In October last year, Hurricane Sandy ripped into New York, taking lives, sparking a huge fire, flooding subways and tunnel connections and leaving thousands without power for days.
Isabel Hilton reports on the aftermath of the hurricane in New York. As sea levels are predicted to keep rising, she looks at what New York and other threatened coastal cities might do to prepare for future storms.
Hurricane Sandy was a wake up call to New York and to many other coastal cities that have to face the reality of rising sea levels and increased chances of hurricanes and storm surges. Much of lower Manhattan was up to ten feet underwater and the storm sent a 14-foot surge into New York's harbour that continued for miles up the Hudson River.
As the city continues to mop up, Isabel looks at the ways in which it might prepare for future storms and flooding, from building great walls and sea defences to sealing the subways and tunnels.
She also considers the lessons that New York has to offer other threatened coastal cities - along the Eastern Seaboard of America and right around the world.
Producer: Anthony Denselow
A Whistledown production for BBC Radio 4.