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Prestonpans, Port Seaton and Cockenzie, once major industrial centres, are now largely a commuter belt for an expanding capital.
In the 18th century the city was dark and overcrowded, but the Age of Enlightenment saw its reinvention as the cultural capital of Scotland.
The Act of Union brought new trade markets and an industrial boom, but these declined in the 20th century.
Glasgow faced the problem of reinventing itself once more while retaining its identity.
The ancient town was the site of many battles in the wars of independence between England and Scotland.
But what remains of those former scars today and how do Scottish people view their identity?