos purely improvised or had he prepared whole sections in advance? What is it about his music that was so revolutionary and continues to inspire musicians of all styles even today? And was it all about Louis, or were there other great early improvisers who deserve some of the credit?

Fellow trumpeter Guy Barker looks at the birth of the jazz solo with new and archive contributions from Gunther Schuller, "Wild" Bill Davison, Ted Gioia, Hoagy Carmichael, Budd Johnson, Lewis Porter, Earl "Fatha" Hines, Dan Morgenstern, Dick Hyman, Artie Shaw and, of course, Louis Armstrong himself.

The Night We Called It A Day20101103
The Night We Called It A Day2010110320160204 (R2)

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way. Episode five, The Night We Called It A Day, looks at Frank Sinatra and the "Sing Era".

In January 1942, Frank Sinatra had been the featured singer with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra for exactly two years. During that time his popularity had taken off and he realised that, in order to capitalise on this, he had to break away from Dorsey and launch his solo career. The defining moment came on 20 September 1942: Sinatra left Dorsey and went on to record-breaking success at the Paramount Theatre in New York, originally supporting and then overtaking Benny Goodman, the "King of Swing", as top of the bill. It was the beginning of the end of the Swing Era and the start of the "Sing Era".

Sinatra's timing was perfect: America was at war and the wives and girls of the departed GIs wanted a target for their emotions; and Sinatra was it. The war, coupled with the disastrous two-year Musicians' Union recording ban started a tail-spin for the big bands, leaving the door wide open for the singers they had helped to create. Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes and dozens more singers were allowed to make records with vocal backings, and as the back catalogue of big band records ran out, the singers flooded the charts, sealing the fate of the big bands. The bands' demise was astonishing in its speed: in 1945 the big band scene was booming, but by the end of 1947 it was dead.

Guy examines the collapse of the big bands and the rise of the singers via brand new interviews with Frank Foster, Louise Tobin, Buddy DeFranco, George Avakian, Terry Gibbs, Dave Brubeck, Scott Yanow, Ira Gitler, Dame Cleo Laine and Bruce Boyd Raeburn, alongside archive of Sammy Cahn, Nat "King" Cole and John Hammond.

01Jazz On The Record20101006

Guy Barker explores the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance or one person's idea.

Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Renowned jazz trumpeter and composer Guy Barker explores each of these junctions by hearing from the musicians who were there and made it happen, shaping the music as they went.

The series features rare archive of jazz greats such as Louis Armstrong, John Coltrane, Coleman Hawkins, Gerry Mulligan and Earl Hines.

There are new interviews with the world's greatest living jazz musicians, such as McCoy Tyner, Wayne Shorter, Ron Carter, Buddy DeFranco, Jimmy Cobb, Kenny Burrell, Reggie Workman, Lou Donaldson, Dave Brubeck, Terry Gibbs, Sir Charles Thompson, Peter Erskine, Larry Coryell, Jeff 'Tain' Watts, Junior Mance, Dick Hyman, Billy Taylor and Albert 'Tootie' Heath.

Plus commentary from leading jazz authorities Ted Gioia, Loren Schoenberg, Dan Morgenstern, Stuart Nicholson, Geoffrey Smith and Scott Yanow.

Over ten episodes, Jazz Junctions will take in the following turning points and musicians: the first jazz record; Louis Armstrong and the birth of the jazz solo; Benny Goodman and the Big Band era; Coleman Hawkins and the beginnings of modern jazz; Frank Sinatra and the 'sing' era; Miles Davis and the birth of cool; free jazz and jazz-rock; European jazz; and the shape of jazz to come.

Part one, Jazz on the Record, begins in February 1917, with the release of the first jazz record: Livery Stable Blues by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, led by cornettist Nick LaRocca.

Hitherto, jazz had been played on the streets and in the clubs, but only by those who were there to witness it.

Recording the music meant that it could be listened to again and again by people all over the world, and most importantly, the music could be studied and imitated.

The journey had begun.

But was it that simple? Why was the first record of a black music by a white group? Were they really the first? Was it even jazz? Why has this first great moment in jazz's history caused so much controversy over the years? Leading UK jazz trumpeter Guy Barker travels back to 1910s New Orleans to try to unravel the circumstances surrounding the birth of recorded jazz.

The programme features interviews with Dick Hyman, Jimmy LaRocca, Ted Gioia and Scott Yanow; plus archive of Jelly Roll Morton and Nick LaRocca himself.

Guy Barker looks back to the release of the very first jazz record in February 1917.

02The Birth Of The Solo20101013

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance, or one person's idea.

Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Part two, The Birth Of The Solo, considers the legacy of Louis Armstrong.

The real soul of all jazz is improvisation, but early jazz musicians were more inclined to extemporise collectively around the melody rather than to perform fully improvised solos.

All that changed with the advent of early jazz's greatest improviser and pioneer, Louis Armstrong.

Recordings such as West End Blues, Cornet Chop Suey and Potato Head Blues led the way in a whole new direction for jazz musicians.

But where did Louis get his inspiration from? Were his solos purely improvised or had he prepared whole sections in advance? What is it about his music that was so revolutionary and continues to inspire musicians of all styles even today? And was it all about Louis, or were there other great early improvisers who deserve some of the credit?

Fellow trumpeter Guy Barker looks at the birth of the jazz solo with new and archive contributions from Gunther Schuller, 'Wild' Bill Davison, Ted Gioia, Hoagy Carmichael, Budd Johnson, Lewis Porter, Earl 'Fatha' Hines, Dan Morgenstern, Dick Hyman, Artie Shaw and, of course, Louis Armstrong himself.

Guy Barker looks at the birth of the jazz solo and the legacy of Louis Armstrong.

03Swing! Swing! Swing!20101020

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In its 100-year history, jazz has seen many changes and developments but, unlike other genres, jazz's direction has frequently changed due to a specific event: a momentary decision, an invention, one performance, or one person's idea.

Each episode focuses on what jazz was like directly before this junction, the junction itself, and how things subsequently changed.

Part three, Swing! Swing! Swing! looks at Benny Goodman, the 'King of Swing'.

In early 1935, Benny Goodman and his Orchestra were starting to attract attention with weekly appearances on the Let's Dance radio show, broadcast from New York.

For most of the show, the band mainly played the unexciting sweet arrangements popular at the time, which failed to excite the East Coast audience.

Although they weren't aware of it, the band had developed a following on the West Coast where listeners, three hours behind, were regularly treated to an extra hour of music, featuring hot jazz arrangements by the likes of Fletcher Henderson.

In July 1935, the band set out on a coast-to-coast tour, often receiving an indifferent reception.

By August, Goodman found himself on the West coast and was ready to throw in the towel.

Then, on 21 August 1935, everything changed.

Amidst a lukewarm reception at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles, in a do-or-die move, Benny Goodman decided to bring out some of Fletcher Henderson's hot arrangements into the otherwise fairly standard and unexciting set.

Unbeknownst to him, this was the music the West Coast audience had been waiting for, the music they'd heard in the final hour of the Let's Dance shows.

They went crazy and within days Goodman had become a national star.

The Swing era had begun!

Guy Barker looks at this momentous junction in jazz, the effect it had on the jazz world, featuring new interviews with Frank Foster, George Avakian, Ted Gioia, Ed Shaughnessy, Buddy DeFranco, Gary Giddins, Scott Yanow and Loren Schoenberg; and archive from Fletcher Henderson, Artie Shaw, Teddy Wilson and John Hammond.

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz and enters the Swing era.

0420101027

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

With his seminal recording of Body and Soul on 11 October 1939, Coleman Hawkins changed jazz.

Never before had a musician played with such daring over a popular song, his fluid improvisation almost instantly departing from the original melody both harmonically and rhythmically, in a way that signalled a departure from the customs of 1930s jazz.

Despite Hawkins' not thinking much of the performance at the time, the record was extremely popular; but more importantly from a historical perspective, Hawkins became an inspiration to a younger generation of jazz musicians, most notably Charlie Parker.

Hawkins had sown a seed in the mind of the young upstarts who would go on to change the shape of jazz, and the importance of this recording of Body and Soul should not be underestimated.

Guy Barker examines Coleman Hawkins' place in jazz and his legacy, by way of brand new interviews with Billy Taylor, Albert 'Tootie' Heath, Kenny Burrell, Ira Gitler, Junior Mance, Roy Haynes, Bill Crow, Dick Hyman, Ted Gioia, Gunther Schuller, Dan Morgenstern, and Geoffrey Smith; and of course, rare archive of the man himself, Coleman Hawkins.

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, this week looking at Coleman Hawkins.

0520101103

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

Episode five, The Night We Called It A Day, looks at Frank Sinatra and the "Sing Era".

In January 1942, Frank Sinatra had been the featured singer with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra for exactly two years.

During that time his popularity had taken off and he realised that, in order to capitalise on this, he had to break away from Dorsey and launch his solo career.

The defining moment came on 20 September 1942: Sinatra left Dorsey and went on to record-breaking success at the Paramount Theatre in New York, originally supporting and then overtaking Benny Goodman, the "King of Swing", as top of the bill.

It was the beginning of the end of the Swing Era and the start of the "Sing Era".

Sinatra's timing was perfect: America was at war and the wives and girls of the departed GIs wanted a target for their emotions; and Sinatra was it.

The war, coupled with the disastrous two-year Musicians' Union recording ban started a tail-spin for the big bands, leaving the door wide open for the singers they had helped to create.

Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes and dozens more singers were allowed to make records with vocal backings, and as the back catalogue of big band records ran out, the singers flooded the charts, sealing the fate of the big bands.

The bands' demise was astonishing in its speed: in 1945 the big band scene was booming, but by the end of 1947 it was dead.

Guy examines the collapse of the big bands and the rise of the singers via brand new interviews with Frank Foster, Louise Tobin, Buddy DeFranco, George Avakian, Terry Gibbs, Dave Brubeck, Scott Yanow, Ira Gitler, Dame Cleo Laine and Bruce Boyd Raeburn, alongside archive of Sammy Cahn, Nat "King" Cole and John Hammond.

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, reaching Frank Sinatra & the sing era

06Oop Bop Sh'bam20101110

Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

Episode six, Oop Bop Sh'Bam! charts the emergence of bebop.

One of the most important developments in the entire history of jazz was bebop: it signalled the decline of the big band and the rebirth of the small group, and led the way with new harmonic and rhythmic vocabulary.

Bebop had been incubating since 1939 with Coleman Hawkins' seminal recording of Body and Soul paving the way and, that same year, young saxophonist Charlie "Yardbird" Parker was trying to develop new ways of playing jazz, using the higher intervals of the chords as a basis for improvisation.

Along with like-minded musicians such as trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and pianist Thelonious Monk, Parker developed this new musical language at jam sessions at New York clubs like Minton's Playhouse.

But, because of the 1942-1944 American Federation of Musicians' recording ban, it was not until 1945 that bop began to have a substantial effect on the jazz world.

Bebop led to a massive jazz rift: many of the older jazz musicians rejected the angular melodies, the break-neck speeds and the extreme virtuosity required to perform bebop, denouncing it with cutting comments; although some older musicians such as Benny Goodman and Coleman Hawkins did embrace the new style, with varying degrees of success.

But for young jazz musicians in the 1940s, bebop represented a return of jazz to its small-group roots, and an exciting opportunity to be part of something new and to lead the music in a new direction from which it has never looked back.

Guy Barker looks at the rise of bebop with the help of Sir Charles Thompson, Bill Crow, Jeff "Tain" Watts, Eddie Bert, Jimmy Cobb, Ed Shaughnessy, Terry Gibbs, Albert "Tootie" Heath, Loren Schoenberg and Ira Gitler.

There are also archive contributions from Sonny Rollins, Billy Eckstine, Jay McShann, Ross Rusell and Charlie Parker himself.

Guy Barker explores the history of jazz, this week charting the emergence of bebop.

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Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

Episode seven, Birth Of The Cool, charts the emergence of a modal style of playing and the importance of Miles Davis.

Miles Davis' series of recordings released as Birth Of The Cool remains one of the defining, pivotal moments in jazz.

Miles was seeking a more relaxed alternative to bebop and began to experiment with a new group, the nonet, which recorded in 1949.

Featuring unusual instrumentation and several notable musicians such as Gerry Mulligan and Lee Konitz, the music marked a major development in post-bebop jazz.

Miles' work in the 1950s led to one of jazz's most important new elements: the modal style.

This was a new approach to harmony in which chord changes were far less frequent, thereby encouraging far more melodic improvisation based on a specific scale or key, as heard in jazz's biggest selling album of all time, Kind Of Blue.

Jazz musicians on the West Coast began to develop this more relaxed style, playing without the ferocity of bebop, which became known as the "Cool School".

Gerry Mulligan and Chet Baker formed the first piano-less quartet creating a sparse and utterly beautiful texture to their jazz.

Guy Barker looks at the rise of Cool Jazz with contributions from jazz legends Dave Brubeck, Jimmy Cobb, Gunther Schuller, Chico Hamilton, Bill Crow, John Surman, and jazz authorities Lewis Porter, Ted Gioia, Dan Morgenstern and Loren Schoenberg.

There further archive contributions from Gil Evans* (1912-1988) and Gerry Mulligan (1927-1996).

Guy Barker charts the emergence of a modal style of playing and the impact of Miles Davis

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Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

Episode eight, A Love Supreme, looks at jazz's progression into more and more complicated and original ideas with two new paths for jazz emerging in the 1960s: free jazz and jazz-rock.

John Coltrane led the way with free jazz, recording whole albums of purely improvised music.

Or were they? Can any jazz be completely free from tradition? And what role did the civil rights movement play in free jazz's development?

On the other side, jazz musicians were joining forces with rock musicians to create a hybrid music: jazz-rock and then fusion.

Pianos and double basses were replaced by keyboards and bass guitars, as jazz improvisation sat on top of rock beats.

Seminal jazz-rock albums such as Miles Davis' Bitches Brew were well-received and new life was breathed into a seemingly dying art form.

Guy Barker traces the different paths of free jazz and jazz-rock through brand new interviews with McCoy Tyner, Wayne Shorter, Ron Carter, Peter Erskine, Reggie Workman, Randy Brecker, Larry Coryell, Lou Donaldson, John Scofield, Evan Parker, Jane Ira Bloom, Roswell Rudd; alongside archive of Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, Archie Shepp, Elvin Jones (1927-2004), Amiri Baraka, Nat Hentoff and John Coltrane (1926-1967) himself.

Guy Barker looks at the emergence of free jazz and jazz rock.

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Guy Barker continues to explore the history of jazz, focusing on the turning points and pivotal events that have shaped the genre, and discovering some great stories and larger-than-life characters along the way.

In the penultimate episode, Belonging, he focuses on European Jazz.

Although jazz is generally considered to be an American music, its relationship with Europe is as old as the music itself.

But is European jazz a separate branch of music or is it, in essence, the same as American jazz? Guy asks if you have to be American to play real jazz; whether there a distinctive European sound; and what role Europe's classical and folk music traditions play in its jazz.

He also asks if the future of jazz in fact lies on this side of the Atlantic.

Guy looks at the journey of European jazz through brand new interviews with Kenny Burrell, Albert "Tootie" Heath, Evan Parker, John Surman, Peter Erskine, George Mraz, Gunther Schuller, Stuart Nicholson, Geoffrey Smith and Howard Mandel; alongside archive of Stéphane Grappelli (1908-1997), Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), Johnny Griffin (1928-2008), Ronnie Scott (1927-1996) and Tubby Hayes (1935-1973).

In the penultimate episode of the series, Guy Barker looks at European jazz.