Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

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01Grand Designs20150119

Donald Macleod focuses on Prince Nicolaus Eszterhazy's expansion of his palace.

All this week, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's time at the Hungarian palace of Eszterháza, the composer's primary base of operations for nearly a quarter of a century and the place where, he said, he 'was forced to become original'.

Today, Haydn's employer Prince Nicolaus Eszterházy has the builders in, to expand his 'modest' 41-room hunting lodge in the back of beyond into a palace to rival Versailles. His scheme included a 400-seater opera house, whose productions Haydn was responsible for. He was also expected to provide music for Prince Nicolaus's favourite instrument, the baryton - a curious hybrid part viola da gamba, part bandora. Despite these demands he still found time to compose in other genres, including the piano sonata and the symphony.

01Haydn In The Early 1760s20131028

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

Haydn composed music for various combinations of three instruments, including strings with piano, with flute and on their own. He also created over a hundred trios featuring an obscure cello-like intrument, known as the Baryton. Donald Macleod focuses on one trio in each programme, and explores the period in which they were written, journeying with the listener from Haydn's early career in Eisenstadt, onto his celebrated visits to London, and old age in Vienna.

In the first programme, Donald introduces Haydn's String Trio No.18 in E major, written shortly after the composer found work at the court of Esterhazy in Eisenstadt.

Haydn probably composed this trio simply for his own amusment. His new employer, however, had other ideas. Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy was more interested in building a repertoire for the impressive court orchestra. The Prince himself suggested Haydn should compose some symphonies, and the outcome was a set of three depicting the times of the day, including Le Matin, The Morning in D major.

Prince Paul Anton soon died, and in 1762, Haydn had a new employer. Prince Nicholaus, thankfully, was very fond of music and haydn composed his cantata "Destatevi o miei fidi" was composed for the new prince's name day.

01Seven Last Words20160229

Donald Macleod on The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross and Orfeo ed Euridice.

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's unique instrumental oratorio, "The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross", as well as his final opera, "Orpheus and Euridice".

Haydn's "Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross" is one of the most remarkable and original musical works of the entire 18th century. Conceived as an instrumental oratorio for Cadiz in Spain, it vividly depicts the suffering of Christ in sound alone - a truly radical idea for the time. This week, Donald Macleod explores this little-known and beautiful work, as well as Haydn's own "last words" - his last compositions in a variety of genres: last opera, last symphony, last piano sonata, and many more, covering the period from 1786 to his death in 1809.

The week begins with the story of Haydn's unique "Seven Last Words", before we join the composer at his very last meeting with Mozart, just a year before the younger man died. Donald Macleod explores the story of Haydn's first year in England, 1790, as well as introducing his final opera - Orpheus and Euridice, or "The Philosopher's Soul".

Introduction: Maestoso ed adagio (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross)

Le Concert des Nations / Jordi Savall

Sonata 1: Father, Forgive Them, for They Know Not What They Do (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross)

Overture; Filomena abbandonata; Cara speme! (L'anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, Act I)

Cecilia Bartoli (Euridice/Genio), Uwe Heilmann (Orfeo), Ildebrando D'Arcangelo (Creonte), Andrea Silvestrelli (Pluto)

The Academy of Ancient Music and Chorus / Christopher Hogwood

Como il foco allo splendore (L'anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, Act I)

The Academy of Ancient Music / Christopher Hogwood

Sonata 2: Truly I Say to You, Today You Will Be With Me in Paradise (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, string quartet version)

Cuarteto Casals.

02A Final Symphony20160301

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's last symphony, No.104, and continues his journey through Haydn's unique instrumental oratorio, "Seven Last Words".

Haydn's "The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross" is one of the most remarkable and original musical works of the entire 18th century. Conceived as an instrumental oratorio for Cadiz in Spain, it vividly depicts the suffering of Christ in sound alone - a truly radical idea for the time. This week, Donald Macleod explores this little-known and beautiful work, as well as Haydn's own "last words" - his last compositions in a variety of genres: last opera, last symphony, last piano sonata, and many more, covering the period from 1786 to his death in 1809.

Today Donald Macleod explores the story of Haydn's final symphony, No.104, composed in London in 1795, and introduces a real rarity - one of only two fragments of what would have been his only English oratorio, with words composed by his friend (and later convicted criminal) the Earl of Abingdon. He also continues his exploration of Haydn's unique and remarkable "Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross".

Sonata 3: Woman, Behold Your Son. Son, Behold Your Mother (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, piano version)

Jeno Jando (piano)

Symphony No.104 in D major "London"

Concertgebouw Orchestra / Colin Davis

"Thy Great Endeavours" (Mare Clausum, Hob XXIVa:9)

Tölzer Knabenchor

Tafelmusik / Bruno Weil

Sonata 5: My God, Why Hast Thou Forsaken Me - (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, piano version)

Alex Lubimov (tangent piano).

02A Final Symphony20160301

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's final symphony, No 104.

02A Final Symphony20160301

02Eszterhaza Fairyland20150120

Focusing on groundbreaking string quartets and Haydn's bidding his prince farewell.

All this week, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's time at the Hungarian palace of Eszterháza, the composer's primary base of operations for nearly a quarter of a century and the place where, he said, he 'was forced to become original'.

Today, an oboist loses an eye when a tavern brawl between two of Haydn's star musicians turns nasty; ground-breaking string quartets; Empress Maria Theresa pays a house-call; and when his musicians get stir-crazy, Haydn bids his prince Farewell.

02Haydn In The Early 1770s20131029

Donald Macleod on how Haydn grappled with his employer's favourite instrument: a barytone.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

In the early 1770s, Haydn pushed himself hard, and produced a prodigious array of new music. One of his strangest tasks was to master the favourite instrument of his his employer, Prince Nicholaus, a weird and obscure relative of the cello, known as the Baryton - for which Haydn produced a seemly endless parade of Trio sonatas.

The work came at a price, though, and Haydn's health began to fail. Eventually, things looked so precarious that his brother was summoned from Salzburg. His eventual recovery must have seemed miraculous and, in an act of gratitude for his salvation, Haydn composed his Salve Regina in G minor.

During this period, Haydn increasingly earned his nickname of "Papa", often acting on behalf of the court musicians when disputes erupted. One particularly delicate negotiation with the Prince was eventually resolved by Haydn in a brilliant act of musical diplomacy. His actions ended the squabble and gave the world his Symphony No.45, "Farewell".

Donald Macleod on how Haydn grappled with his employer's favourite instrument: a barytone.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

In the early 1770s, Haydn pushed himself hard, and produced a prodigious array of new music. One of his strangest tasks was to master the favourite instrument of his his employer, Prince Nicholaus, a weird and obscure relative of the cello, known as the Baryton - for which Haydn produced a seemly endless parade of Trio sonatas.

The work came at a price, though, and Haydn's health began to fail. Eventually, things looked so precarious that his brother was summoned from Salzburg. His eventual recovery must have seemed miraculous and, in an act of gratitude for his salvation, Haydn composed his Salve Regina in G minor.

During this period, Haydn increasingly earned his nickname of "Papa", often acting on behalf of the court musicians when disputes erupted. One particularly delicate negotiation with the Prince was eventually resolved by Haydn in a brilliant act of musical diplomacy. His actions ended the squabble and gave the world his Symphony No.45, "Farewell".

03A Farewell To The Keyboard20160302

Exploring Haydn's final works. Today, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's final keyboard sonata and last major orchestral work: his much loved Trumpet Concerto.

Haydn's "The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross" is one of the most remarkable and original musical works of the entire 18th century. Conceived as an instrumental oratorio for Cadiz in Spain, it vividly depicts the suffering of Christ in sound alone - a truly radical idea for the time. This week, Donald Macleod explores this little-known and beautiful work, as well as Haydn's own "last words" - his last compositions in a variety of genres: last opera, last symphony, last piano sonata, and many more, covering the period from 1786 to his death in 1809.

In today's episode, Donald Macleod tells the story of how Haydn came to make a choral arrangement of his "Seven Last Words", a decade after the pioneering instrumental version. We also explore the background to Haydn's last keyboard sonata, No.62, and the story of his much loved Trumpet Concerto.

Introduzione: Largo e cantabile (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, choral version)

Sandrine Piau (soprano), Ruth Sandhoff (alto), Robert Getchell (tenor), Harry van der Kamp (bass)

Accentus / Laurence Equilbey

Sonata 4: I Thirst (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, choral version)

Composer: Haydn

Title: Piano Sonata in E Flat, Hob: XVI:52 (no.62)

Performer: Marc-André Hamelin (piano)

Trumpet Concerto in E Flat

Maurice André (trumpet)

Munich Chamber Orchestra / Hans Stadlmair

Chorus of The Danes (Incidental Music to Alfred: King of the Danes)

Collegium Musicum 90 / Richard Hickox.

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's Piano Sonata and Trumpet Concerto.

03Haydn In The Mid-1780s20131030

Donald Macleod reveals how the press in London called for Haydn to be kidnapped.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

In the mid 1780s, Haydn was more and more occupied with music for the stage. His employer, Prince Nicholaus had a passion for opera, and his favourite, performed no less than 54 times at immense cost, was Haydn's Armida, complete with the themes of love, hate, jealousy, revenge, magic and monsters.

Haydn did however find time to compose other works during this productive period, including his Piano Trio in A, and to make the aquaintance of one Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

London audiences had been eager for Haydn to visit England for some time, but it was rumoured that his employer the Prince would not allow him. The London press were soon calling for Haydn to be kidnapped. Haydn's music was equally popular in France, and he received a commission for a set of symphonies, including La reine, The Queen, a work that became popular with Marie Antoinette.

Donald Macleod reveals how the press in London called for Haydn to be kidnapped.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

In the mid 1780s, Haydn was more and more occupied with music for the stage. His employer, Prince Nicholaus had a passion for opera, and his favourite, performed no less than 54 times at immense cost, was Haydn's Armida, complete with the themes of love, hate, jealousy, revenge, magic and monsters.

Haydn did however find time to compose other works during this productive period, including his Piano Trio in A, and to make the aquaintance of one Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

London audiences had been eager for Haydn to visit England for some time, but it was rumoured that his employer the Prince would not allow him. The London press were soon calling for Haydn to be kidnapped. Haydn's music was equally popular in France, and he received a commission for a set of symphonies, including La reine, The Queen, a work that became popular with Marie Antoinette.

03Operatic Overload20150121

Focusing on Haydn's taking a mistress and the destruction of the Eszterhaza opera house.

All this week, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's time at the Hungarian palace of Eszterháza, the composer's primary base of operations for nearly a quarter of a century and the place where, he said, he 'was forced to become original'.

Today, Haydn's workload soars as Prince Nicolaus institutes a full-scale operatic season; the unhappily married composer takes a mistress; a new contract with the prince allows him, for the first time, to sell his music for profit at home and abroad; and an exploding stove in the Chinese Ballroom starts a conflagration that destroys the opera house - but the show must go on!

04A New And Special Way20150122

Donald Macleod on how Haydn bowed out of opera, returning to composing string quartets.

Long description (5,000)

All this week, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's time at the Hungarian palace of Eszterháza, the composer's primary base of operations for nearly a quarter of a century and the place where, he said, he 'was forced to become original'.

Today, with opera production at Eszterháza nearing its peak, Haydn pretty much bows out of composing for the theatre himself. Instead, he turns for the first time in nearly a decade to the string quartet, producing the six watershed works of Opus 33. He set about advertising manuscript copies to potential subscribers, marketing them as written "in a new and special way". Unbeknownst to Haydn, his new publisher Artaria was planning to launch his own printed edition, substantially undercutting Haydn's hand-produced volumes. Composer and publisher nearly came to blows but the contretemps was resolved and their relationship blossomed, leading, among other things, to a fine sequence of piano trios.

04Haydn In The Mid-1790s20131031

Donald Macleod discusses a visit by Haydn to London.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

Haydn made two visits to England. By the time of his second visit, the public were clamouring to attend his concerts. During the 1794 Haydn conducted a work that proved to be his most popular composition of that season. Britain was at war with France, and his Military Symphony had the audience shouting "Encore! Encore!"

After the 1794 concert season, Haydn made some tours of England, including Bristol, Bath and Portsmouth. On one such trip away from London, Haydn accompanied the Earl of Abingdon to the estate of Baron Aston. Haydn dedicated to his hosts a set of Trios, including the Trio in C for two flutes and cello.

Haydn's 1795 concert season started with quite a surprise. A chandelier in the concert hall fell from the ceiling. Undeterred, Haydn went on to give the premiere of his Symphony No.104, called "The London", which earned Haydn the huge sum of 4,000 gulden. The composer noted, that "such a thing is only possible in England".

Donald Macleod discusses a visit by Haydn to London.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

Haydn made two visits to England. By the time of his second visit, the public were clamouring to attend his concerts. During the 1794 Haydn conducted a work that proved to be his most popular composition of that season. Britain was at war with France, and his Military Symphony had the audience shouting "Encore! Encore!"

After the 1794 concert season, Haydn made some tours of England, including Bristol, Bath and Portsmouth. On one such trip away from London, Haydn accompanied the Earl of Abingdon to the estate of Baron Aston. Haydn dedicated to his hosts a set of Trios, including the Trio in C for two flutes and cello.

Haydn's 1795 concert season started with quite a surprise. A chandelier in the concert hall fell from the ceiling. Undeterred, Haydn went on to give the premiere of his Symphony No.104, called "The London", which earned Haydn the huge sum of 4,000 gulden. The composer noted, that "such a thing is only possible in England".

04The Seasons20160303

Donald Macleod with a complete performance of Autumn from The Seasons.

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's final oratorio, The Seasons, featuring a complete performance of "Autumn". He also continues his journey through Haydn's unique "Seven Last Words".

Haydn's "Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross" is one of the most remarkable and original musical works of the entire 18th century. Conceived as an instrumental oratorio for Cadiz in Spain, it vividly depicts the suffering of Christ in sound alone - a truly radical idea for the time. This week, Donald Macleod explores this little-known and beautiful work, as well as Haydn's own "last words" - his last compositions in a variety of genres: last opera, last symphony, last piano sonata, and many more, covering the period from 1786 to his death in 1809.

Haydn's final oratorio, "The Seasons", composed in 1801, has always been in the shadow of its older brother, "The Creation", completed three years prior. It's tough being perennially compared to a work that's not just regarded as Haydn's masterpiece, but possibly the greatest sacred work of the Classical Era. Yet "The Seasons" is a masterpiece in its own right. Donald Macleod takes up its story, with a complete performance of "Autumn".

The Battle of the Nile

Emma Kirkby (soprano)

Marcia Hadjimarkos (fortepiano)

Autumn (The Seasons) (opening)

Christina Landshamer (soprano), Maximilian Schmitt (tenor), Florian Boesch (baritone)

Collegium Vocale Gent and Orchestre des Champs-Elysées / Philippe Herreweghe

Autumn (The Seasons) (conclusion)

Sonata 6: It Is Finished (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross, string quartet version)

Cuarteto Casals.

05A Wider World20150123

Donald Macleod discusses Haydn's receiving commissions from Naples, Paris and London.

All this week, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's time at the Hungarian palace of Eszterháza, the composer's primary base of operations for nearly a quarter of a century and the place where, he said, he 'was forced to become original'.

Today, as Haydn begins to outgrow Eszterháza, his international reputation starts to generate commissions: from Naples, where King Ferdinand's passion for a curious musical instrument resulted in a series of works for the lira organizzata (a sort of hurdy-gurdy on stilts); from Paris, where a request for six new symphonies for the exclusive (and masonically connected) series known as the Concert de Loge Olympique led to what we now know as the 'Paris' symphonies; and from London, ushering in the final and most glorious chapter in the composer's career.

05The Final Curtain20160304
05The Final Curtain20160304

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's final and incomplete string quartet, plus Harmoniemesse.

Donald Macleod explores Haydn's final, incomplete string quartet, and introduces the story of the composer's final months, with a last excerpt from his unique "Seven Last Words".

Haydn's "Seven Last Words f Our Saviour on the Cross" is one of the most remarkable and original musical works of the entire 18th century. Conceived as an instrumental oratorio for Cadiz in Spain, it vividly depicts the suffering of Christ in sound alone - a truly radical idea for the time. This week, Donald Macleod explores this little-known and beautiful work, as well as Haydn's own "last words" - his last compositions in a variety of genres: last opera, last symphony, last piano sonata, and many more, covering the period from 1786 to his death in 1809.

In this week's final episode, Donald Macleod explores Haydn's last fully active year of composition, 1803, including a performance of his final, incomplete string quartet and extracts from his last mass, the "Harmoniemesse". The week ends with the story of Haydn's own last days set against a final extract from his extraordinary instrumental oratorio for Cadiz, the Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross.

Antwort auf die Frage eines Mädchens

Mark Padmore (tenor)

Kristian Bezuidenhout (fortepiano)

Kyrie (Harmoniemesse)

Joanne Lunn (soprano), Sara Mingardo (alto), Topi Lehtipuu (tenor), Brindley Sherratt (bass)

Monteverdi Choir

English Baroque Soloists / John Eliot Gardiner

Santus; Benedictus; Agnus Dei (Harmoniemesse)

Haydn

String Quartet in D Minor, Op.103

The Lindsays

Sonata 7: Father, into Your Hands I Commend My Spirit; Earthquake (The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross)

Performer: Le Concert des Nations / Jordi Savall.

05 LASTHaydn In The Late 1790s20131101

Donald Macleod focuses on Haydn's return to Vienna.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

Haydn continued to produce trios into his old age, including his Piano Trio No.29 in E flat, which seems in the fast-paced finale, to perhaps anticipate the music of Beethoven.

The mid to late 1790s saw Haydn return from London to his new employer, Prince Nicholaus II, who was distinctly unmusical. Princess Marie Hermengild was often required to smooth over disagreements between the Prince and the aging composer. Haydn was still required to provide works on a regular basis for the Prince. One was his 'Mass for times of distress', later known as the Nelson Mass, although Haydn only met Lord Nelson some time after this work was composed.

Haydn also found himself collaborating with a member of the Vienna Court Orchestra, Anton Weidinger, writing music for a newly developed kind of orchestral instrument. The outcome was a work that has become one of the composer's most popular concertos, the Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra in E flat.

Donald Macleod focuses on Haydn's return to Vienna.

Affectionately nicknamed Papa, reverered as the 'Father of the Symphony' and 'Father of the String Quartet', this week Donald Macleod explores the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn through another musical form that the composer made his own, his music for Trio.

Haydn continued to produce trios into his old age, including his Piano Trio No.29 in E flat, which seems in the fast-paced finale, to perhaps anticipate the music of Beethoven.

The mid to late 1790s saw Haydn return from London to his new employer, Prince Nicholaus II, who was distinctly unmusical. Princess Marie Hermengild was often required to smooth over disagreements between the Prince and the aging composer. Haydn was still required to provide works on a regular basis for the Prince. One was his 'Mass for times of distress', later known as the Nelson Mass, although Haydn only met Lord Nelson some time after this work was composed.

Haydn also found himself collaborating with a member of the Vienna Court Orchestra, Anton Weidinger, writing music for a newly developed kind of orchestral instrument. The outcome was a work that has become one of the composer's most popular concertos, the Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra in E flat.