In Their Element

Episodes

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Genome: [r4 Bd=19910329]

NEW The first of four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements.

'Look at the product you have - the freshest, most life-giving product in the world. We can't get along without it. We parch and die without it.'

(Esther Williams). 1: Water

Impressions of their chosen element from people who swim, fish or dive in it, literally walk on it, or observe it from outer space. Contributors include: Dr Robert Ballard , James Hamilton-Paterson , Thor Heyerdahl ,

Alexandra Hildred , Dr Jeffrey Hoffman , John Kerr ,

Robin Knox-Johnston ,

Robert Swann and Esther Williams. Producer Rosemary Hart. Stereo

Contributors

Unknown: Dr Robert Ballard

Unknown: James Hamilton-Paterson

Unknown: Thor Heyerdahl

Unknown: Alexandra Hildred

Unknown: Dr Jeffrey Hoffman

Unknown: John Kerr

Unknown: Robin Knox-Johnston

Unknown: Robert Swann

Unknown: Esther Williams.

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910329]

Unknown: Dr Robert Ballard

Unknown: James Hamilton-Paterson

Unknown: Thor Heyerdahl

Unknown: Alexandra Hildred

Unknown: Dr Jeffrey Hoffman

Unknown: John Kerr

Unknown: Robin Knox-Johnston

Unknown: Robert Swann

Unknown: Esther Williams.

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910331]

The first of four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements.

Water

Impressions of their chosen element from people who swim, fish or dive in it, literally walk on it, or observe it from outer space.

Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910405]

Four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements. 2: Air

'In normal life one isn't actually aware of the air unless it's full of smoke or somebody's perfume or there's some ghastly smell in it. But in the Arctic you're aware of your breathing because it's so cold.'

(Robert Swann )

Impressions of their chosen element from a polar explorer, an astronaut, an astronomer, balloonists, a birdwatcher, kite flyers, a weather forecaster and members of the Red Arrows aerobatic team.

Producer Rosemary Hart. Stereo (Repeated Sunday at 10.15pm;

Contributors

Unknown: Robert Swann

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910405]

Unknown: Robert Swann

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910407]

Four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements.

2: Air

Impressions of their chosen element from a polar explorer, an astronaut, an astronomer, balloonists, a birdwatcher, kite-fliers, a weather forecaster and members of the Red Arrows aerobatic team.

Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910412]

Four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements.

3: Fire

'I saw a firework display as a way of painting the sky. A painter has a palette, we have Roman candles, rockets, shells, fountains and a show that contains elements of beauty and fear.' (Wilf Scott )

Impressions of their chosen element from pyrotechnics experts, a fire-eater, fire safety officers, bonfire builders, a NASA astronaut, and oil-well fighter Red Adair. Producer Rosemary Hart. Stereo

Contributors

Unknown: Wilf Scott

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910412]

Unknown: Wilf Scott

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910414]

Four programmes relecting personal views of the elements.

3: Fire

Impressions of their chosen element from pyrotechnics experts; a fire-eater; fire safety officers; bonfire builders; a NASA astronaut; and oil-well fighter Red Adair. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910419]

The last of four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements: Earth

'I've always been drawn to the soil for as long as I can remember. There are few more pleasing sights than a vegetable plot that has just been dug with great clods of wet earth, steaming and gleaming in the sunshine.' (Clay Jones)

Impressions of their chosen element from a gardener; a grave digger; a Polar explorer; a dry-stone waller; cavers; coal miners; archaeologists and a cross-Channel tunneller. Producer Rosemary Hart. Stereo

Contributors

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910419]

Producer: Rosemary Hart.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910421]

The last of four programmes reflecting personal views of the elements: Earth

Impressions of their chosen element from a gardener; a grave-digger; a Polar explorer; a dry-stone waller; cavers; coal miners; archaeologists and a cross-Channel tunneller.

Stereo

01And Then There Was Li20170509

The element that links the formation of the universe with the functioning of our brains.

From the origins of the universe, though batteries, glass and grease to influencing the working of our brains, Neuroscientist Sophie Scott tracks the incredible power of lithium.

Its 200 years ago this year that lithium was first isolated and named, but this, the lightest of all metals, had been used as a drug for centuries before.

From the industrial revolution it proves its worth as a key ingredient in glass and grease, and as the major component in lithium ion batteries it powers every smartphone on the planet.

In mental health lithium has proved one of the most effective treatments. And its use to treat physical ailments is now making a comeback.

We explore how the chemistry of lithium links all these apparently unrelated uses together.

01And Then There Was Li20170509

The element that links the formation of the universe with the functioning of our brains.

From the origins of the universe, though batteries, glass and grease to influencing the working of our brains, Neuroscientist Sophie Scott tracks the incredible power of lithium.

Its 200 years ago this year that lithium was first isolated and named, but this, the lightest of all metals, had been used as a drug for centuries before.

From the industrial revolution it proves its worth as a key ingredient in glass and grease, and as the major component in lithium ion batteries it powers every smartphone on the planet.

In mental health lithium has proved one of the most effective treatments. And its use to treat physical ailments is now making a comeback.

We explore how the chemistry of lithium links all these apparently unrelated uses together.

01And Then There Was Li20170515
01Carbon - The Backbone Of Life20170522

Why is all known life built on carbon?

Carbon is widely considered to be the key element in forming life. It's at the centre of DNA, and the molecules upon which all living things rely.

Monica Grady, Professor of Planetary Science at the Open University, explores the nature of carbon, from its formation in distant stars to its uses and abuses here on earth.

She looks at why it forms the scaffold upon which living organisms are built, and how the mechanisms involved have helped inform the development of new carbon based technology, and products - from telephones to tennis rackets.

One form of carbon is graphene which offers great promise in improving solar cells and batteries, and introducing a whole new range of cheaper more flexible electronics.

Carbon is also the key component of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane. To counter some of the effects of man-made climate change, Scientists are now developing novel ways to speed up this mechanism - using waste materials created from mining and industry.

Monica Grady also looks to space, and the significance of carbon in the far reaches of the universe. There is lots of carbon in space, some in forms we might recognise as the precursors to molecules. As elemental carbon seems to be everywhere what are the chances of carbon based life elsewhere?

01Mercury - Chemistry's Jekyll And Hyde20170425

The most beautiful and shimmering of the elements, the weirdest, and yet the most reviled.

Chemist Andrea Sella tell the story of Mercury, explaining the significance of this element not just for chemistry, but also the development of modern civilisation.

It's been a a source of wonder for thousands of years - why is this metal a liquid? and what is its contribution to art, from the Stone Age to the Renaissance?

We look at how Mercury in integral to hundreds of years of scientific discoveries, from weather forecasting to steam engines and the detection of atomic particles it has a key role.

However Mercury is highly toxic in certain forms and ironically the industrial processes it helped create have led to global pollution which now threatens fish, wildlife and ourselves.

We ask is it time to say goodbye to Mercury?

01Mercury - Chemistry's Jekyll And Hyde20170501

The most beautiful and shimmering of the elements, the weirdest, and yet the most reviled.

The most beautiful and shimmering of the elements, the weirdest, and yet the most reviled.

Chemist Andrea Sella tell the story of Mercury, explaining the significance of this element not just for chemistry, but also the development of modern civilisation.

It's been a a source of wonder for thousands of years - why is this metal a liquid? and what is its contribution to art, from the Stone Age to the Renaissance?

We look at how Mercury is integral to hundreds of years of scientific discoveries, from weather forecasting to steam engines and the detection of atomic particles it has a key role.

However Mercury is highly toxic in certain forms and ironically the industrial processes it helped create have led to global pollution which now threatens fish, wildlife and ourselves.

We ask is it time to say goodbye to Mercury?

01Mercury - Chemistry's Jekyll And Hyde20170501

The most beautiful and shimmering of the elements, the weirdest, and yet the most reviled.

The most beautiful and shimmering of the elements, the weirdest, and yet the most reviled.

Chemist Andrea Sella tell the story of Mercury, explaining the significance of this element not just for chemistry, but also the development of modern civilisation.

It's been a a source of wonder for thousands of years - why is this metal a liquid? and what is its contribution to art, from the Stone Age to the Renaissance?

We look at how Mercury is integral to hundreds of years of scientific discoveries, from weather forecasting to steam engines and the detection of atomic particles it has a key role.

However Mercury is highly toxic in certain forms and ironically the industrial processes it helped create have led to global pollution which now threatens fish, wildlife and ourselves.

We ask is it time to say goodbye to Mercury?

01Oxygen: The Breath Of Life20170502

Trevor Cox takes a deep breath and tells the story of oxygen on earth and in space.

Oxygen appeared on earth over 2 billion years ago and life took off. Now it makes up just over a fifth of the air. Trevor Cox, Professor of Acoustic Engineering at the University of Salford, tells the story of oxygen on earth and in space.

Historian of science, Dr James Sumner of Manchester University describes how three scientists in the late 18th century contributed to the discovery of oxygen.

Tim Lenton, Professor of Earth Systems Science at the University of Exeter, talks about his recent research into the Great Oxidation Event that eventually led to oxygen in the atmosphere.

Ozone is three atoms of oxygen, and when it is in the stratosphere it stops harmful UVB rays from the sun reaching us. Manchester University has one of the world's ozone and UV monitoring stations, and Dr Andy Smedley took Trevor to see it. Professor Ann Webb tells Trevor about research into ozone at different levels of the atmosphere.

If we are ever to leave the earth we will need to find a way to generate enough oxygen to keep us alive. Doug Millard, space curator at the Science Museum, explains how astronauts on the space station get their oxygen.

As an acoustic engineer Trevor has explored sounds in many locations on earth. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere affects what we hear. You know what a lungful of helium does to our voices. Trevor talks to fellow acoustician Tim Leighton, Professor of Ultrasonics and Underwater Acoustics at the University of Southampton, who has modelled sounds on other planets, where the atmosphere is made up of different gases.

01Oxygen: The Breath Of Life20170508

Trevor Cox takes a deep breath and tells the story of oxygen on earth and in space.

Oxygen appeared on earth over 2 billion years ago and life took off. Now it makes up just over a fifth of the air. Trevor Cox, Professor of Acoustic Engineering at the University of Salford, tells the story of oxygen on earth and in space.

Historian of science, Dr James Sumner of Manchester University describes how three scientists in the late 18th century contributed to the discovery of oxygen.

Tim Lenton, Professor of Earth Systems Science at the University of Exeter, talks about his recent research into the Great Oxidation Event that eventually led to oxygen in the atmosphere.

Ozone is three atoms of oxygen, and when it is in the stratosphere it stops harmful UVB rays from the sun reaching us. Manchester University has one of the world's ozone and UV monitoring stations, and Dr Andy Smedley took Trevor to see it. Professor Ann Webb tells Trevor about research into ozone at different levels of the atmosphere.

If we are ever to leave the earth we will need to find a way to generate enough oxygen to keep us alive. Doug Millard, space curator at the Science Museum, explains how astronauts on the space station get their oxygen.

As an acoustic engineer Trevor has explored sounds in many locations on earth. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere affects what we hear. You know what a lungful of helium does to our voices. Trevor talks to fellow acoustician Tim Leighton, Professor of Ultrasonics and Underwater Acoustics at the University of Southampton, who has modelled sounds on other planets, where the atmosphere is made up of different gases.

01Oxygen: The Breath Of Life20170508

Trevor Cox takes a deep breath and tells the story of oxygen on earth and in space.

Oxygen appeared on earth over 2 billion years ago and life took off. Now it makes up just over a fifth of the air. Trevor Cox, Professor of Acoustic Engineering at the University of Salford, tells the story of oxygen on earth and in space.

Historian of science, Dr James Sumner of Manchester University describes how three scientists in the late 18th century contributed to the discovery of oxygen.

Tim Lenton, Professor of Earth Systems Science at the University of Exeter, talks about his recent research into the Great Oxidation Event that eventually led to oxygen in the atmosphere.

Ozone is three atoms of oxygen, and when it is in the stratosphere it stops harmful UVB rays from the sun reaching us. Manchester University has one of the world's ozone and UV monitoring stations, and Dr Andy Smedley took Trevor to see it. Professor Ann Webb tells Trevor about research into ozone at different levels of the atmosphere.

If we are ever to leave the earth we will need to find a way to generate enough oxygen to keep us alive. Doug Millard, space curator at the Science Museum, explains how astronauts on the space station get their oxygen.

As an acoustic engineer Trevor has explored sounds in many locations on earth. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere affects what we hear. You know what a lungful of helium does to our voices. Trevor talks to fellow acoustician Tim Leighton, Professor of Ultrasonics and Underwater Acoustics at the University of Southampton, who has modelled sounds on other planets, where the atmosphere is made up of different gases.

01Silicon20170523

Dr Louisa Preston explores the origins of silicon in stars and its role in life on earth.

Silicon is literally everywhere in both the natural and built environment, from the dominance of silicate rocks in the earth crust, to ubiquitous sand in building materials and as the basis for glass.

We've also harnessed silicon's properties as a semiconductor to build the modern electronics industry - without silicon personal computers and smartphones would simply not exist.

Silicon is also found widely across the universe. It is formed in stars, particularly when they explode. And the similarities between how silicon and carbon form chemical bonds has led many to wonder whether there could be silicon based life elsewhere - perhaps in some far flung part of the galaxy where carbon is not as abundant as here on earth.

As well as discussing the potential for silicon based life on other planets Birkbeck University Astrobiologist Dr Louisa Preston considers the varied uses of silicon here on earth, from its dominance in our built environments to its driving role in artificial intelligence and new ways to harness the sun's energy.

01Silicon - The World's Building Block20170529

The key component of rocks, sand and materials from glass and concrete to microelectronics

Silicon is literally everywhere in both the natural and built environment, from the dominance of silicate rocks in the earth crust, to ubiquitous sand in building materials and as the basis for glass.

We've also harnessed silicon's properties as a semiconductor to build the modern electronics industry - without silicon personal computers and smartphones would simply not exist.

Silicon is also found widely across the universe. It is formed in stars, particularly when they explode. And the similarities between how silicon and carbon form chemical bonds has led many to wonder whether there could be silicon based life elsewhere - perhaps in some far flung part of the galaxy where carbon is not as abundant as here on earth.

As well as discussing the potential for silicon based life on other planets Birkbeck University Astrobiologist Dr Louisa Preston considers the varied uses of silicon here on earth, from its dominance in our built environments to its driving role in artificial intelligence and new ways to harness the sun's energy.

01Silicon - The World's Building Block20170529

The key component of rocks, sand and materials from glass and concrete to microelectronics

Silicon is literally everywhere in both the natural and built environment, from the dominance of silicate rocks in the earth crust, to ubiquitous sand in building materials and as the basis for glass.

We've also harnessed silicon's properties as a semiconductor to build the modern electronics industry - without silicon personal computers and smartphones would simply not exist.

Silicon is also found widely across the universe. It is formed in stars, particularly when they explode. And the similarities between how silicon and carbon form chemical bonds has led many to wonder whether there could be silicon based life elsewhere - perhaps in some far flung part of the galaxy where carbon is not as abundant as here on earth.

As well as discussing the potential for silicon based life on other planets Birkbeck University Astrobiologist Dr Louisa Preston considers the varied uses of silicon here on earth, from its dominance in our built environments to its driving role in artificial intelligence and new ways to harness the sun's energy.

0105Silicon - The Worlds Building Block20170523

Dr Louisa Preston explores the origins of silicon in stars and its role in life on earth.

Silicon is literally everywhere in both the natural and built environment, from the dominance of silicate rocks in the earth crust, to ubiquitous sand in building materials and as the basis for glass.

We've also harnessed silicon's properties as a semiconductor to build the modern electronics industry - without silicon personal computers and smartphones would simply not exist.

Silicon is also found widely across the universe. It is formed in stars, particularly when they explode. And the similarities between how silicon and carbon form chemical bonds has led many to wonder whether there could be silicon based life elsewhere - perhaps in some far flung part of the galaxy where carbon is not as abundant as here on earth.

As well as discussing the potential for silicon based life on other planets Birkbeck University Astrobiologist Dr Louisa Preston considers the varied uses of silicon here on earth, from its dominance in our built environments to its driving role in artificial intelligence and new ways to harness the sun's energy.