The middle ages get a bad press...
depicted as years of stagnation, constant warring and - worst of all - the black death.
But medieval historian Miri Rubin has a very different view.
She argues that these years are, in fact, the time when modern Europe is born.
Miri visits some of Europes great medieval cities and hears how constant migrations during this period transformed the cultural face of Europe, bringing new institutions, social hierarchies and attitudes that have changed little to this day.