Documentary, The

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2009123020100102 (WS)
20100103 (WS)

We delve into Tulsa's tough underworld in the company of two police officers who have d...

We delve into Tulsa's tough underworld in the company of two police officers who have developed dazzling talents as storytellers

2010010120100102 (WS)
20100103 (WS)

How a very special school in Finland is helping visually impaired children.

It's well known that the blind learn to use sound to avoid obstacles - to create a map of their world.

At Jyväskylä School for the Visually Impaired in the Finnish countryside, they teach children this art to a much greater degree: the walls in the corridors are covered with all sorts of noisy objects.

They even have a 'sound room' - every surface covered in things that make stimulating noises - all set against the interesting Finnish soundscape of snow crunching as the children build the confidence to start exploring the world for themselves.

The school's aim is to avoid a total reliance on high tech and expensive navigational aids, by honing the children's natural abilities which most of us possess, but which we don't use to their full potential.

At the same time they are very up to date with an increasing selection of technology available to the blind. Some of the children are highly computer savvy, and they make full use of developments like the internet, GPS, and even the laser cane.

The Jyväskylä school is a specially-designed environment full of dedicated, passionate and highly-trained staff. But some of the staff feel that the environment is sometimes too safe - and neither fully prepares the students for life after the school nor encourages some of them to want to learn and develop essential skills.

Outi Lappaleinen has been at the school for more than 20 years, inventing and building many of the innovative devices, such as the wooden echoboards the children use to navigate around the playground - and the flourescent yellow canes (easier to see against the snow than a white cane) which are bent like skis so that they don't get stuck in the snow as the children push them along.

2010010620100107 (WS)
20100109 (WS)
20100110 (WS)

Rob Walker tells the story of how 'Angolagate', one of the biggest arms deal scandals o...

Rob Walker tells the story of how 'Angolagate', one of the biggest arms deal scandals of modern times, unfolded.

2010011120100112 (WS)
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Prof Jim Al-Khalili, brings alive the stories of the great forgotten Arabic thinkers an...

Prof Jim Al-Khalili, brings alive the stories of the great forgotten Arabic thinkers and their groundbreaking exploits.

2010011820100119 (WS)
20100123 (WS)
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20100125 (WS)

Prof Jim Al-Khalili, brings alive the stories of the great forgotten Arabic thinkers an...

Prof Jim Al-Khalili, brings alive the stories of the great forgotten Arabic thinkers and their groundbreaking exploits.

2010012520100126 (WS)
20100130 (WS)
20100131 (WS)
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Prof Jim Al-Khalili, brings alive the stories of the great forgotten Arabic thinkers an...

Prof Jim Al-Khalili, brings alive the stories of the great forgotten Arabic thinkers and their groundbreaking exploits.

2010042820100501 (WS)

Apostle Asafo guides us around his remarkable workshops in Accra, where teenagers can learn trades. Is it really sustainable?

2011041220110417

To celebrate the marriage of Prince William to Kate Middleton, we take a look back through the archive of Royal Weddings.

To celebrate the marriage of Prince William to Kate Middleton, we take a look back thro.

2011041220110413

To celebrate the marriage of Prince William to Kate Middleton, we take a look back through the archive of Royal Weddings.

2011041920110424

Restrictions on commercial fishing in Europe were put in place to aid sustainability, b.

2011041920110420

Restrictions on commercial fishing in Europe were put in place to aid sustainability, b.

Restrictions on commercial fishing in Europe were put in place to aid sustainability, but are they still appropriate?

20110524

The BBC investigates the skyrocketing prices of the worlds basic goods.

20110726
2011080220110803

James Reynolds profiles Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran's Supreme Leader, one of the count.

James Reynolds profiles Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran's Supreme Leader, one of the country's least scrutinised politicians.

20110809

Gordon Corera tells the story of how the Americans hunted their most wanted man, from A.

Gordon Corera tells the story of how the Americans hunted their most wanted man, from Afghan caves to Abbottabad in Pakistan.

2011112220111123

Martin Wolf examines how the world has changed since the beginning of the financial cri.

Martin Wolf examines how the world has changed since the beginning of the financial crisis four years ago.

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20120204 (WS)

Is outsourcing pregnancy to India exploitative or mutually beneficial? We follow the lives of two women involved for 9 months.

20120327

In Turkey every man is conscripted for military service, except homosexuals who are exe.

In Turkey every man is conscripted for military service, except homosexuals who are exempt. Emre Azizlerli reports.

20120915

Bashar al-Assad took over as President of Syria after his father - known to Syrians as the immortal one - died of a heart attack in 2000.

The Assad's have been in control of Syria for the last 42 years, since Bashar's father Hafez took over in a coup - which he referred to as a "Corrective Movement".

How has this family survived in power so long? And why has Bashar al-Assad been so determined to hold onto power while other states have seen their leaders swept away by the Arab Spring?

Owen Bennett Jones examines the nature of the House of Assad and its grip over Syria. He traces the story of the Assads from the Baathist coup in 1963 to the present day.

(Image: President Hafez al-Assad and his wife Anisa posing for a family picture with his children (L to R) Maher, Bashar, Bassel (Circa 1990). Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

2012120820121209 (WS)

As Australia approaches the centenary of the Gallipoli landings in 2015, Sharon Mascall...

As Australia approaches the centenary of the Gallipoli landings in 2015, Sharon Mascall asks how true is the Anzac Legend?

20130526

Michael Robinson highlights the hidden benefits aggressive tax avoidance can have for l...

Michael Robinson highlights the hidden benefits aggressive tax avoidance can have for large multinational companies.

20130714

Many people in Kenya go to court with no lawyer, leading to much injustice. Now priso.

Many people in Kenya go to court with no lawyer, leading to much injustice. Now prisoners are acting as lawyers themselves.

2013072020130721 (WS)

To celebrate architect Richard Rogers 80th birthday, he discusses his vision for the future of our cities with Razia Iqbal.

20130721

Gordon Corera reveals the alarming extent to which cyberspace is now being used to stea.

Gordon Corera reveals the alarming extent to which cyberspace is now being used to steal, to spy and to wage war.

20130811

As Tel Aviv celebrates gay pride, Tim Samuels is there to learn how the city rebranded.

As Tel Aviv celebrates gay pride, Tim Samuels is there to learn how the city rebranded itself as the world's number 1 gay city.

2013092820130929 (WS)

The BBC’s Anne Soy in Nairobi recounts the days of terror for those caught up in attack...

The BBC’s Anne Soy in Nairobi recounts the days of terror for those caught up in attacks on Kenya’s Westgate Shopping Mall.

2013100820131009 (WS)

Russian photojournalist Vlad Sokhin examines the high level of violence against women i...

Russian photojournalist Vlad Sokhin examines the high level of violence against women in Papau New Guinea.

2013113020131201 (WS)

Shopping malls have become a permanent feature of modern cities. Mall culture is explored in Brazil, Nigeria and the USA.

2013122120131222 (WS)

Will the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi showcase a resurgent Russia or hide real problem...

Will the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi showcase a resurgent Russia or hide real problems within? Lucy Ash investigates.

20140107

In September 2012, a man was found dead in a London street. Rob Walker follows the poli.

In September 2012, a man was found dead in a London street. Rob Walker follows the police investigation into who he was.

20140205

Robin Lustig heads to Russia to investigate claims of corruption in the build up to the...

Robin Lustig heads to Russia to investigate claims of corruption in the build up to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.

2014020820140209 (WS)

The mp3 player at war. What role does music play in the lives of soldiers today?

20140219

Ghanaian music journalist Afua Hirsch marks the 30th anniversary of Def Jam - the world...

Ghanaian music journalist Afua Hirsch marks the 30th anniversary of Def Jam - the world’s first hip hop record label.

2014031120140315 (WS)

Jessie Levene looks at the rise of China's magazine culture, its link to consumerism, a...

Jessie Levene looks at the rise of China's magazine culture, its link to consumerism, and the changing face of Chinese fashion.

20140318

Shilpa Kannan investigates corruption in the Indian media, and asks if “paid media” thr...

Shilpa Kannan investigates corruption in the Indian media, and asks if “paid media” threatens democracy and press freedom.

20140326

Peter Bowes tells the story of television made in the USA by tribal people, for tribal...

Peter Bowes tells the story of television made in the USA by tribal people, for tribal people.

2014040220140403 (WS)
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Gordon Corera explores the history of the war between governments and geeks to control...

Gordon Corera explores the history of the war between governments and geeks to control computer cryptography.

2014040520140406 (WS)

Mark Doyle tells the story of one of the unsung heroes of Rwanda’s genocide, Mbaye Diag...

Mark Doyle tells the story of one of the unsung heroes of Rwanda’s genocide, Mbaye Diagne, a Senegalese UN peacekeeper.

2014040820140409 (WS)

Kat Arney meets volunteers trying to change the world with maps - they use their free t...

Kat Arney meets volunteers trying to change the world with maps - they use their free time to map the world's unmapped places.

2014041220140413 (WS)

Black history expert Professor Jim Walvin tells the story of the city of Manchester’s p...

Black history expert Professor Jim Walvin tells the story of the city of Manchester’s profound effect on the world.

2014061020140614 (WS)

Edward Stourton examines Vladimir Putin’s strategic vision for Eastern Europe, followin...

Edward Stourton examines Vladimir Putin’s strategic vision for Eastern Europe, following Russia’s annexation of Crimea.

2014061420140615 (WS)

On the 100th anniversary of the First World War, Heather Jones challenges the familiar...

On the 100th anniversary of the First World War, Heather Jones challenges the familiar image of a war centred on Northern Europe

2014061820140619 (WS)
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As many wealthy Russians settle in London, Olga Betko finds out why it has become the f...

As many wealthy Russians settle in London, Olga Betko finds out why it has become the favourite destination of Russia's elite.

2014062820140629 (WS)
20140630 (WS)

Investigating global developments, issues and affairs.

Jonathan Agnew looks back at the rebel cricket tours to South Africa that defied the sp...

Jonathan Agnew looks back at the rebel cricket tours to South Africa that defied the sporting boycott of the Apartheid era.

2014071520140716 (WS)

Can Glaswegian native charm be given a polish in time for the Commonwealth Games? And s...

Can Glaswegian native charm be given a polish in time for the Commonwealth Games? And should it be? Aasmah Mir reports.

2014071620140717 (WS)
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Neil Kanwal traces Kenyan Asian migration to Britain, including his father's family, ac...

Neil Kanwal traces Kenyan Asian migration to Britain, including his father's family, across 3 continents and 3 generations.

2014081920140820 (WS)

Mark Mardell considers John Steinbeck's novel “The Grapes of Wrath”, and the relevance...

Mark Mardell considers John Steinbeck's novel “The Grapes of Wrath”, and the relevance of the book's themes in modern America.

2014090320140904 (WS)
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Mark Coles meets the crate diggers devoted to giving Africa's obscure musical gems a ne...

Mark Coles meets the crate diggers devoted to giving Africa's obscure musical gems a new lease of life.

2014093020141001 (WS)

The Persian Underground: Behzad Bolour talks to Iranian exiles to see how musicians bre...

The Persian Underground: Behzad Bolour talks to Iranian exiles to see how musicians break the restrictions on music in Iran.

2014100820141009 (WS)
20141011 (WS)

Kate Brian investigates why there is an increasing demand for Danish sperm donors, prod...

Kate Brian investigates why there is an increasing demand for Danish sperm donors, producing thousands of babies worldwide.

2014101520141016 (WS)
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India is falling in love with Western classical music, and Zareer Masani looks at the c...

India is falling in love with Western classical music, and Zareer Masani looks at the controversy this is causing in the country

20141104

Andriy Kravets goes on the campaign trail with Mustafa Nayyem, an Afghan refugee now st.

Andriy Kravets goes on the campaign trail with Mustafa Nayyem, an Afghan refugee now standing for Ukriane's new parliament.

20141105

Through the eyes of children caught up in Indira Gandhi’s assassination in 1984, Bobby.

Through the eyes of children caught up in Indira Gandhi’s assassination in 1984, Bobby Friction explores its implications today.

02/08/201120110807

James Reynolds profiles Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran's Supreme Leader, one of the count.

09/08/201120110810

Gordon Corera tells the story of how the Americans hunted their most wanted man, from A.

19/04/201120110423
24/05/201120110525
26/07/201120110727
26/07/201120110730
27/03/201220120328

In Turkey every man is conscripted for military service, except homosexuals who are exe.

27/03/201220120331
A Day In The Life Of An Immigration Lawyer2014081220140813 (WS)

Harjap Singh Bhangal gives advice to migrants seeking visas to work and live in Britain

Every day, from his offices in London, Birmingham and the Punjab, Harjap Singh Bhangal gives advice to migrants who are seeking visas to live and work in the UK. Harjap often advises people from India or Pakistan who have previously applied for visas, but failed many times. Some have visited other lawyers and received incorrect advice for a large fee, while others have entered the UK legally but, due to changes in circumstances, now find themselves without a long-term visa and nowhere to go.

Presenter Nihal Arthanayake spends time in Harjap’s Southall office in London where he meets three immigrants with contrasting stories. Nihal hears from one man who left India for Moscow before walking across Europe to be smuggled into the UK in a van. A woman discusses how she was invited into Britain to work as a nurse, but spent many years on several short-term visas. Finally, another woman explains how she lost her right to stay at the age of 18 having been brought to the UK as a young child by a parent.

Nihal also hears about the many other stories Harjap encounters in his job; from the fake marriage industry – including same-sex fake marriage scams – to ‘paid babies’.

Nihal Arthanayake visits a UK immigration lawyer who gives advice to migrants seeking v...

Nihal Arthanayake visits a UK immigration lawyer who gives advice to migrants seeking visas to work and live in Britain.

A Tale Of Two Theatres2014073020140731 (WS)
20140802 (WS)

Istanbul-born former DJ, Mehmet Ergen became the toast of London's theatre scene by creating venues- and careers- from scratch. In 2000 he transformed a derelict clothing factory in Dalston into a destination venue. Not content to run 'a powerhouse of new work' in his adopted city, he later opened its opposite number back in his hometown.

Tensions have been rising in Turkey between artists and politicians ever since the prime minister's daughter was mocked on stage, allegedly for wearing a headscarf to the Ankara State Theatre in 2011. In 2012, a performance of Chilean play Secret Obscenities was censored by Istanbul's Mayor Kadir Topbas. Prime Minister Erdogan then threatened to withdraw subsidies of up to 140 million Turkish Lira from approximately 50 venues, employing roughly 1500 actors, directors and technicians. Although wholesale privatisation has yet to be enacted, theatre companies openly opposed to Government tactics during 2013's Gezi Park protests promptly had their funding withdrawn.

Entrepreneurial expat Mehmet Ergen acts as our guide to this politically charged arts scene, as he negotiates national and cultural borders to stage work that is as unpretentious as it is provocative.

(Photo: Theatre actors and staff protest in front of the Culture and Tourism Ministry in Ankara. Placard reads: 'We will not allow places of art be closed!' Credit: Adem Altan/AFP/Getty Images)

A guide through the politically charged arts scene of Turkey

Across Jamaica's Gay Divide2013110920131110 (WS)

Psychologist Dr Keon West assesses the campaigns for and against homosexuality in Jamaica

The social psychologist Dr Keon West returns to his native Jamaica to assess the state of the country’s gay rights and anti-homosexuality movements. Gay rights activists made the first legal challenge in Jamaica's history earlier this year, appealing for the so-called ‘buggery law’ to be re-assessed. The law, which is a colonial legacy prohibiting certain sexual acts, is the focus of much controversy in Jamaica and at its heart is the question of whether or not homosexuality is culturally or even morally acceptable.

From a group of activists standing silently promoting gay tolerance, to a march that calls for sexual purity, including maintaining of the Buggery Law, West speaks to both sides, asking if attitudes are now inexorably changing. The Christian tradition of Jamaica is central to this debate, where Biblical interpretation underpins many of the arguments against homosexual behaviour.

With contributions from the pastor Reverend Lenworth Anglin, the prominent Jamaican gay rights activist Maurice Tomlinson and Rastafarian poet Mutabaruka, West considers what it is like to be a gay person in Jamaica from day-to-day, when many consider this ‘lifestyle’ to be un-Jamaican by its very nature.

(Photo: The riverside bar where Jamaican teenager Dwayne Jones attended a dance party and was murdered by a mob. Credit: Associated Press)

Across Jamaica's Gay Divide - Part One2013110920131110 (WS)

Psychologist Dr Keon West assesses the campaigns for and against homosexuality in Jamaica

Social psychologist Dr. Keon West assesses the state of his native Jamaica's gay rights...

Social psychologist Dr. Keon West assesses the state of his native Jamaica's gay rights and anti-homosexuality movements.

Afghanistan Death Lists2014080620140809 (WS)

David Loyn investigates how a lost document is helping Afghanistan come to terms with its painful past.

It revolves around the lesser-known moment when Afghanistan began to fall apart - 1978, a year before the Soviet invasion. It's lesser-known, partly because the world wasn't really paying attention but also because evidence of state murder and disappearance was covered up after the so-called Saur Revolution.

But now, a war crimes trial in the Netherlands has unearthed a list of 5,000 prisoners detained, tortured and killed by the radical communist regime in 1978 - 79. This "Death List" has fewer than half the total number of people unaccounted for during that period but it has finally given some families of the disappeared confirmation of the fate of their loved ones, and allowed them to mourn. The reverberations of this are being felt strongly in Afghanistan.

Image: Kabul citizens reading newspapers during the period of the communist regime. Credit: Getty

A list of people killed by the authorities in Afghanistan has been unearthed

African Perspective: Living On Death2012070320120704

Two mortuary attendants in Zambia discuss their work and the stigma they must deal with.

They are some of Zambia’s most courageous workers, quietly getting on with their job - a job which is shunned by most of their compatriots.

Meet Mwanza and Kapemba, two mortuary attendants working in Lusaka.

In this programme, they reveal what their work entails, but also what it feels like to deal with the stigma they face. In Zambia, strong cultural beliefs mean that they are feared and avoided by family members and neighbours.

(Image: A funeral in Lusaka, Africa)

Africans In The Holy Land2014041920140420 (WS)

Paul Bakibinga travels to Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to explore the lives and experiences of people from three different African communities.

Mahmoud Salamat takes Paul around the narrow alleyways of the old city of Jerusalem to the hidden African quarter and introduces a small but close-knit community, who are descendants of Muslim pilgrims or soldiers who came to the Holy Land during the time of the British Mandate.

Paul also explores the experiences of different Ethiopian Jews who have returned to their ancient homeland, including rising star musician Ester Rada.

And he spends time in South Tel Aviv, where the bulk of African asylum-seekers live – stuck in a legal limbo amid growing hostility from politicians and local residents. The state cannot deport them – but neither will it grant them refugee status.

Picture: A 'Kess', a leader of the Ethiopian Jewish community, Credit: Gali Tibbon/AFP/Getty Images

Paul Bakibinga travels to Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to explore the lives and experiences o...

Paul Bakibinga travels to Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to explore the lives and experiences of people from three different communities

Ageing And Caring20131013

As the global population ages is it time for a re-think about how we view old people?

We are all getting older and the United Nations predicts that by 2050, for the first time in human history, there will be more old people alive than young. So how are people in the 21st century experiencing old age? As the global population ages, is it time for a radical re-think about how we view old people? Ruth Brook is a psychotherapist, she is about to retire and she is in her 80s. In this programme “Ageing and Caring”, Ruth shares her thoughts on four very different stories of growing older and on how the world cares about ageing.

As the global population ages, is it time for a radical re-think about how we view old.

As the global population ages, is it time for a radical re-think about how we view old people?

Ahmadinejad: The Populist And The Pariah2013060420130605 (WS)
20130609 (WS)

The rise - and legacy - of outgoing Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Devil or Popular Hero? As President Ahmadinejad steps down, we assess his legacy. Since his election in 2005, Mr Ahmadinejad has challenged his country’s Supreme Leader and goaded the United States. He has become perhaps the most well-known Iranian politician since the founder of the Islamic Republic, Ayatollah Khomeini. This documentary looks at the rise of Ahmadinejad and explains how this provincial politician with a PhD in traffic management came to take on his country’s ruling clerics.

(Image: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Investigating global developments, issues and affairs.

All That Stands In The Way - The Debate2014052420140525 (WS)

Gender inequality, sexism and balancing traditional attitudes with modern ambitions

Ros Atkins brings three teenage girls from ‘All that Stands in The Way’ together in New York City with two other girls, for a unique debate on gender inequality. The group, which includes girls from London, Lesotho and Iceland meet media star Tina Brown and delegates at the Women in the World summit, for a conversation ranging from everyday sexism to the problems of balancing traditional attitudes with modern ambitions.

All That Stands In The Way - The Girls2014052020140521 (WS)
20140524 (WS)

The four teenage girls from the BBC World Service programme All That Stands In The Way, meet for the very first time. Lulu from London, Shoeshoe from Lesotho, Vigdis from Iceland and Mira from Jordan discuss their reaction to seeing each other’s lives and experiences depicted on the BBC. What has made them question their choices and freedoms and how do they see gender equality as they stand on the threshold of adulthood?

(Photo: From top-left clockwise, Shoeshoe from Lesotho, Vigdis from Iceland and Mira from Jordan and Lulu from London)

Four teenage girls, who featured in the BBC World Service programme "All that Stands in...

Four teenage girls, who featured in the BBC World Service programme "All that Stands in the Way", meet for the first time.

All That Stands In The Way - The Parents2014052120140522 (WS)
20140524 (WS)

The parents of four teenage girls in the BBC World Service programme All That Stands In The Way, meet and talk for the first time. What did they think of the freedoms and limits to each girl’s life and has the documentary made them reconsider their views on trust, discipline, relationships and fashion. As their children reach adulthood and independence what do they think of gender equality and their daughter’s chance in the modern world?

The parents of the four teenage girls from the BBC's "All That Stands in the Way" meet...

The parents of the four teenage girls from the BBC's "All That Stands in the Way" meet and discuss their daughters' experiences.

An Astronaut's Guide To Life On Earth20140101

Colonel Chris Hadfield has spent decades training as an astronaut and has logged nearly 4,000 hours in Space. During this time he has broken into a Space Station with a Swiss army knife, been confronted by a live snake while piloting a plane, been temporarily blinded while clinging to the exterior of an orbiting spacecraft, and became a YouTube sensation with his performance of David Bowie's Space Oddity in space.

The secret to Chris Hadfield's success and survival is an unconventional philosophy he learned at NASA - prepare for the worst, and enjoy every moment of it.

Read by Garrick Hagon.

Argentina’s Playlist For Freedom2014092320140924 (WS)

Natalio Cosoy of BBC Mundo, reports on his 30-something generation growing up in the shadow of the violence of military rule in the 1970s and 1980s. He talks to musicians, friends and the half-brothers whose left-wing militant parents were killed by the military. It is a story of survival and the music that helped them and the country forge a new Argentine identity.

Argentina’s Rock and Roll: Natalio Cosoy reports on his generation growing up in the sh...

Argentina’s Rock and Roll: Natalio Cosoy reports on his generation growing up in the shadow of military rule.

At The End Of Death Row2014072220140723 (WS)

Following recent botched executions, what is the future of the death penalty in the US?

Following recent botched executions in several states, Rajini Vaidyanathan asks whether the future of the death penalty in the US is itself now in question. She travels to Tennessee to investigate how the case of one death row inmate started a legal process which has created a severe shortage of drugs for lethal injections – making the death penalty more difficult, expensive and legally complex to carry out across the country.

What might come next if the drug shortage becomes worse? Tennessee state legislators recently passed a bill replacing lethal injection with the electric chair if drugs cannot be found, while other states have moved to hide their suppliers and diversify their supplies.

Rajini also speaks to death penalty supporters, and a new breed of opponents, about how they are trying to change the political debate around the death penalty. Is it possible that the United States could give up on the death penalty?

(Photo: The gurney in the execution chamber at the Oklahoma State Penitentiary. Credit: AP)

Atlantic Crossing2014083020140831 (WS)

Air traffic controllers have guided trans-Atlantic flights since 1919

When Christine Finn's in-flight entertainment was accidentally tuned to cockpit radio on a transatlantic flight, the voice of air traffic control as they reached Irish airspace seemed to be welcoming her as well as the pilot.

As a creative archaeologist, she wanted to unravel the connections between those who fly the Atlantic and those who guide them safely over, especially when she discovered that datalink - effectively text messaging - is increasingly being used, so that voice communication is on the wane.

Listening to archive of transatlantic flights from the first by Alcock and Brown in 1919, Christine discovered that the west coast of Ireland looms large in the history. She visited Shannon airport in County Clare, scene of many departures and reunions and - in the 1950s and 1960s - before the advent of the jet engine, a stop-over for most of the popular icons of the day as their planes re-fuelled after the 3000 mile flight. Every US president since JFK has visited Shannon and many of its classic stars from Marilyn Monroe to Fred Astaire.

And at the North Atlantic Communications Centre in nearby Ballygirreen, Christine met the faces behind the voices she heard coming out of the dark on her own Atlantic Crossing.

Picture: Shannon Airport, 1950. Credit: Clarke/Fox Photos/Getty Images

Bangalore's New Beat2014053120140601 (WS)

How young India is expressing itself in the rise in independent music and festivals

Bobby Friction traces how young people in India are expressing themselves through music and the massive rise in independent music and festivals. Recorded on location at NH7 in Bangalore, India’s Glastonbury.

Indian culture is changing rapidly and with the rise of a young middle class population who are having a new voice, disposable income and want a say in their futures, changes in music culture are reflecting this. They are moving away from their parents’ perspective - a culture where Bollywood music dominates. They are moving away too from Western dominated music to create something fresh. India has seen a massive rise in home grown rock, indie, electronica and even reggae, fusing Indian music with Western influences. We ask if these changes have caused tensions between the generations.

British DJ Bobby Friction, who regularly plays at India’s clubs and at festivals speaks to musicians, music producers, festival goers and organisers, to find out how the youth movement is reflecting cultural changes in India. With the narrative of Bangalore’s NH7 Festival as the back-drop, Bobby sees a buoyant and confident new sector of India’s youth who are expressing themselves as independent global citizens.

Interviews include NH7 founders Vijay Nair and Stephen Budd (the man behind Africa Express) who wanted to alter the idea of only having the likes of Sting and Simply Red visiting India. We also speak to Indian superstar Kailash Kher, Indian electronica band Shaa’ir and Func and music producer Miti Adhikari.

Picture: Bobby Friction at NH7

Betty In The Sky With A Suitcase2013101520131016 (WS)
20131019 (WS)
20131020 (WS)

Insight into the airline industry with air hostess Betty Thesky

“Anything that can happen on earth, at some point happens in the sky.”

Betty Thesky (not her real name) has worked as a flight attendant for the past 25 years. It was always her dream job, as the ‘golden ticket’ of free flight allowed her to escape her humble beginnings in Pennsylvania and see the world in style. She’s lost count of the number of countries she’s visited, but she’s lost none of the wide-eyed wonder that originally fuelled her desire to travel.

An average day at work can see her meeting and greeting nearly 1,000 people, all travelling for different reasons, and all with different needs, wants and personalities. On the whole, she finds people a delight – but despairs when someone will interrupt an on-board medical emergency to ask her for a diet coke or an extra pat of butter.

But what’s it really like to travel so far, so often? Does the glamour of Paris fade after your 20th visit? How do you spend your leisure time in Dublin when you only have five hours free? Can you really get to know a place when you’re picked up from the airport, ferried to an anonymous hotel, and then whisked back to the airport the next morning?

Betty’s industry has changed too. Flight attendants are trained more in sales now than in service. Passengers, in turn, have become somewhat immune to the ‘miracle’ of flight – and act and dress accordingly. Betty misses the ‘golden era’ of airline travel, when becoming a stewardess was a true aspiration.

Yet despite the often mundane routine, and in spite of everything the passengers throw at her, Betty insists that she never entirely feels at home unless she’s 35,000 feet in the air.

In “Betty in the Sky with a Suitcase”, we join Betty as she travels to London, Brussels and Barcelona.

Air hostess Betty Thesky shares the weird, wonderful, and wacky things that happen on a...

Air hostess Betty Thesky shares the weird, wonderful, and wacky things that happen on a plane at 35,000 feet.

Bombay Jazz2014070920140710 (WS)
20140712 (WS)

Sarfraz Manzoor explores a fascinating period of music history in India when American violinist Leon Abbey brought his jazz band to Bombay in the 1930's, leaving behind an incredible legacy.

The early years of jazz calls to mind places such as New Orleans, Chicago and Paris. What is often overlooked is that the Indian city of Bombay, now Mumbai, had its very own thriving jazz scene in the 1930's that lasted three decades.

Manzoor charts the extraordinary story of jazz in India when some of the world's most accomplished musicians including Dave Brubeck, Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong brought their talents to the east and mixed with performers such as Chic Chocolate, Micky Correa, Teddy Weatherford and Frank Fernand - all regarded in India today as jazz legends. This cultural exchange produced music that wove threads into Bombay's story. These threads would later become inextricably a part of the city's own definitive creation - Bollywood, and its music in particular.

Manzoor travels to Mumbai to visit Naresh Fernandes author of the critically acclaimed book The Taj Mahal Foxtrot. He meets with musicians and singers, the widow of Micky Correa and the daughters of Chic Chocolate and explores the development of jazz with saxophonist Braz Gonsalves, the first man to play Be-Bop in India. His journey ends in Goa, now regarded as the new 'jazz capital of India' by music promoter Colin D'Cruz.

(Photo: Leon Abbey and his band. From Taj Mahal Foxtrot: The Story of Bombay's Jazz Age, courtesy of Roli Books)

Sarfraz Manzoor explores a fascinating period of music history, when a thriving jazz sc...

Sarfraz Manzoor explores a fascinating period of music history, when a thriving jazz scene grew in Bombay in the 1930s.

Boy For Rent2014011120140112 (WS)

Exploring the surprisingly professional world of male sex workers in London.

Prostitution is regarded as the world’s oldest profession – one that has traditionally been the domain of women. Today, it is common to also find men selling sexual services - particularly gay men - and rather than a job they have been forced into, for many it is viewed as a legitimate career choice.

As both a leading financial centre and tourist destination, London is seen by many male escorts as the number one place to ply their trade. BBC reporter Mobeen Azhar meets up with men from countries such as Brazil, France and Australia, who have come to the city to cash-in on the high demand for their services.

He discovers a surprisingly professional world where escorts, as they prefer to be known, talk about their ‘brand’ and their role as ‘service providers’ - business savvy which can earn them thousands of dollars a week. He also meets men who use their services, asking why in an age where sex is seemingly so freely available, do they feel the need to pay for it?

While the internet has modernised the old ‘rent boy’ scene where young men would solicit on the streets - making the job significantly safer - escorts still face risks such as sexually transmitted diseases, violent clients and the potential battle with personal demons over what their job entails. The programme also speaks to men who are caught in a cycle of selling sex to fund their drug addiction - an addiction which began in order to cope with the self-loathing which came from selling sex for a living.

However, sexual health charities explain how these negative experiences are not typical for most of the male sex workers in London – the majority are in control, calling the shots, and selling sex out of personal choice. But while many of these young men are content with their career – proud, even - is society ready to accept them? Or will the stigma of selling sex for a living still remain for years to come?

Reporter: Mobeen Azhar

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith

Brazil: Confronting The Past20140325

Fifty years after the coup, Brazil is dealing with the legacy of its long dictatorship.

Singer and reporter Monica Vasconcelos returns to her native Brazil as the country faces up to its dark past, fifty years after the military coup and ensuing dictatorship. Her journey was prompted by the novel 'K' by Brazilian writer Bernardo Kucinski. The book is about the disappearance of his late sister who was tortured and killed by the dictatorship. And what about Monica's own family's past? For the first time, she now asks her father questions about the years of repression. But why is he still afraid, even now?

Monica also meets some of the people who are now tackling the legacy of the dictatorship. People like the psychoanalyst who runs therapy sessions for victims of torture; the head of the Sao Paulo Truth Commission; a member of a group of activists who go and 'out' former agents of the repression, by telling their neighbours about their past.

Thanks to an amnesty law from 1979, no one has gone to prison for the human rights abuses committed during the dark years. And not everyone thinks the dictatorship was wrong. Monica goes and meets a Brigadier General who defends the coup as a legitimate way to stop Communism during the Cold War. Killings and torture were necessary methods to "eliminate the enemy" and win this war, he says.

Presenter: Monica Vasconcelos

Producer: Arlene Gregorius

The book 'K' by Bernardo Kucinski is published in English by the Latin America Bureau, translated by Sue Branford.

The song 'Aparecida', composed by Ivan Lins with lyrics by Mauricio Tapajos, is performed by Monica Vasconcelos. Guitar by Swami Jr. Translation of the lyrics by David Treece.

Other music by Heitor Villa-Lobos, performed by pianist Clelia Iruzun.

Ceo Guru20130421

Chief executives talk about values, dreams and how to lead their companies to success

With China now becoming the world's second biggest economy, it increasingly looks as if Asia will be the place which will provide much of the impetus for global growth for many years to come. But as the centre of economic gravity begins to move from West to East, what impact will there be on the world of business? What new challenges will companies face? And how can business leaders ensure that they steer their enterprises in the right direction?

Steve Tappin is an author and management expert who coaches the chief executives of many huge businesses from China, Europe and other places around the world. In the BBC World Service documentary CEO Guru, Steve Tappin talks to a range of top chief executives about their values, their dreams and how they hope to lead their companies to success in the 21st century.

Contributors include Liu Chuanzhi, founder of the vast computer company Lenovo, and Sir Martin Sorrell of global advertising giant WPP.

(Image: Liu Chuanzhi, founder of the vast computer company Lenovo, Credit: AFP/Getty)

Steve Tappin talks to chief executives about their values, dreams and their future success

With China now becoming the world's second biggest economy it increasingly looks as if Asia will be the place which will provide much of the impetus for global growth for many years to come. As the centre of economic gravity begins to move from West to East, Steve Tappin examines the possible impacts on the world of business. He will look at the new challenges business leaders will face and how they can ensure that they steer their enterprises in the right direction.

Chasing West Africa's Pirates2014111520141116 (WS)

The highly complex world of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

There are now more pirate attacks in the Gulf of Guinea than off the coast of Somalia - once considered the global 'piracy hotspot'. The BBC’s Mary Harper travels to Lagos, one of the busiest ports in Africa, to explore what is a highly complex world of piracy.

She tells for the first time the story of seafarers who have been caught up in violent and highly-organised attacks, speaks to former militants who themselves committed acts of piracy and who are now controversially being employed, at a high cost, to tackle piracy and examines the economic cost to communities who depend on maritime trade.

(Photo: Oil tankers wait to go into Lagos harbour. Credit: Penny Dale)

Clearing The Air2014091020140911 (WS)
20140913 (WS)

The impact of smoke-free laws - on health and society - in Europe over the last decade

Ten years ago, Ireland became the first country in the world to ban smoking in the workplace. The air cleared in Ireland's bars, restaurants and other buildings - and there was hardly any backlash. The pub-loving nation became the model for a global health revolution. In the decade since, countries across the world have passed smoke-free laws of their own.

Denis Murray looks at the impact of this type of anti-smoking legislation across Europe - and considers the future of tobacco.

Denis's journey begins in Dublin, where he recalls how radical a move the smoking ban was at the time. His old haunt, Mulligan's bar, used to be memorable for its blue, reeking fug. And the success of the ban in Ireland made international news - leading other countries to follow suit.

So Denis travels to two very contrasting cities to compare attitudes to smoking ten years on.

The Czech Republic has the most liberal smoking laws in the European Union. In Prague, going to a bar can feel like stepping back in time - many of them permit smoking.

France, so long synonymous with romantic movies featuring characters speaking to each other through clouds of smoke, has followed Ireland's lead and banned smoking in public places. Paris is a city with a fascinating relationship with tobacco - where the debate is often about philosophy as much as science.

In a journey across three countries, with a cast list of doctors, politicians and businesspeople - with the odd musician and philosopher thrown in - Clearing the Air poses and answers many questions about the effect which smoke-free laws are having on health and society.

Picture: A sign on bar door reads 'No Smoking' Dublin, Ireland, 2004, Credit: Fran Veale/Getty Images

Colombia's Lost Children2014080520140806 (WS)

The ex-guerrilla fighters in Colombia looking for the children they had to give up

In Colombia’s decades-long Marxist guerrilla war, thousands of rebel fighters have been female. But what happens when a woman gives birth in the jungle? Having babies is against guerrilla rules, and many of those who got pregnant were forced to have abortions. But those who managed to conceal their pregnancies for long enough were able to give birth.

And then they were forced to give their babies up.

Now, many of these rebel mothers have demobilised, or deserted as the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) would see it. And they’re trying everything to find the children they had to give up.

The BBC World Service’s Margarita Rodriguez, herself Colombian and pregnant with her first child, returns to her native country to meet some of these former fighters who are desperately looking for their children, and witnesses a reunion.

Damming Afghanistan: Lost Stories From Helmand2014080920140810 (WS)

An epic tale of dreams, grit and folly half a century in the making, Monica Whitlock tells the story of the Helmand valley dam complex, the biggest engineering project in Afghanistan.

The project, still unfinished, began more than 50 years ago when American engineers first arrived in Helmand. They brought their families, drive-in movies and even Santa Claus. Afghans and foreigners rubbed shoulders without a thought. Lashkar Gah became a model town with electric lights and the first school in the country in which boys and girls studied together. As Afghanistan experimented with modernity and technology, a great future seemed in touching distance.

But then came the Soviet invasion. The engineers fled; the optimistic schoolchildren turned into refugees. The Americans in their turn bombed the dam in 2001; paying millions once again to reconstruct it and fit a hydropower turbine, transported across the desert by the British army in one of the most famous operations of the current Afghan war.

Monica Whitlock tells the unexpected story of the Helmand valley dam complex - the bigg...

Monica Whitlock tells the unexpected story of the Helmand valley dam complex - the biggest engineering project in Afghanistan.

Defining The Decade: Mission Accomplished2010010420100105 (WS)
20100109 (WS)
20100110 (WS)
20100111 (WS)

After 9/11, the new global world order and China's economic rise.

Who would have thought, when the Millennium dawned, that it would end with both British and American troops dying in Afghanistan.

Would you have believed that millions would be communicating and doing business over the world wide web? And would you have agreed that climate change was a greater threat than terrorism?

This has been a decade when history has been on fast forward. Now, as we near the end of the decade, Edward Stourton looks at the big picture, charting the revolutions in science, technology and politics.

What are the underlying themes of the past ten years and what does it all add up to?

The decade began with China being awarded the Olympics in 2001, then two months later came 9/11.

President Bush turned from being a daddy’s boy to America’s Commander in Chief, heading a global coalition dedicated to fighting terror.

There would be a new world order, but not in the way many had imagined - defined as much by China and its rise, as it is by America and its struggles.

Edward Stourton speaks to Francis Fukuyama; former Deputy Secretary of State, Richard Armitage; Robert Kagan, and Professor Timothy Garton-Ash.

Defining The Decade: The Heat Is On2009122820100102 (WS)
20100103 (WS)
20100104 (WS)

Edward Stourton explores how, in the past 10 years, the world woke up to climate change.

Who would have thought, when the Millennium dawned, that it would end with both British and American troops dying in Afghanistan.

Would you have believed that millions would be communicating and doing business over the world wide web? And would you have agreed that climate change was a greater threat than terrorism?

This has been a decade when history has been on fast forward. Now, as we near the end of the decade, Edward Stourton looks at the big picture, charting the revolutions in science, technology and politics.

What are the underlying themes of the past ten years and what does it all add up to?

In 2000 the world’s leaders did not seem to be troubled by the notion of global warming.

Alarm bells were beginning to ring amongst the scientific community, but there were others who dismissed the threat as fanciful and scorned any idea that any changes in the climate could be man-made.

By the middle of the decade that began to change - report after report seemed to confirm that the world was heating up and went on to predict that it would get much worse.

Edward Stourton speaks to Dr David King; former IPCC Chairman Bob Watson, and environmental campaigner Bill McKibben.

Delivering The King's Speech2014090220140903 (WS)

George VI's speech declaring war on Germany in 1939 and its broadcast around the world

Marking the 75th anniversary of King George VI’s declaration of war against Germany, Louise Minchin hears the untold story of the King’s Speech and discovers how it reached the entire world.

Inspired by the discovery of the original pressing of the speech in the EMI Archives – bound in goatskin leather and signed by the King himself – Louise uncovers how the King’s words reached the furthest corners of the British Empire. Starting with the fascinating history of royalty releasing records, and incorporating rare material from the EMI archives, the documentary explores how the British Empire was united by vinyl.

Louise examines the recording of the speech – not from the point of view covered in the 2010 Oscar-winning film, but from the perspective of the EMI employees who have located previously unpublished letters and production notes from the original sessions.

Delivering the King’s Speech delves into the earliest days of the BBC Empire Service – later to become the BBC World Service – to find out how the King’s message was sent across the globe and how it enabled the Empire Service to win the fight against the anti-British propaganda broadcast by the Germans.

A TBI Media Production for BBC World Service.

Dickens And India - Mutual Friends2012020720120208
20120211 (WS)

Writer Ayeesha Menon explores India's love affair with Charles Dickens.

To celebrate the bicentenary of Dickens' birth, Indian born writer Ayeesha Menon explores India's love affair with Dickens.

India loves Dickens because contemporary India feels Dickens was writing about them.

His themes resonate deeply with Indians: the importance of the extended family, familial bonds, the rich-poor divide, child labour, domestic violence, social injustice, the class system, and the plight of the deprived and displaced.

Ayeesha has recently adapted Martin Chuzzlewit for radio, setting it in India.

Egypt’s Challenge € Far From Cairo2013052120130522 (WS)
20130526 (WS)

What impact has the revolution had on rural life outside of Cairo?

Our view of Egypt has been focussed on the capital. Yet much of the population still live in rural areas, with ways of life that have changed little for decades. Shaimaa Khalil accompanies a young revolutionary back to his home town in Upper Egypt to hear about discrimination, poverty, the role of religion and of women and asks whether the revolution is likely to change anything so far from Cairo. Episode 5/6.

(Image: A boy sitting cross-legged on a wall reading. BBC Copyright )

Egypt’s Challenge € Free To Speak2013043020130505 (WS)

Shaimaa Khalil listens to the new voices of the Egyptian revolution.

Episode 2/6.

Shaimaa Khalil examines the challenges facing her country two years after the Egyptian revolution. Under former President Mubarak there was a strong tradition of diverse but restricted media in Egypt. Post revolution, the restrictions have been lifted, allowing new voices to be heard from across the political spectrum.

Political satirist Bassem Youssef invites Shaimaa to watch his hugely popular TV show where he cracks jokes about Egyptian politicians and even targets it’s President, Mohammed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood. She also visits a hardline Salafi TV station where the output is very different and where any criticism of religion or religious leaders is considered unacceptable. All challenges for Egypt’s new democracy.

(Image of political satirist Bassem Youssef’s show in the Cairo Cinema Radio Theatre. BBC Copyright)

Egypt’s Challenge € Free To Speak - Part Two2013043020130501 (WS)

Shaimaa Khalil listens to the new voices of the Egyptian revolution.

Shaimaa Khalil examines the challenges facing her country two years after the Egyptian revolution. Under former President Mubarak there was a strong tradition of diverse but restricted media in Egypt. Post revolution, the restrictions have been lifted, allowing new voices to be heard from across the political spectrum.

Political satirist Bassem Youssef invites Shaimaa to watch his hugely popular TV show where he cracks jokes about Egyptian politicians and even targets it’s President, Mohammed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood. She also visits a hardline Salafi TV station where the output is very different and where any criticism of religion or religious leaders is considered unacceptable. All challenges for Egypt’s new democracy.

(Image of political satirist Bassem Youssef’s show in the Cairo Cinema Radio Theatre. BBC Copyright)

Egypt’s Challenge € Making A Living2013050720130508 (WS)
20130512 (WS)

Shaimaa Khalil examines the state of Egypt’s economy two years on from its revolution.

Episode 3/6.

President Mubarak’s crony capitalism was one of the driving forces of the revolution – but, inequality, corruption and bureaucracy appear to have continued unhindered. While the economy was already in the doldrums, since the revolution things have become markedly worse.

In the third programme in this series, Egypt’s Challenge, Shaimaa Khalil examines the state of Egypt’s economy two years after its revolution. Then people were calling for bread, freedom and social justice – have those demands been met? Shaimaa discovers that insecurity on the streets and political instability have frightened off investors. She also looks at how the unofficial , illegal economy has so far prevented complete economic collapse and, with the help of economists, looks at the mysterious role played by the military in Egypt’s economy.

Produced by John Murphy.

(Image of a textile mill in Mahalla, one of Egypt’s most famous exports Egyptian Cotton. BBC Copyright.)

Egypt’s Challenge € Men In Uniform2013051420130515 (WS)
20130519 (WS)

Can Egypt’s police force rebuild its reputation and will the army stay out of politics?

The army has long been the dominant force in Egyptian society, while the police have ruled the streets with a rod of iron. For now the military has relinquished its hold on politics and the police officers have retreated to their barracks.

With special access to Egypt’s Police Academy, which is training up a new generation of officers, Shaimaa Khalil asks if the police can rebuild their tarnished image and re-instil badly needed security to the streets. She also asks if the military men will remain out of politics, despite the chaos in the country.

Produced by John Murphy.

(Image of police recruits being put through training. BBC Copyright)

As Egypt struggles with its new democracy, Shaimaa Khalil examines the dramatic changes...

As Egypt struggles with its new democracy, Shaimaa Khalil examines the dramatic changes and challenges facing Egyptian society.

Egypt’s Challenge € The Next Generation2013052820130529 (WS)
20130602 (WS)

With half of Egypt’s population under 25 Shaimaa asks what the future holds for them?

Episode 6/6.

Egypt has one of the world’s fastest-growing populations; already 90-million strong, it’s growing by over a million each year and around half of that population is under the age of 25.

It was Egypt’s youth who were at the forefront of the revolutionary protests in Tahrir Square in 2011. They were demanding an end to corruption, cronyism, poverty and to social injustice. Two years on has the revolution delivered for them? In this final programme in the series, Egypt’s Challenge, Shaimaa Khalil talks to young people in Cairo and Alexandria and finds a generation caught between hope and despair.

Producer: Daniel Tetlow

(Image: Skate Impact on the steps of Saad Zaghlool Square in downtown Alexandria. BBC Copyright)

As Egypt struggles with its new democracy, Shaimaa Khalil examines the dramatic changes...

As Egypt struggles with its new democracy, Shaimaa Khalil examines the dramatic changes and challenges facing Egyptian society.

Egypt's Challenge - Part One2013042320130428 (WS)

How has Alexandria changed since the revolution of 2011?

After decades of stifling stasis, Egypt is in flux. The political system has gone through total upheaval following the overthrow of President Mubarak and Egypt is struggling to understand its new democracy. Shaimaa Khalil assesses the underlying challenges facing her native land in a major series for the BBC World Service.

In the introductory programme, Shaimaa returns to her hometown, Alexandria, to see how it has changed since the revolution of 2011. She visits old haunts and talks to family, friends and people on the streets to gauge their feelings on a range of political, economic and social issues. In the city they call the mermaid of the Mediterranean she finds a new sense of empowerment but also a distrust of the newfound voice of political Islam and an overwhelming sense of personal insecurity.

Image: The Alexandria skyline

Eng12g Drowning City (the Doc) 12013022620130227 (WS)

Isabel Hilton looks at the aftermath of the Hurricane Sandy in New York. As sea levels...

Isabel Hilton looks at the aftermath of the Hurricane Sandy in New York. As sea levels rise, how can coastal cities can prepare?

Eng13g Gene Doping (doc) 120140114

Tim Franks investigates what could be the future of cheating in sport – altering our ge...

Tim Franks investigates what could be the future of cheating in sport – altering our genes.

Europe Moves East2013010820130109 (WS)
20130113 (WS)

Forty years ago, the EU was a small and loose association of nations on the western edge of the continent. Germany was still divided, with its capital in the sleepy town of Bonn near the Belgian border. France - with its long-standing commitment to the sovereignty of nation states - was the driving force of the European project.

But the last decade has seen a profound and irreversible shift. Europe's centre of gravity has moved dramatically east. After reunification in 1990, a much more powerful Germany has emerged.

The countries of the old Eastern bloc look to Berlin for leadership. Their experience of Soviet occupation and communist dictatorship has committed them to building a much stronger and more tightly integrated Europe, one that will help secure their young and still vulnerable democracies.

"I want the European Union to become a superpower," the Polish Foreign Minister Radek Sikorski tells the programme. This changing dynamic is the subtle, hidden undertow to the continuing tensions over the Euro.

Power in Europe has shifted, from the old and familiar Paris-Bonn relationship to the new and much more dynamic Berlin-Warsaw. This is the new Europe. It is one in which France - once the unchallenged leading voice - is increasingly marginalised.

(Image: An EU flag as seen through the branches of some trees, Credit: Getty Images)

The EU's power dynamic has shifted from France and Germany to Germany and Poland. How?

Feeding The World2013081320130818 (WS)

Can Obama's international aid reforms of sending money rather than grain be implemented?

Since the end of World War II, America's Food for Peace programme has shipped American-grown food in sacks across the world to feed the world's starving people. Virtually all experts agree it is an inefficient way to send aid, and the EU stopped doing it decades ago. Former head of USAID Andrew Natsios says 'I've watched people die in front of me waiting for food to arrive.'

Now President Obama wants to reform the system to send more of emergency aid as money, and to buy food locally. But there is opposition to his plans for change and it looks likely the reforms will go nowhere.

BBC international development correspondent David Loyn travels to Afghanistan and meets farmers who say they stopped growing wheat and changed to opium poppies when American wheat flooded the local market during a time of plenty. And he travels to Kenya to look at pioneering efforts to deliver aid in a way that helps the local economy and puts power back in the hands of the poor.

(Picture: A farmer holds some grain and pulses. Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Food For Peace2013081320130814 (WS)

David Loyn looks at America's "Food for Peace" programme, its effects in Afghanistan, and a new way of delivering aid in Kenya.

Freedom Songs2014091620140917 (WS)

I Wish I Knew How it Would Feel to be Free became an anthem for the American Civil Rights

Immortalised by Nina Simone, I Wish I Knew How it Would Feel to be Free, was recorded in the early 60s by Jazz pianist Billy Taylor for his young daughter. Candace Piette talks to Kim Taylor Thomson, to Nina Simone’s guitarist and to poets and writers and singers about what the song meant when it was first written and what resonance it has now in contemporary America.

(Photo: American jazz pianist Billy Taylor performs at the Peacock Alley night club, St. Louis, Missouri, 1974. Credit: Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Game Changer: 20 Years Of The Premier League2012090420120905 (WS)

Clubs or corporations? Jim White reports on the Premier League's first 20 years.

Big business or community concern, club or corporation?

Journalist Jim White reports on the first 20 years of England's Premier League when it has established itself as the most marketable and valuable domestic football competition in the world.

But with new overseas players, managers and owners, has the sport become divorced from the communities it came from?

Or is it accurately reflecting modern Britain?

(Image: The Manchester City players celebrate with the trophy following the Barclays Premier League match between Manchester City and Queens Park Rangers at the Etihad Stadium on 13 May 2012 in Manchester, England. Photo by Shaun Botterill/Getty Images)

Gene Doping2014011420140118 (WS)
20140119 (WS)

Could altering our genes become the future of cheating in sport?

It has taken scientists almost 50 years to cure rare diseases through gene therapy. The risks are still great but the field is developing fast, bringing hope to those with untreatable conditions. Now there are growing concerns that athletes will abuse this pioneering technology. Tim Franks speaks to David Epstein, an American journalist and sports enthusiast, who has been investigating the issue of gene doping. David reveals how athletes have 'inundated' researchers with requests to improve their abilities through genetic manipulation.

Tim also speaks to French geneticist Philippe Moullier, who was left in shock after a group of former Tour de France cyclists visited his lab. They wanted to learn whether the technology he developed to cure children with a rare muscle disease could be used to enhance sporting performance. Although the World Anti-Doping Agency banned the practice in 2003 there is still no test which can detect gene doping. Athletes do not have to look hard if they want to experiment. Moullier tells Tim how it’s possible to buy genes on the internet and grow them at home. Tim Franks finds out just how easy it is.

(Photo: A genetic researcher carries blood samples to have their DNA tested at his Laboratory in the Lebanese-American University. Credit: Joseph Eid/AFP/Getty Images)

God's Trombone: Remembering King's Dream20130901

Luther King stepped to the podium in front of the Lincoln Memorial. Around 10 minutes into his speech, King sounded as though he were wrapping up when Mahalia Jackson, the gospel singer and King's friend, shouted: "Tell them about the dream Martin". He ignored her at first. Then she shouted again. He put the text to the left of the lectern, grabbed the podium and - after a pause more pregnant than most - started to riff.

King's adviser Clarence Jones turned to the person next to him and said: "Those people don't know it, but they're about to go to church."

It's 50 years since Martin Luther King gave the speech that stands as one of the world's favourite addresses delivered by one of its most beloved figures. But "I have a dream" wasn't in the text of the speech and its mainstream popularity only grew after King was assassinated.

Gary Younge looks behind the scenes of the speech and explores what made it both timely and timeless. Why do we remember it? How do we remember it? Does the way we remember it say as much about us today as it does about those events 50 years ago?

We'll hear from King's colleagues and friends including his speechwriter Clarence Jones; and King's aide, former Mayor of Atlanta and later US ambassador to the United Nations Andrew Young.

We explore how King was influenced by African-American preachers: he was firmly rooted in a tradition of orators described by influential Harlem Renaissance poet and intellectual James Weldon Johnson as "God's Trombones".

The speeches and images of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. has been licensed by Intellectual Properties Management, Inc. (IPM) manager for the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr. This license is in no way an endorsement of the views, policies, opinions, statements, and actions of the featured participants.

Home Away From Home2013070920130710 (WS)
20130714 (WS)

The stories of the Somali community whose families have lived in Wales since 1890

At the end of the 19th Century working on the steam ships of the British Empire was an attractive career choice for seamen from Somaliland. Many came to Cardiff and found work in the docks heaving the coal that powered those ships. They first settled in Butetown in 1890.

A vibrant community grew - centred on the docks and the mosque. But the last coal was shipped out in the 1960s. Cardiff docks are not what they were. Butetown has been redeveloped and work is scarce.

The older generation of Somalis has, in recent years, been joined by new immigrants, refugees from their war-torn homeland. Their experiences and expectations are very different, as the production De Gabay recently made clear. This was a day-long, dramatic festival with National Theatre Wales, in which young poets from the Somali community performed all around Butetown.

Urban historian Mike Berlin, meets Somalis whose families have lived in Butetown for a century and more recent arrivals tell their stories, too.

(Picture: Dockside cranes, Cardiff, 1907, Credit: Getty Images)

I Don't Remember The War2014072620140727 (WS)

Six young writers explore a great grandparent's involvement in World War One

The BBC World Service gives voice to the most talented young writers - under 35 - to explore a great grandparent or grandparent's involvement in World War One. This centenary offers a chance to reflect on the gulf that separates young people from the war. Each writer attempts to bridge the gap, to question what the values and sacrifices of the war mean today.

British writer Ned Beauman has just published his third novel, Glow. The Teleportation Accident was longlisted for the 2013 Man Booker Prize. He is included in the Granta list of 20 best young writers.

Ceridwen Dovey is a South African writer living in Australia. Blood Kin was shortlisted for the Commonwealth Writers' Prize for Best First Book.

Irish writer Rob Doyle lives in County Wexford. His first novel, Here Are the Young Men has recently been published to great acclaim.

Chibundu Onuzo is Nigeria's youngest and most talented writer; now 22, she published The Spider King's Daughter when she was just 19.

Prajwal Parajuly grew up in the Sikkim region of north-east India. He recently published his first novel, The Gurkha's Daughter to great acclaim.

Clemens Setz' (Austria) latest novel Indigo was recently published to great acclaim. He received the Leipzig Book Fair Prize 2011 and the Literature Prize of the City of Bremen 2010 and in 2009 was shortlisted for the German Book Prize for his novel Die Frequenzen.

Introduced by the BBC's Special Correspondent, Allan Little.

(Photo: British artillery men in action with a big gun during the opening of the Battle of the Somme, 01/01/1916. Credit: PA)

I Have A Dream20130828

Martin Luther King’s 'I Have a Dream' speech is one of the most powerful and passionate political statements of the 20th century.

This unique tribute programme from BBC Radio, which seeks to commemorate Dr King’s legacy through his words, will be broadcast to a global audience. Global figures celebrate Dr King’s legacy by reading sections of the speech which resonate with their own experiences and aspirations.

Idrissa Camara2014052820140529 (WS)
20140531 (WS)

Idrissa Camara cuts a distinctive figure as he walks his young child to her Welsh-speaking school in suburban Cardiff. Originally from Guinea, Idrissa moved to the city four years ago and now lists Welsh next to Susu, Malinke and Wolof among his languages.

Idrissa is a virtuoso dancer and choreographer and since arriving in Wales has been working to establish his own dance company, Ballet Nimba. He recently received a bursary to travel back to his native Guinea in order to formally study and document the evolution of dance, music and storytelling there - research which will feed into the next Ballet Nimba production.

In this programme, we follow the progress of this new work interwoven with snapshots from Idrissa's life in Cardiff and his life in Guinea, and the tension between the two.

(Photo: Dancers perform during the draw ceremony for the African Nations football Cup (CAN 2012), in Malabo, October, 2011. Credit: Voishmel/AFP/Getty Images)

A portrait of dancer and choreographer Idrissa Camara, as he returns to his native Guin...

A portrait of dancer and choreographer Idrissa Camara, as he returns to his native Guinea from his new home in Wales.

In Perfect Harmony2013121420131215 (WS)

Harmony singing throughout the world – how does it differ from place to place?

A programme celebrating our collective love of singing in harmony, looking at when and why we do it, what it means to us musically and emotionally, and how different countries sing harmony differently.

Since time began, man has sung and soon another man added a harmony part – for companionship, for sharing, for support, for humour, for joy, for cleverness and for lovely, satisfying sounds. This programme investigates the different types of harmony singing throughout the world – how does it differ from place to place, what is it for? We hear from harmony singers from around the world.

Harmony has been a natural part of singing – from classical chorale singing to pop music, via doo-wop, barbershop quartets, African choral music, gospel, opera, rock, rap, and even death metal. The first thing a baby does is make vocal sounds to ‘harmonise’ with its mother. All types of music use it – usually in 3rds or 6ths around the melody to make the melody sweeter in Western cultures. Far Eastern Harmonies are different technically – traditionally harmony has been missing, but there are examples of overtone singing where the singer makes more than one note at the same time. There is something human in the ability to complement each other vocally – immensely satisfying and beautiful. It’s also a simple expression of companionship without a need for instruments.

We hear about the African village that hunts using harmony singing to guide them as a team – if they can’t sing, they won’t eat. We hear about an Armenian composer who was driven mad when trying to compose a piece for 8-part harmony and we speak to Wendy Wilson (daughter of Brian Wilson from The Beach Boys) about how she grew up singing harmony with her mother and sister, and how she carries on the legacy of her father today with her band Wilson Phillips. We also hear from music therapists working with terminally ill children who can no longer speak, but can sing, and also someone who works with patients with chronic lung disease where singing in harmony improves their quality of life. From South African choir leaders working with disaffected youth to Orkney women trying to keep traditional songs alive, via Abba, St Paul’s Cathedral Choir, Queen, the mash-ups being created with UK school children and Fleet Foxes, the world of harmony is here.

The programme is produced by Laura Parfitt and brought together musically by composer and radio sound designer Chris O’Shaughnessy.

In Perfect Harmony20131225

A programme celebrating our collective love of singing in harmony, looking at when and why we do it, what it means to us musically and emotionally, and how different countries sing harmony differently.

Since time began, man has sung and soon another man added a harmony part – for companionship, for sharing, for support, for humour, for joy, for cleverness and for lovely, satisfying sounds. This programme investigates the different types of harmony singing throughout the world – how does it differ from place to place, what is it for? We hear from harmony singers from around the world.

Harmony has been a natural part of singing – from classical chorale singing to pop music, via doo-wop, barbershop quartets, African choral music, gospel, opera, rock, rap, and even death metal. The first thing a baby does is make vocal sounds to ‘harmonise’ with its mother. All types of music use it – usually in 3rds or 6ths around the melody to make the melody sweeter in Western cultures. Far Eastern Harmonies are different technically – traditionally harmony has been missing, but there are examples of overtone singing where the singer makes more than one note at the same time. There is something human in the ability to complement each other vocally – immensely satisfying and beautiful. It’s also a simple expression of companionship without a need for instruments.

We hear about the African village that hunts using harmony singing to guide them as a team – if they can’t sing, they won’t eat. We hear about an Armenian composer who was driven mad when trying to compose a piece for eight-part harmony and we speak to Wendy Wilson (daughter of Brian Wilson from The Beach Boys) about how she grew up singing harmony with her mother and sister, and how she carries on the legacy of her father today with her band Wilson Phillips. We also hear from music therapists working with terminally ill children who can no longer speak, but can sing, and also someone who works with patients with chronic lung disease where singing in harmony improves their quality of life. From South African choir leaders working with disaffected youth to Orkney women trying to keep traditional songs alive, via Abba, St Paul’s Cathedral Choir, Queen, the mash-ups being created with UK school children and Fleet Foxes, the world of harmony is here.

The programme is produced by Laura Parfitt and brought together musically by composer and radio sound designer Chris O’Shaughnessy.

India's Forgotten War2014102520141029 (WS)

In the Indian capital Delhi stands India Gate, the largest memorial to the war for which 1.5 million Indian men were recruited. But Anita Rani discovers that World War One is something of a forgotten memory today, seen as part of its colonial history, and she sets out to uncover some of the forgotten stories.

We meet relatives of the men who travelled from the rural villages in Punjab - including what is now Pakistan - to fight thousands of miles away from home for a cause they knew little about. Anita's parents are from this region, and she finds out what drove them to fight for the British Empire on the Western Front, Africa and in what is now Iraq. She explores how the women who were left in the villages managed to cope with their rural lives without their men, and uncovers folk songs they composed at the time which reveal their suffering.

Not all those who took part in the war were soldiers, and Anita also reveals lost stories from the Labour Corps - the hundreds of thousands of men who worked behind the scenes on the front, in a non-combatant role. They did everything from digging and clearing tranches and latrines, to cooking and boot mending. And we hear about the remarkable actions of a Bengali doctor who risked his life to save others on the battlefield.

We also reveal some of the forgotten story of the home front, in cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Karachi, where military hospitals were set up to treat the wounded, and much production of food and munitions for the war effort fell to Indian workers.

Not everyone agreed with the involvement in this colonial war though, and we also look at how some deserted, or protested as part of the burgeoning independence movement.

Inside The Fed20131231

America's central bank - the US Federal Reserve - is 100 years old. Listen to its story

The US Federal Reserve – America's central bank – is 100 years old. Simon Jack tells the surprising story of an institution which despite crashes and crises is a cornerstone of the global economy. With rare access to the Federal Reserve itself Simon talks to some of those who have been intimately involved with it over the decades. He discovers some unlikely tales in the Fed's struggle to maintain its independence and he finds out what things were really like there during the worst of the financial crisis in 2008.

Picture: Seal of the US Federal Reserve, Credit: Mandel Ngan/AFP/Getty Images

Isolation2013092920131229 (WS)

Humans are social creatures, so how do we cope in situations of isolation - bereft of human contact - or in situations where we are confined in the company of just a few individuals for long periods of time?

Anahi Aradas explores the effects of isolation and confinement in a tiny community in the Antarctic, speaks to former astronauts in the US and visits a Swedish prison, where inmates are encouraged to practise yoga to help them cope.

King George Island lies just off the Antarctic mainland is home to scientific research stations belonging to a range of countries. A posting here is a matter of choice, and not many bring their families with them. But helicopter pilot Fernando Fontt and his wife Carolina have opted for two years in this tiny settlement, along with their one-year-old son, Fernandito.

Astronaut Al Worden represents the Apollo generation, and is one of only 24 human beings to have travelled to the Moon. His solo three-day orbit of the Moon earned him the accolade of 'most isolated human being' from the Guinness Book of World Records. Michael Lopez Alegria made four journeys to space and spent 215 consecutive days on the International Space Station. And Diego Urbina, of the Mars generation, spent 520 days in a hangar in Moscow, simulating the return journey to the Red Planet. All speak about their experience of isolation and confinement, the pleasure and the pain.

Anahi also meets Annika, a woman serving a 20-month sentence in a Swedish women’s prison in Ystad. Like all other inmates, she is locked in her cell every evening for 12 hours. She welcomes the solitude and keeps herself in mental balance by meditating. In Ystad prison the staff conduct yoga lessons for inmates.

How do people cope with isolation and confinement? Anahi Aradas explores the issue in A.

How do people cope with isolation and confinement? Anahi Aradas explores the issue in Antarctica, in space and in prison.

Jfk: Dallas Remembers2013111620131117 (WS)

Five people who witnessed an aspect of the death of John F Kennedy share their stories

On 22 November 1963, President John F Kennedy was campaigning in Texas. That morning, Air Force One touched down at Dallas Love Field Airport. The president and first lady waved to jubilant crowds that watched the motorcade move through downtown Dallas.

As the presidential limousine passed through Dealey Plaza, Kennedy was shot in the head by an assassin’s bullet. Within a half hour, 75 million Americans had heard the news. President Kennedy was declared dead at 1pm, Dallas time.

Over three days, three murders rocked the city of Dallas. After President Kennedy, police officer JD Tippit was shot and killed by assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, who himself was later fatally shot on live television.

Sue MacGregor brings together five people who were intimately connected to the events surrounding the Kennedy assassination: Clint Hill, the former Secret Service agent who frantically climbed up the back of the presidential limousine as the shots rang out; Gayle Newman, who stood with her young family in Dealey Plaza and became one of the closest eyewitnesses; Hugh Aynesworth, then of the Dallas Morning News who reported the events in November 1963, Kenneth Salyer, who was part of the medical team at Parkland Hospital, desperately trying to revive the president; and James Leavelle, retired Dallas homicide detective who was famously handcuffed to Lee Harvey Oswald when he was shot by Jack Ruby.

Picture: John F Kennedy, Credit: Getty Images

Sue MacGregor brings together five people intimately connected to the assassination of...

Sue MacGregor brings together five people intimately connected to the assassination of John F Kennedy in Dallas.

Ko Un: The People's Poet Of Korea20140121

What can Ko Un's poetry tell us about modern South Korea?

In South Korea, former Zen monk Ko Un is revered as a pro-democracy activist and the people’s poet. To mark his 80th birthday, Mike Greenwood explores his prolific output, in particular his epic masterwork, Ten Thousand Lives (Maninbo), in which he puts into poems the faces and lives of all the people he has known or known of. Conceived when he was imprisoned in the 1980s for rebelling against the military dictatorships then controlling South Korea, Maninbo has been published in 30 volumes in Korean. Now, for the first time, the first 10 volumes have been translated into English.

We use readings from this treasure box of poems to provide a unique window on to modern Korea, with contributions from Andrew Motion and Ko Un himself, three-times Nobel Prize for Literature runner up. “Poetry” he says, “is the music of history.”

Ko Un has given us special access to his home near Seoul where, in a series of intimate interviews, he shares his story.

Born into a peasant family in 1933, Ko Un began writing poems from an early age. Traumatised by the horrors of the Korean war, he became a monk. After leaving the Buddhist community in 1962, another lost decade of despair followed, including problems with alcohol and multiple suicide attempts. After a profound political awakening in 1972, he joined in vigorous opposition to the military regime and in the struggle for human rights. He was detained, tortured, and imprisoned repeatedly and for long periods. Finally set free in 1980, Ko Un married, moved to the countryside, fathered a daughter, and entered a period of stability and happiness, though it would be more than a decade before he was granted a passport.

(Picture: Ko Un, Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Mike Greenwood reports on how the poetry of Korea’s national poet, Ko Un, weaves a gran...

Mike Greenwood reports on how the poetry of Korea’s national poet, Ko Un, weaves a grand mosaic of Korean history and society.

Law Behind Bars2014051020140511 (WS)

Most people who face criminal charges in Kenya go to court without a lawyer. By the Kenyan judiciary’s own admission, this leads to a great deal of injustice. This programme meets an impressive group of prisoners who are acting as lawyers on behalf of themselves and their fellow inmates. Mostly by discovering flaws in the original cases, they are managing to get large numbers of convictions overturned at appeal.

According to one Kenyan lawyer, these prisoner paralegals are much more effective than many of the professionals: after all, they have all the time, and the ultimate motivation of winning freedom.

(Picture: Inmate paralegals meet to discuss a case, Credit: BBC)

Linard's Travels20141029

An insight into the life of Linard Davies, a baggage attendant at San Francisco airport

Deep and distinguished, yet rugged and wise, Linard Davies serves the next customer wanting their bag wrapped in cling film at the Airport Travel Agency in San Francisco. Linard deals with the packages that the airlines won't and swears by his motto, 'We don't say no'.

Perhaps it's this can-do attitude that has earned him a reputation for dealing with urns. 'We must have had over a 100 urns'. A traffic cop stored his father's ashes with Linard while putting on a function at his house. He would occasionally pop in and ask, 'How's my dad doing?'. Linard would reply, 'He's doing great, he ain't bothering nobody!'

A Korean girl flying to Atlanta left the ashes of her mother with Linard, never to be picked up. He now considers the deceased his business partner, talking to her on long night shifts. Yet he does feel a little responsible for 'Grandma' as he calls her, as he accidentally broke the urn and the ashes scattered onto the floor. So Grandma is now forever in San Francisco Airport.

The Airport Travel Agency deals with all kinds of artefacts, from a set of house keys to a bass violin, kayak, or extra-large dog kennel (minus the dog). The unofficial historian of the Airport Travel Agency, Carol, gives us a run down of the strangest items - clown shoes, 10-foot tall carved wooden doors from Bali and a set of fresh moose antlers, to name just a few.

(Photo: Travelers gather their luggage at San Francisco International Airport. Credit: Getty Images)

Lines In The Sand20131224

The emerging Jihadi challenge across the Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa

Are a series of separate conflicts across the Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa part of a wider Jihadi challenge? With the the fall of Gaddafi in Libya, vast stockpiles of unguarded weapons were suddenly available. In January 2013, armed extremists in Mali crossed a line in the sand by advancing south, only to provoke a French military riposte. The Islamists were dispersed - but they were far from beaten. Across the edge of the Sahara, a large number of other violent, Islamist-related incidents followed or came into focus. One of the leading militants in Mali - Mochtar Bel Mochtar - audaciously attacked a BP oil installation in southern Algeria. Jihadis attacked a uranium mine and a military barracks in Mali’s neighbour, Niger. Suicide bombers began operating in both countries for the first time. And the conflict in Northern Nigeria intensified. The Boko Haram group, which has reported links to the Mali insurgents, occupied significant parts of the most populous country in the region. The lines in the Saharan sand are much broader than we thought - and they are shifting.

The BBC’s International Development Correspodnent Mark Doyle gives listeners an aural picture of this new battleground, and investigates what the fighting is really about. He asks if there are direct links - or co-ordination - between the various Islamist groups and how worried the rest of the world should be.

Mark Doyle investigates the growing Jihadist threat across the African Sahel.

Malala's Story2013101220131013 (WS)

An exclusive interview with the Pakistani schoolgirl and campaigner Malala Yousafzai

The dramatic, disturbing and inspiring story of Malala Yousafzai has drawn the attention of the world. Now, she talks about her life in her own words, in an exclusive interview with Mishal Husain. Malala was an ordinary schoolgirl from Pakistan’s Swat Valley who achieved prominence by blogging for the BBC during the Taliban takeover of her home region. She wrote about how the Taliban had banned her and other girls in Swat from attending school. After the Taliban were forced out, she became an internationally known campaigner for the right of all girls to an education.

In October 2012, the Taliban took revenge, sending a gunman to kill her. He shot her in the head and shoulder, leaving her on the point of death. There was a massive wave of sympathy and support from across the globe and Malala was airlifted to the English city of Birmingham for medical treatment. This will be her first full interview since the attack, in which she will talk about her life, her fight and her dreams.

Picture: Malala Yousafzai, Credit: Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

And exclusive interview with the Pakistani schoolgirl and campaigner Malala Yousafzai

Media And The Middle East2014092720140928 (WS)

The rockets and missiles fly, from Israel into Gaza, from Gaza into Israel. It is the latest iteration of the conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbours, which has flared since the very founding of the Jewish state in 1948.

Accompanying the conflict has been an unprecedented level of media coverage. And almost nothing is uncontested. Every sentence, every word of a news report is parsed for signs of bias by individuals and organisations dedicated to ensuring a fair deal for their point of view. Coverage is measured in minutes and seconds of airtime. Media organisations stand accused, by both sides, of prejudice, systemic bias and deliberate distortion.

Why does this particular conflict, above all others, attract the attention it does? And why does it create such strong emotion, even among those with no connection to the region? John Lloyd, a contributing editor at the Financial Times, examines the evolution of coverage of the Arab-Israeli conflict, from the founding of Israel to the present day.

With contributions from journalists and those who monitor them, Lloyd asks why there is such focus both on the conflict itself and on those who report it. He traces the way reporting has developed from the early television age, through the introduction of 24-hour news channels to the inception of social media. And he examines the challenges of reporting fairly and accurately on a conflict in which every assertion is contested.

Why the Arab-Israeli conflict attracts so much media attention and why it is so contested

My Family’s Fight For Civil Rights2014070220140703 (WS)
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Baroness Oona King discovers her American family’s role in the fight for equality

Baroness Oona King, the former British Labour MP, has an American side to her family that played a variety of key roles in the Civil Rights Movement. Her grandfather and uncles worked with Martin Luther King in The Albany Movement, a campaign of mass protests that tried to desegregate their home town in Georgia. Oona travelled to Albany to speak to members of the movement on the 50th anniversary of the passing of The Civil Rights Act, the legislation which forced the Southern States to give African Americans the equality which was their right under the Constitution.

Oona discovers that the violence meted out to black protesters by the authorities affected her family directly. Her uncle CB King, the first black lawyer in the town, was beaten up by a local Sherriff for asking to see his client in the cells. And her Aunt Marion lost her baby after she was beaten up by the police.

She speaks to Pastor Boyd, of the Shiloh Baptist Church, who is now in his mid 80s and bravely allowed protesters to meet at his church; Charles Sherrod, of the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee, who brought the campaign for voting rights and desegregation to Albany; John Perdew, who came from Harvard to help the fight and was arrested on trumped up charges and faced the death sentence for protesting; Chief Judge Herbert Phipps of the Atlanta Court of Appeals, and Chevene King, the lawyer son of CB King, who is now fighting racial injustice in Georgia.

(Photo: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People march in front of the Dinkler Plaza Hotel in Atlanta on 11 Nov 1961. Credit: Associated Press)

Native American News2014082620140827 (WS)

TV made in the US by tribal people and watched - at its height - by 50 million people

Peter Bowes tells the story of news television made by Native American tribes.

Lita Sheldon of the Tulalip Tribe in Washington State grew up in an age when Tonto – sidekick to The Lone Ranger – was the only Native American she had seen on television. News bulletins about Native Americans were endlessly negative, alcohol-related or concerning ‘trouble on the reservations’. Traditional communication – the languages, longhouses and potlatches – had long been brutally abolished, but Lita had an idea of how to change things. It was time, she thought, for tribal people to make their own news and get it on the national networks. It was from this initial idea that Northwest Indian News (NWIN) began, covering everything from whaling rituals to canoe journeys and watched, at its height, by 50 million people.

Peter Bowes hears from some of the founders of NWIN. He learns how the money from reservation casinos helped fund the first forays into television news production and helped change viewers’ perception of Native American life. Peter talks to Chenoa Egawa, a member of the Swan Tribe, about being recruited as a TV presenter and follows Mark Anderson, cameraman and Cowlitz tribal member, who is covering a story at the Lummi Nation Longhouse whilst paying respect to the Elders.

Peter also hears of plans for a new indigenous programme, ‘Native Heartbeat’, and meets the tribal filmmakers of tomorrow.

Picture: TV presenter Chenoa Egawa

New Year, New Burma20130915

At the Burmese water festival, people poke fun, but will the government listen to them?

Nigeria's Working Children2014040120140402 (WS)

The Nigerian boys who have to work to support their families, at high cost to themselves

Fifteen million children have to work to earn a living in Nigeria, according to International Labour Organisation figures. Mustapha Mohammed of the BBC's Hausa service goes to meet three of them in the northern Nigerian city of Kano. One of the boys is 12 years old and has to sell sachet water at a busy road junction after school every day. He often does not get a meal in between.

Another boy is 14, and can't go to school at all, even though he would love to. He has to work full-time in a factory to support his family, so that at least his younger siblings can go to school. Mustapha takes the 14-year old to meet another boy, who also worked in a factory until recently. But an incident with a machine ended with him having to have his left hand amputated. Now he cannot even do chores at home anymore, let alone work to support his family.

How do these children see their lives? And how do their parents or guardians feel about relying on income from under-age boys?

Presenter: Mustapha Mohammed

Photo Credit: Seyllou/AFP/Getty - the boy in this photo does not appear in the programme

Nightingales Of India2013072320130724 (WS)
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Sisters Lata and Asha have forged Bollywood singing careers spanning more than six decades

Known as the 'Nightingales of India', Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle have forged Bollywood singing careers spanning more than six decades. The sisters are from a humble background that parallels the story of Bollywood and of India itself.

One or the other of them is rarely out of the record books as the most recorded artist in the world. The sisters were born into a theatrical family. Lata and the older of the two, talks about her childhood and career for the programme. She was left, at the age of 13, to support the whole family. After much hardship she got her big break and, just as the Hindi film industry was taking off at the end of the 1930s, a star was born. Now in her 80s, despite her fame and fortune, she leads a quiet, simple life and remains unmarried.

Her younger sister Asha, also in her 80s, was far from shy and retiring. Teenage elopement, affairs and divorce make her the dangerous half of the duo. She too made it to the top.

Everyone who is anyone in Bollywood has worked with or is familiar with the sisters' work.

Picture: Lata Mangeshkar (right) and her sister Asha Bhosle (left), Credit: Strdel/AFP/Getty Images

Yasmin Alibhai-Brown presents the remarkable story of two sisters revered by Bollywood...

Yasmin Alibhai-Brown presents the remarkable story of two sisters revered by Bollywood fans, Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle.

No Destination2014071220140713 (WS)

Satish Kumar relives his 8000 mile walk for world peace, from New Delhi to Washington DC

Fifty years ago, at the height of the Cold War and at the time of increasing tensions between East and West, Satish Kumar hit headlines around the world when he walked 8000 miles from New Delhi to Moscow, then on to Paris, London and Washington DC delivering packets of 'peace tea' to the leaders of the world's four nuclear powers.

Satish Kumar relives his extraordinary journey - made without any money - that took him from the grave of Mahatma Gandhi to the grave of John F Kennedy. Along the way, he was thrown into jail and faced a loaded gun - as well as meeting some of the most remarkable people of the 20th Century.

In 1973 he settled in England, and became editor of Resurgence magazine, becoming the guiding light behind a number of ecological, spiritual and educational ventures.

Poet Lemn Sissay reads extracts from No Destination: Autobiography of a Pilgrim by Satish Kumar. He describes it as "One of the few life-changing books I have ever read".

Presenter: Satish Kumar

Producer: Shelley Williams for Reel Soul Movies

Photo: Satish Kumar (right) and colleague, EP Menon in England, 1963, courtesy of Peace News

Notes From Kampala2013121420131215 (WS)
20131217 (WS)

The Ugandan classical music school where no one with ability is turned away

‘Because of singing, I am living’. Kampala Music School began life in 2001 in the basement of the YMCA giving music lessons to a handful of pupils. Twelve years later, it has moved into its own new premises and has become the international centre of musical excellence in Uganda – and taught music to more than 2,000 pupils. Some former students have gone on to study at international music schools and are now forging their own careers as fully fledged classical musicians.

This year sees a new director of music, Kiggundu Frederick Musoke – himself a former star pupil. Sarah Taylor meets the staff and pupils of KMS to hear about this centre of musical excellence. KMS has become a lifeline to many where music can be enjoyed alongside friendship, where many pupils come from the backdrop of a fairly bleak existence And no one is turned away through lack of ability to pay.

Not only do pupils leave with a life skill but many go on to become music teachers in international schools throughout East Africa. Such is the pupils ability and enthusiasm, the Associated Board of Music, now send an examiner for an entire week to cope with the volume of students taking grades 1 – 8 on their instruments.

O' Say Can You See?20141119

How Francis Scott Key came to write The Star-Spangled Banner, the US national anthem

The Star-Spangled Banner is embedded in American national identity and yet it only became the official national anthem in 1931. Erica Wagner returns to its origins, almost exactly two centuries ago at the Battle of Baltimore in 1814, a decisive moment in the Second War of American Independence, to find out how Francis Scott Key came to write these lyrics about the American flag. She speaks to the acclaimed American poet Mary Jo Salter about the merit of the lyrics, and to the musicologist David Hildebrand about how the music changed over time to become the anthem we know today.

Central to the appeal of The Star-Spangled Banner is the reverence – what some term the religiosity - which the United States has for its flag. Through insights from Annin Flagmakers, the oldest surviving flagmaking company founded in 1847, and Marc Leepson, author of biographies of both Francis Scott Key and the American flag, Erica unpicks this unique relationship - something she is always aware of whenever she returns to the United States - and examines the positive and negative responses to the anthem.

With music by Whitney Houston, Beyonce Knowles and, of course, Jimi Hendrix.

(Photo: Department of Homeland Security employees stand for the singing of the national anthem. Credit: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

Open Eye: Crying Meri2014072620140727 (WS)

How men are getting way with murder and violence against women in Papua New Guinea

***WARNING: This programme includes graphic descriptions of sexual violence***

'A humanitarian crisis', that's how the medical charity Medicins Sans Frontiers describes the levels of violence against women they are dealing with in Papua New Guinea - levels they say they usually only witness in war-zones. It is a shocking and under-reported situation that the Russian photojournalist Vlad Sokhin has been documenting for the last three years.

Sokhin takes us on a journey from the remote PNG highlands to the capital Port Moresby. Along the way, he hears the untold stories of women subjected to some of the most extreme violence perpetrated anywhere on earth, including the brutal torture of women accused of witchcraft. Sokhin is given rare access to Haus Ruth, one of only a handful of women's refuges in PNG, as well as also hearing from women risking their lives by taking a stand against the violence.

Perhaps most distubingly Sokhin talks to men who are quite open about having taken part in gang rapes and murders - exposing a criminal justice sytem that is failing women at the most basic level. It is a sobering but unforgettable journey that brings Vlad face-to-face with the truth that in Papua New Guinea men can and do get away with murder.

Orania2014100720141008 (WS)
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Marking 20 years after the end of apartheid, BBC reporter Stanley Kwenda travels to Orania in South Africa to find out why Afrikaners in this remote town choose to live apart from other communities.

Stanley hears how Orania started life as a government construction camp for people working on a dam nearby. It was bought in 1991 by a group of Afrikaners who believed they were marginalised in post-apartheid South Africa and wanted their homeland to preserve their culture. However, Orania has close links to the family of Hendrik Verwoerd – the man who introduced apartheid – and, as a consequence, the town is now seen by many as a final outpost of apartheid.

Stanley Kwenda talks to some of Orania’s residents, including Carel Boshoff – the son of Orania’s founder – who claims that the community is simply looking after its people and interests. As a black Zimbabwean, Stanley explores whether the people of Orania are clinging to a racist past – or whether it is a close-knit community that just happens to be white.

(Photo: Orania town's logo of a boy rolling up his sleeves flanked by statues of apartheid heroes displayed above the town of Orania, South Africa. Credit: Stephane De Sakutin/AFP/Getty Images)

Twenty years after the end of apartheid, Stanley Kwenda visits Orania in South Africa t...

Twenty years after the end of apartheid, Stanley Kwenda visits Orania in South Africa to explore why it's a whites-only town.

Our Missing Girls2014051420140515 (WS)
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What does the story of Nigeria's missing girls mean for the government - and Boko Haram?

Finding Nigeria's missing girls has become a global cause with a massive online campaign #BringBackOurGirls. Presidents and prime ministers have joined parents in calling for their release. In Our Missing Girls Nkem Ifejika tells the dramatic story of their disappearance and examines what it means for the government of Africa's most populous nation and its nemesis, Boko Haram.

(Photo: A woman holds a sign that says 'Bring Back Our Girls', Credit: Dan Kitwood/Getty Images)

Mehmet Ergen, Artistic Director of London’s Arcola Theatre, returns to his homeland to...

Mehmet Ergen, Artistic Director of London’s Arcola Theatre, returns to his homeland to lift the curtain on Turkish theatre.

Poetry Idol2014082720140828 (WS)
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Poetry has always had an essential role to play in Arab literature, and the tradition is thriving in unexpected ways. Shahidha Bari travels to Abu Dhabi to join the audience of 'Million's Poet', a massive televised competition to find the best poet in the Middle East.

Every year this huge contest takes place under the spotlight of the television cameras in Abu Dhabi. Million's Poet is broadcast live across the Middle East and has a huge following, with judges and viewers both having the chance to vote for their favourite poet. There's plenty at stake, as the top prize is an eye-watering five million United Arab Emirate dirhams, a figure getting close to one million pounds.

So how did this TV contest get started, and why do people tune in to hear poets reading their work? It's not the sort of show that would be likely to take off in the West. Shahidha Bari talks to judges, competitors, and the audience to find out the secret of Million Poet's success.

Poetry, she finds, has a particular role in the Middle East as a valued artform in a changing world: an outlet for expression for anyone from the ruler to the doorman, all of whom are free to enter Million's Poet.

Picture: Presenter Shahidha Bari on the set of Million's Poet

Shahidha Bari travels to Abu Dhabi to see 'Million's Poet', a televised competition to...

Shahidha Bari travels to Abu Dhabi to see 'Million's Poet', a televised competition to find the best poet in the Middle East.

Politics At The Polling Station20141028

How changes in voting laws are affecting demoracy in the US

Over the last two decades the controversy over voting rights in the US has become increasingly bitter and polarised along party lines. This process has intensified since 2013 when the Supreme Court overturned important parts of the Voting Rights Act. North Carolina is one key location for these crucially important disputes. It has seen one of the furthest-reaching packages of voting reform of any state and is now in the midst of one of the closest election campaigns this year.

Rajini Vaidyanathan travels across Carolina and hears from those who argue that a concerted campaign is under way to deprive liberal-leaning groups access to the ballot. And she speaks to those responsible for the legislation who insist that they are trying to stop voter fraud and ensure the sanctity of the ballot.

Rajini looks at a number of states where political control has alternated over the last 20 years, and voting law with it, as Democrats pass laws which make it easier to vote – typically benefiting groups which vote for them – and Republicans often do the opposite. She asks what this is doing to American democracy.

(Photo: Voting in North Carolina, Credit: Sara D. Davis/Getty Images)

Pomp And Matrimony20110417

To celebrate the marriage of Prince William to Kate Middleton, we look back through the archive of British Royal weddings.

From the news coverage of the 1923 wedding of the future King George VI to Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, to the moment Lady Diana Spencer stepped out of the glass coach in *that* dress, we look back to the glamour, the gossip, the spectacle and the romance.

A look back through the archive of British Royal weddings

Poor Reporting2012112020121121 (WS)

What does it take to get people in the rich world engaged in the issue of global poverty?

What does it take to get people in the rich world engaged in the issue of global poverty? How can you avoid cliché, sentimentality and callousness? What stops people turning off? Nick Fraser, editor of the BBC’s TV documentary series Storyville, reflects on the difficulties of selling a series on poverty.

Fraser goes to New York to meet an extreme example of his audience, circulating among some of the wealthiest people on the planet, as they meet to discuss the war on want and attempt to address the world’s ills.

Is poverty something the global rich care about or will watching a tear-jerking documentary simply salve their conscience as they plan their next holiday? And what part should the media play: reporting on things as they are or campaigning for how they should be?

(Image: A woman with a baby on her back and a child to her side, Credit: Getty Images)

Preparing For Disaster2014041520140416 (WS)
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Lu Olkowski reports from New York about the growing 'prepper' movement in the city. Preppers are people who are fearful of the future and who are preparing for the next disaster. The city has already experienced natural calamities such as Hurricane Sandy and has suffered devastating terrorist attacks.

Preppers, who operate as individuals or in small organised groups, are convinced another disaster will strike the city soon and refuse to believe that the government will do enough to protect them. They train in self-defence and plan ways to escape the city in the event of emergency. They store food and water in their houses and have 'bug out' bags ready at a moments notice if they have to flee.

Lu Olkowski talks to a number of New York preppers and listens to their concerns and plans for the future. She finds out what they are particularly worried about – everything from a nuclear explosion to economic collapse and another major storm. She hears about their plans of escape and the variety of objects they have secured for their survival – everything from decades' worth of dried food to hoards of silver coins for possible barter after the natural order breaks down. She watches on as they prepare their defence.

Are these people simply paranoid and easily influenced by the wild imaginings of Hollywood disaster films? Or do they have genuine concerns that all of us who live in cities should take heed of?

(Photo: Jay Blevins walks to his backyard with a bug out bag, a quick grab bag with about 40lb of survival gear, including a Katana sword. Credit: Brendan Smialowski/ AFP/Getty Images)

Meet the 'Preppers', people who are fearful of the future and preparing for disaster

Riding The Graphene Wave20131231

A super-strong and super-conductive wonder material, what can graphene do?

Gerry Northam looks at its move from the lab to the commercial world. Construction work is underway to build a world-class laboratory at Manchester University - at the cost of £61 million - but the National Graphene Institute aims to be the world's leading centre of graphene research and commercialisation.

Graphene is super-strong and super-conductive – it's often called a 'wonder material' and it was invented in Manchester by Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov, who won a Nobel prize for their work. The city takes great pride in the discovery, seeing a direct line of descent from its legacy of industrial invention and has awarded the two scientists the freedom of the city in recognition of their work.

In Riding the Graphene Wave, Gerry Northam finds out how the the UK is competing in the global market as Korea, China and the USA pour money into the patenting and commercialisation of Manchester's magic material. What will it take for graphene to move out of the laboratory and into the commercial world?

Investors are running the numbers to work out which applications are most ready for go-to-market products, and which countries are making fastest progress in finding ways to manufacturer graphene. Can graphene to give the UK a significant role in 21st century global economy?

Picture: Graphene sheet, Credit: Science Photo Library

Rouhani’s First 100 Days20131108

Is Iran at a turning point following the election of the new President, Hassan Rouhani? Within days of coming to power, he promised a new approach to domestic and international affairs - a new policy of openness on the country’s nuclear programme, to release political prisoners, get economic sanctions lifted and pursue a less confrontational policy with the West.

For some it was a welcome new dawn. For others, like Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Rouhani is a wolf in sheep’s clothing – out to deceive the West until Iran becomes too powerful to stop.

Pooneh Ghoddoosi of the BBC’s Persian TV service looks back at President Rouhani’s first 100 days in office. She brings together a select group of Iran watchers to ask whether things in their country are genuinely changing.

(Photo: Hassan Rouhani. Credit: Ta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images)

How much change has Iranian President Hassan Rouhani achieved in 100 days?

Securing The Games20120723

Gordon Corera talks to the people ensuring the safety of the Olympic Games.

BBC Security Correspondent Gordon Corera talks to the people behind the largest security operation in peacetime, designed to ensure the Olympic Games go ahead without interruption.

This is the first time the games have been held in a 'high threat' environment, presenting unprecedented challenges to the police and intelligence services.

The cost of security is in the region of one billion pounds, covering the police, the army and private security contractors.

As well as the threat of a so-called spectacular attack linked to either al-Qaeda or dissident Irish groups, there are also concerns over public protest, serious organised crime and hoaxes.

There will be 10,000 police officers on duty at the Games, in addition to 10,000 on duty for the rest of London.

A further 13,000 private security officers will also be deployed.

Security checks are going to be as stringent as those at airports: every bag will be X-rayed and there will be a ban on umbrellas, horns, whistles, drums and any other device which might be considered disruptive.

The police, the army and the security services have been carrying out high-profile exercises over the months leading up to the games, acting out scenarios on the London Underground and preparing for operations over London's skies.

The greatest fear is another event like Munich in 1972, when members of the Palestinian group Black September killed nine Israeli athletes.

Recent events have also highlighted the threat of civil disobedience and lone protestors, determined to disrupt individual events.

The main Olympic site in Stratford is problematic in itself: intelligence sources say that if you were to ask MI5 to draw a heat map of terrorist suspects one of the hottest patches would be around the East London area - right by the Olympic site.

The BBC's Security Correspondent Gordon Corera draws on exclusive access and interviews with those charged with making sure the games run smoothly.

Producer: Mark Savage

(Image: A security guard stands out side the Olympic Stadium at Olympic Park in Stratford, London, England. Credit: Photo by Michael Regan/Getty Images)

Studio In The Sand2013032620130327 (WS)
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Foreign correspondent and music journalist Robin Denselow travels to the refugee camps of the Saharawi people in Algeria, who were displaced from Western Sahara following land dispute war with Morocco.

The Saharawi have been living in the camps for 20 years, with their young people knowing nothing except life in the camps, where there is little chance of employment or escape. The music of the Saharawi is not as well known as that of neighbouring Mali, but is a powerful expression of their culture, and their desire to return home to the land from which they were displaced, a land whose landscapes and animals many younger Saharawi have never seen and can only dream about in the lyrics and chords of their music. The Saharawi are Muslim, but unlike other parts of the region, here the women play lead role in politics and music. The Saharawi camps form a state-within-a-state, and their government, the Polisario, has set up Ministries in the camps themselves.

Robin speaks to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Culture in the camps about the forgotten struggle of the Saharawi whose plight has vanished off the international agenda, and about the role that their music can play to carry the story of their struggle, as well as the haunting energy of their music, to an international audience. Sandblast is a charity run by Danielle Smith with a group of British sound engineers who are setting up recording studios within the refugee camps in order to train musicians in how to produce recorded music which can then be exported to an audience which would otherwise never get to hear its very particular note. Robin follows this initiative as the first trainees learn the ropes in the studio in the sand, speaking to trainers and new recruits and hearing electrifying first concert.

(Image: A man walks across a desert, Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Robin Denselow hears the music of Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria, and efforts to bri...

Robin Denselow hears the music of Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria, and efforts to bring their plight to the world’s attention.

Swimming With Piranhas2012082820120829 (WS)

Mike Greenwood reports from Paraguay on the battle for one of the last wildernesses.

Mike Greenwood journeys into one of the world's final frontiers, the Chaco in Paraguay, to uncover how environmental groups, ranchers and missionaries are battling for the soul of one of the last wildernesses.

The Chaco is now being deforested and turned into cattle pasture at a rate equivalent to 2,500 football pitches every day.

Against the backdrop of the impeachment of President Lugo, Mike meets German-speaking Mennonites thriving in the Chaco, environmental campaigners, indigenous people fighting to survive in their ancestral land and pro-development ranchers who argue conservation is a luxury Paraguay cannot afford.

The Chaco is a meeting point for several major habitats, including lowland rainforest, grassland, wetlands, dry and humid forest ecosystems.

It is also one of the last places on earth where un-contacted peoples live.

Some scientists believe these lesser-known habitats are more threatened than rainforest regions such as the Amazon.

Paraguay's Chaco grasslands are particularly at risk because they easily convert to cattle pasture.

This is the closest most of us will get to the 'wild west'.

A 21st Century frontier country in which a battle for the socio-economic and spiritual soul of a hitherto little explored region is being fought.

(Image: Piranha fish)

Swinging Addis2014050720140508 (WS)
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In the 1960s and early '70s, unknown to most of the outside world, Addis Ababa's nightlife was electrified by a blend of traditional folk music, jazz, swing, rhythm and blues. Clubs were full, dance floors packed with young people moved by the music of a new generation of Ethiopian pop stars who were inspired by Elvis and James Brown, but gave their sound a unique twist.

"There is Swinging Addis just like there is Swinging London, bell-bottom trousers, mini skirts..."

In Addis Ababa, Courtney Pine meets some of the veterans of the Swinging Addis golden age of Ethiopian jazz, including Mahmoud Ahmed and Alemayehu Eshete - the 'Ethiopian Elvis'. These Ethiopian heroes, now in their 70s, are like the Buena Vista Social Club stars of their country.

Courtney speaks to the legendary Ethiopian music producer Amha Eshete, while his guide on his musical journey of discovery is Francis Falceto, the French music producer who 'rediscovered' these artists and brought their music to the West, and has now compiled 30 albums in the Ethiopiques series. Courtney finds Addis Ababa is still swinging, and meets one of the new generation of Ethiopian jazz musicians who are picking up the beat, the young pianist Samuel Yirga, to jam Ethiopian style.

The story began in 1896, following Ethiopia's victory against the invading Italians at the Battle of Adwa, when the Russian tsar Nicolas II sent Emperor Menelik 40 brass instruments. Brass became the imperial music – and that influence planted a seed.

Then, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1924, the prince who would become Emperor Haile Selassie, met a marching band of young Armenians orphaned in the recent Ottoman massacres. He shipped the 'Arba Lijoch' ('Forty Kids') back to Addis Ababa and installed them as the imperial band. The emperor's new big band ensembles proved to be incubators for the stars of a new sound craved by a young generation demanding musical – as well as social and political - change.

In 1969, a 26-year-old music producer called Amha Eshete defied an imperial decree giving the state a monopoly over the reproduction of music to release Ethiopia's first-ever independent record with Alemayehu Eshete. When the pair played it on a loudspeaker from Amha's music shop, the young people dancing in the street stopped the traffic. The rest was history.

Picture: Courtney Pine, Credit: BBCPicture: Courtney Pine, Credit: BBC

Courtney Pine travels to Ethiopia to discover the vibrant music scene of the 1960s

Syria: The Road To Justice2012072520120726 (WS)

The mass killings of civilians in Houla immediately led to calls for the ICC to investigate and for those responsible to be held to account. But in cases like this, how likely is it that international justice will eventually be done?

Currently all three possible avenues for an ICC investigation appear closed: The Syrian government will not voluntarily refer itself to the Court. The Court has no jurisdiction to commence an investigation on its own initiative because Syria is not a party to ICC. And the final avenue – for the Security Council to refer the situation to the ICC – is also closed because Russia and China oppose it.

So what hope is there of justice in the future?

As a new Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda begins her term, we review the state of the court, ask whether current flaws can be overcome, and look at prospects for future international justice in situations like Houla.

The mass killings in Houla led to international outcry but what hope is there for justice?

Tehrangeles2012112720121128 (WS)

The largest Iranian community outside Iran can be found in LA. What's its story?

The largest Iranian community outside Iran can be found in the heart of LA. What is that diaspora's story?

Iranian stand-up comedian and actor Maz Jobrani begins his journey on Westwood Boulevard, a street lined with Iranian stores, restaurants, beauty salons, cafes and businesses, where everyone speaks Farsi and all the shop signs are in Persian.

People such as bookshop owner Bijan Khalili tell the story of how and why the LA community became such a draw for hundreds of thousands of Iranians, which now comprise 22% of the population of 'Tehrangeles'.

How, against the backdrop of 32 years of hostility between America and Iran since the 1979 US hostage crisis, have they succeeded in making their mark?

(Image: A street sign that says 'Persian Square', Credit: Getty Images)

The Battle For Egypt20120229

A year after President Mubarak of Egypt was brought down by 18 days of street protest, the army, then hailed as heroes for defending the revolution, are now seen by many as villains.

Despite almost daily street protests calling on them to step down, the generals are still running the country.

They say they'll handover power once a new president has been elected in the summer.

When they do hand over it will be to a government that's likely to be dominated by Islamists, who won around 70% of the seats in parliament in recent elections.

The young activists who drove the revolution find themselves on the political fringes, with only a handful of seats in parliament and lacking a unified organisation.

Magdi Abdelhadi - who reported from Cairo during the final tumultuous days of President Mubarak's 30-year rule - returns to assess who's winning the struggle in a three-way battle for power in Egypt between the army, the Islamists and the revolutionaries.

Interviewees include: Shady El Ghazaly Harb, one of the revolutionaries; Mohamed Ghozlan, spokesman for the Muslim Brotherhood; former military intelligence officer General Sameh Seif Al-Yazal; historian Khamal Famy; Julie Hughes of the National Democratic Institute.

The producer is Tim Mansel.

(Image: Magdi Abdelhadi in Egypt)

A year after the fall of President Mubarak of Egypt, what happened to the revolution?

The Black Liberace2014091720140918 (WS)
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The legacy of the great New Orleans piano player James Booker - aka the Black Liberace

New Orleans pianist Dr John once called Booker "the best black, gay, junkie piano player New Orleans has ever produced", but he remains little remembered outside his home city. Classically trained in piano and a child prodigy, Booker had his first hit record as a teenager, toured with the likes of Ray Charles and Aretha Franklin and played on sessions with Fats Domino and Little Richard. But it was as a solo performer that he really came into his own.

When record producer Joe Boyd met Booker at a session in the 1970s he recognised his technical virtuosity and potential to captivate an audience. He asked Booker if he'd like to record an album on his own, without a band. The pianist was cautious, but eventually agreed to record Junco Partner on one condition - he had a candelabra on the piano. The reason, he said, "cos I'm the Black Liberace baby!"

Liberace may have been one of his idols, but Booker's styles were wide and varied. He not only mastered but also transformed the New Orleans piano style mixing Chopin, Liszt and Rachmaninoff with jazz, blues, stride, gospel and boogie-woogie. He played like he had four hands and made the piano sound like a whole band. But, gay at a time when homosexuality was a huge taboo and black in a divided America, Booker died alone, aged 43, after a life of drug and alcohol abuse.

Featuring interviews with Dr John who was taught by Booker, and New Orleans pianist Allen Toussaint, as well as Booker's manager John Parsons and producer Scott Billington.

The Bucket List2013101420131019 (WS)

What cancer-fighting BBC correspondent Helen Fawkes wants to do before she dies

Ten years ago, faced with ovarian cancer, Helen Fawkes wrote a list. Having beaten the cancer she set about ticking things off her list and became a BBC foreign correspondent. In late 2012 she was told the cancer was back and it was incurable.

Helen now has a new 'list for living' or a bucket list: 50 things that she wants to see or do before she dies. In this documentary for BBC World Service Helen explores why she wrote her list, through conversations with spiritual advisors, therapists and other bucket-listers.

In some parts of the world, people would never consider writing such a thing. Helen talks to Dr Rajagopal who works with the dying in Kerala, India, and Amos Yeung, a young artist in Hong Kong. Amos created a public art project which encouraged people to complete the following sentence, 'While I'm living I want to...'. Why was it not called 'Before I die I want to...' as other similar projects have?

Bronnie Ware is a nurse from Australia who wrote a book: The Top Five Regrets of the Dying. She tells Helen what the patients she had worked with wished they had done differently. If a bucket list is merely a list of experiences and places to visit, are we missing something obvious?

Susan Spencer-Wendel, Mum of three, was diagnosed with incurable ALS, a muscle-wasting disease in her early 40s. She decided to spend her last year of health, living with joy. Together with her husband John, they share what they learnt from the trips and experiences she undertook.

Helen doesn't like the term bucket list; hers is a 'list for living. By sharing her list and asking others about theirs, Helen considers what people want to grab from life when faced with death.

Cancer-fighting BBC foreign correspondent Helen Fawkes shares her list of things she wa...

Cancer-fighting BBC foreign correspondent Helen Fawkes shares her list of things she wants to do before she dies.

The Congress And The Commander In Chief20130907

As the US Congress prepares to vote on whether to take military action against Syria, the BBC World Service explores how the US has taken similar decisions in the past – and how that might shape the decisions of the present. Claire Bolderson delves into the history of tension over the issue between the White House and Capitol Hill.

The US Constitution deliberately split responsibility, making the President the Commander-in-Chief, while giving Congress the power to declare war. The strain peaked during the Vietnam War, leading to Congress passing the War Powers Act, which was meant to restrain presidential action. But often the executive has simply ignored the legislature, arguing that action was necessary on the grounds of immediate self-defence.

Now President Obama seems to be setting a precedent by asking Congress to debate and vote in advance of action. How will this action be judged against 200 years of America deciding between peace and war?

Picture: Storm clouds fill the sky over the US Capitol Building, Credit: Mark Wilson/Getty Images

The Father Of English Football20131126

How decisions noted by Ebenezer Morley in 1863 allowed football to become so successful

A historic series of meetings happened in London 150 years ago which led to the modern game of football. This was a time when each English football team played by different rules, and the aim of the meetings was to create a standard code. The first, on 6 October 1863, founded the Football Association, and over the course of six dramatic meetings between October and December the rules were simplified, allowing today’s game to develop. Any football team from anywhere in the world now plays by the same rulebook. The prime mover was Ebenezer Morley, and Hardeep Singh Kohli traces the story of the man who became known as the father of English football. At each meeting Ebenezer Morley noted down the decisions and arguments in a notebook, and this Minute Book is now considered one of the most historic documents of the game, valued at £2.5 million.

The arguments were often heated, and ended with a breakaway group dissenting and eventually forming themselves into the Rugby Union. Hardeep talks to Jane Clayton, of the International Football Institute, and visits the FA’s headquarters at Wembley, meeting the FA’s historian David Barber. He talks to David Elleray, Chairman of the FA’s Referees Committee, who is convinced that the decisions taken in 1863 allowed football to become the most successful of international sports, affecting millions of lives. The arguments that led to the modern game are brought to life through dramatised scenes, showing that Ebenezer Morley, thanks to his determination and enthusiasm, turned the original violent and unruly game into the game we know today.

Picture: The Football Association's 1863 minute book (Philip Toscano/PA Wire)

The Forgotten Black Cowboys2013040920130410 (WS)
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How did America's black cowboys get airbrushed out of movies and history books?

Sarfraz Manzoor tells the story of the African American cowboys. How did they get airbr...

Sarfraz Manzoor tells the story of the African American cowboys. How did they get airbrushed out of movies and history books?

The Future Of Women's Football2014090920140910 (WS)
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Could women's football provide a new, more sustainable model to the men's game?

Women's football is one of the world's fastest growing sports, with over 30 million women participating worldwide.

Yvonne Macken reports on the struggle to establish the women’s game and explores what it is about football that can have men and women love it with an equal intensity and, seemingly to some, irrational passion.

With the men's elite game under increased global scrutiny, Yvonne Macken assesses whether women's football could be a lifeline. She hears the experiences of young women from Trinidad and Tobago, Iceland, Brazil, Japan, the UK, the USA and Africa. Dr Samie - an affiliate scholar from the Centre for Sport, Peace and Society - also highlights the interest and challenges for women playing in the Middle East. Meanwhile, sports historian Dr Jean Williams reveals football's ancient roots, and financial analyst Steve Clapham challenges the lack of disclosure in the age of global branded leagues. Has commercialisation taken the league too far from its own grassroots and can you mix profit with passion?

With football organisations globally evolving a sustainable business model for the women's game, and with the 2015 World Cup in their sights, Yvonne asks what strategies will allow young girls the option to choose football as a viable career just like the boys.

Picture: Netherlands' players acknowledge fans at the end of qualifying football match, Credit: Getty Images

The Girls Britain Betrayed2014090720140908 (WS)

The independent inquiry, by Professor Alexis Jay, found that at least 1,400 children were sexually exploited in the northern English town of Rotherham by gangs of men who were predominantly of Pakistani origin between 1997 and 2013. Her report said that girls as young as 11 were raped by "large numbers of male perpetrators". It spoke of the "collective failures" of political, police and social care leadership over the first 12 years the inquiry covered.

The sexual abuse of children is a global concern, but the Rotherham story also contains elements about race, culture, secrecy, policing and public scrutiny and other issues that add to its importance as a story.

How did police, press, politicians and professional agencies fail address the issue, and why was it such a struggle for victims to be heard?

The Great Space Hunt2014062520140626 (WS)
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Last year, an asteroid with the explosive power of 40 nuclear bombs exploded in the sky over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk. No one saw it coming, because it was one of the smaller asteroids, and it was approaching from the wrong direction. Luckily, it exploded high up in the atmosphere, and the only injuries were from the flying glass of thousands of broken windows. If it had exploded lower down, it could have been a different story.

Subsequent research suggested that there are 10 times more asteroids out there like the Chelyabinsk one than we previously thought. Hardly any of them have been found. NASA is trying to find all the big asteroids that could potentially wipe out life on Earth, and is making good progress, but the smaller ones are virtually unknown.

So what is Britain doing about the asteroid threat? At the top of a hill in mid-Wales is an observatory called Spaceguard UK. It’s run by a retired army major called Jay Tate. Despite being officially designated as the National Near Earth Objects Information Centre, it gets no state funding and subsists only from Mr Tate’s pension, and the sales of keyrings and pencils in the gift shop. Mr Tate is one of an army of amateur astronomers who scans the skies looking for asteroids that might come close to Earth. The safety of the Earth is in these amateurs' hands, he says.

One of the most prolific asteroid observers in the world is Peter Birtwhistle, who operates from a hut in his Berkshire garden. He spends over 100 nights a year looking for asteroids, often barely sleeping. When he finds one, he sends his observations to the Minor Planets Centre at Harvard, which logs known asteroids. Despite this, only two incoming asteroids have ever been detected before they arrived. One exploded over the Sudanese desert in 2008; the world got a few hours’ warning because Gareth Williams at the Minor Planets Centre was woken in the night by his dog needing to go outside, and he happened to check his computer.

Jolyon Jenkins speaks to the unsung army of people who are trying to keep us safe from the threat from outer space, and asks whether it’s right that we depend so much on enthusiasts.

Picture: At its peak, 144,000 meteors per hour fell during The Leonids shower of 1966, Credit: Nasa/Getty Images

Jolyon Jenkins speaks to the unsung enthusiasts on a mission to protect us from asteroi...

Jolyon Jenkins speaks to the unsung enthusiasts on a mission to protect us from asteroids that may hit the Earth.

The Hackers2013010120130102 (WS)

Who are hacktivists and what motivates them?

Governments do it, companies do it, criminals do it. But in recent years some of the highest profile computer hacks have come from so-called hacktivist groups. Each week hackers target a new organisation or government website. Many of these hacker activists claim to belong to the amorphous group known as Anonymous or an off-shoot of it. Their aim? To wrest control of the internet from states and big corporations and give it back to the people. Or simply to have fun.

The FBI, the Metropolitan police, the US Senate, Sony, PayPal and Visa have been some of the highest profile victims of the hackers. More often than not the attacks come in the form of DOS, or denial of service, attacks - effectively flooding websites with requests so that they crash. In some cases the hackers have managed to steal personal and financial records from the organisations and then post them online. Sometimes the reason given by the hackers for these attacks is as a response to official actions taken against Wikileaks or attempts by the authorities to close down certain websites, such as free music download sites.

The FBI and police have had some success in tracking down some of the hackers - many of them just teenagers.

In "The Hackers" Simon Cox delves into the strange world of hacktivism, as he tracks down some of these hackers and speaks to those trying to catch them.

(Image: Hands on a keyboard, Credit: Getty Images)

The Halabja Project2012120420121205 (WS)

The scientific investigation into the chemical weapons attack on the Kurdish town Halabja.

In March 1988, Saddam Hussein unleashed the full cruelty of chemical weapons, attacking the rebellious Kurdish town of Halabja. It is estimated that the mustard gas and other chemicals killed at least 5000 civilians. They were hastily buried in mass graves, unidentified and unidentifiable, because of the continued risk of poisoning. There are still traces of mustard gas remaining in cellars in the town, making them inaccessible to this day.

Now a British company is to start a four-year project to excavate Halabja, carrying out DNA tests on those who died in 1988 to identify the remains, find out exactly what killed them and to make the cellars safe. Veteran BBC correspondent John Simpson, who reported from Halabja in 1988, returns with the company to hear their plans and to find out why this is still so necessary in this poisoned town.

Their DNA tests may reveal whether indeed the precursor chemicals for the mustard gas used in 1988 was, as is believed, manufactured by a German company. Saddam Hussein's mustard gas was unique, with a particular binding chemical agent not used anywhere else. No proper tests have been carried out until now to identify the particular gas used in the attack.

John will report on the science of the DNA and chemical/biological gas tests, investigates the role of Germany in providing the chemicals, and centrally hears the heart-wrenching stories of survivors wanting to locate the bodies of their relatives, a quarter of a century on.

The Left To Die Boat2012102720121028 (WS)

The tragic story of African migrants who fled fighting in Libya on an inflatable boat.

In March last year, 72 African migrants were forced onto an inflatable boat by Libyan soldiers in Tripoli. They were desperate to escape the fighting in Libya and hoping for a new life in Europe. Their boat headed for the small Italian island of Lampedusa, only 18 hours away across the Mediterranean.

There was a Nato naval blockade of Libya at the time and the area was full of military ships and aircraft. Yet, despite a number of sightings, the boat was never rescued.

Fifteen days later it washed up back on Libya's coast with only 11 survivors on board – two more died soon after.

In this documentary the survivors tell their story to producer Sharon Davis and she investigates how it was that these people were left to die in a boat in one of the most heavily-monitored seas on earth.

The tragic story of migrants who fled fighting in Libya by taking a boat across the Mediterranean, hoping to reach Italy.

The Lost Legacy Of Little Miss Cornshucks2014092420140925 (WS)
20140927 (WS)

In the late 1930s a young Mildred Cummings from Dayton, Ohio is barefoot, standing in the spotlight on stage, wearing that same old shabby dress and a broken straw hat. This is Little Miss Cornshucks and she has the audience in the palm of her hand, a unique act and larger than life personality. By the 1940's she made top-billing at nightclubs across America, performing heartbreaking ballads. But who remembers her now?

Author and poet Salena Godden travels to downtown Chicago in search of the missing legacy of Little Miss Cornshucks, the best blues singer you never heard. She meets unofficial biographer Barry Mazor, who spent years tracing her tale. Ninety-eight-year-old former dancer Lester Goodman remembers the 'black and tan' nightspots that Cornshucks commanded, now long gone. And, taking a road trip on Route 65 to Indianapolis, Salena visits the home of Mildred's family, her daughter Francey and grand-daughter Tonya, filled with pictures, music and memories.

Why did this unique voice, that could so easily lift or reduce an audience to laughter and tears, die in complete obscurity, with her influence unmarked and unrecognised?

The song 'Try A Little Tenderness' became a powerhouse hit for both Aretha Franklin and Otis Redding. Salena invites us to take a moment to listen back to the inimitable Little Miss Cornshucks earlier version, to make the case for a lost legend of blues.

(Photo: Mildred Cummings aka Little Miss Cornshucks, courtesy of Cornshuck's family)

The story of the unique 1940's singer Little Miss Cornshucks and her lost legacy

The Man Who Went Looking For Freedom20140511

In 1983, Ion Bugan made a personal demonstration against the system in Romania in the midst of food shortages, electricity rationing, and surveillance of ordinary people by the secret police. He was jailed immediately. From then, until the day they left for America six years later, his family were followed by secret police wherever they went. Their friends and relatives were intimidated and interrogated.

Now, almost a quarter of a century after they left, the Bugans return to Romania for the first time to retrace Ion’s steps: the jails he was held in, the Securitate HQ where the thousands of files about them are kept, and finally back to their home village.

Presented by Carmen Bugan. Produced by Monica Whitlock.

(Photo: Ion Bugan. By kind permission of Catalin Bugan)

The story of Ion Bugan, who was arrested after demonstrating against the Romanian communist regime under Nicolae Ceausescu.

The Path To English2013012920130130 (WS)
20130202 (WS)

Bobby Friction talks to adults who are learning English from scratch in the UK. Many of them are immigrants or refugees from different communities and countries who arrive with little English and quickly have to adapt.

How do they feel living in a country where they were unable to communicate? How did they deal with everyday situations like getting on a bus, shopping, going to a school or visiting a doctor? And how did they learn English - both formally and informally? We find a network of unofficial 'translators' in operation helping people get by. We speak to people who have been here for over 40 years as well as those who have recently arrived.

What English course provisions are there for people eager to enhance their language skills? We discover the challenges in funding English courses. And how is the necessity of learning English for the citizenship test changing the experience of people arriving in the UK?

Bobby visits the Sparkhill Adult Education Centre in Birmingham and speaks to teachers and pupils learning English through ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages). He also discovers a community on the Soho Road in Birmingham which exists perfectly happily, running businesses and contributing to society while speaking very little English.

We visit the Chinese community of Manchester where the women in particular struggle with communication. We also meet a group of Eastern European supermarket distribution workers in Hertfordshire who are being taught English by their employer.

(Image: A picture of a face with labels to aid the learning of English, Credit: AFP/Getty)

Bobby Friction meets adult immigrants and refugees in Britain, who are learning English...

Bobby Friction meets adult immigrants and refugees in Britain, who are learning English from scratch and have to adapt quickly.

The Pink Panthers20131027

The inside story of the world’s most successful gang of jewel thieves

Documentary maker Havana Marking gains extraordinary access to the inner workings of an international criminal group made up of 200 people, who came together out of the chaos and criminality of the Balkan Wars. Nicknamed The Pink Panthers, they are a gang that steals jewels from high end stores all over the world. Their hallmarks are intensive planning and extraordinary speed.

Havana speaks to 'Leila', who would pose as a rich customer to gain access to jewellery shops before the raids. “I was extremely good looking,” she says. Her looks meant she easily got a job in one target shop and gained key information.

Her story is contrasted with that of 'Mike', an expert safe cracker. “Everybody has their specific job to do, understand?” he says, describing how the group became bigger and more ambitious. And, Havana speaks to the police forces who are now working together with increasing effectiveness to foil the Panthers’ crime spree.

The story of the world’s most successful jewel thieves, The Pink Panthers, told in thei...

The story of the world’s most successful jewel thieves, The Pink Panthers, told in their own words.

The Red Cross Crisis20130922

The Red Cross turns 150 this year, but is their humanitarian role still relevant?

The Rhetoric Of Cancer2013111920131123 (WS)
20131124 (WS)

When Andrew Graystone was diagnosed with cancer three years ago, he soon realised that the language commonly employed to approach this disease revolves around military metaphors. He writes: "The language of war dominates cancer discourse, so whether we want to fight or not, people with cancer are conscripted into a battle against the self. Our bodies made into war zones, with cancer as the enemy, medical professionals as infallible heroes, and treatments of search-and-destroy by any means possible."

In an attempt to find language which feels more appropriate for him, Andrew visits the Christie Hospital in Manchester to meet Macmillan consultant in palliative care and oncology Dr Wendy Makin. They discuss the language that clinicians choose and the words that patients bring to the consulting room themselves. Also to Natasha Hill, director of brand and strategic marketing at Cancer Research UK about the rhetoric employed in advertising campaigns. He discusses the language employed at research level with Michael Overduin, professor at the School of Cancer Sciences at Birmingham University. Andrew also meets with Jim Cotter, a priest and writer who has leukaemia. And he shares his findings with theologian Dr Paula Gooder who has a special interest in contemporary beliefs about our relationships with our bodies, illness and death.

Andrew says: "If I battle my cancer I’m putting myself in conflict against myself whereas St Francis of Assisi – who had long-term illness himself – is said to have spoken about viewing his as a 'sister illness' and to have embraced it like a family member. Don’t get me wrong, I don’t want to have cancer, but I warn you that when I die, if any one says that I have lost my battle against cancer, I will personally come back and haunt them.

Andrew Graystone is director of Church and Media Network as well as a prolific writer and presenter for BBC radio.

Are military metaphors such as 'battling' always appropriate when it comes to cancer?

The School To Prison Pipeline20120410

How the heavy hand of the law in some US schools is criminalising the very young.

Hundreds of schools across America have their own police forces.

Armed officers patrol corridors and playgrounds to keep order and protect teachers from the violent behaviour of some children.

But there's increasing evidence that their presence is being used to deal with minor misdemeanours in the classroom.

In the past these would have been dealt with by a telling off from the teacher; nowadays it can mean arrest and a criminal record for children as young as twelve years old.

Nina Robinson reports from Texas on how the heavy hand of the law in some US schools in criminalising the very young.

The School To Prison Pipeline20120411

How the heavy hand of the law in some US schools is criminalising the very young.

The School To Prison Pipeline20120414
The Secret History Of Bossa Nova20131112

The musical and political story of bossa nova, the first modern music of Brazil

Forget its low-key, supper club reputation, bossa nova was tied to a political revolution and driven by a sharp and very modern aesthetic. It was born in Rio in the late 1950s as a new music that marked the dawn of a new Brazil - an urban, modernising society, leaving behind its colonial past, open to the future and looking out at the world.

Fusing gorgeous melodies with a harmonic language inspired by the French impressionist composers (bossa writers like Antonio Carlos Jobim and Marcus Valle studied Debussy and Ravel closely) and a cosmopolitan sensibility, bossa nova became the music of choice for a smart, young, urban Brazilian middle class, who were flooding into the cities as the Brazilian economy boomed.

By the mid 1960s it became hugely influential in America and around the world. But just as bossa became global and The Girl from Ipanema reached the top of the American charts, the scene was shaken to its core in Brazil, with the deposal of the left-wing civilian government by a military coup, backed by the United States. At first censorship was light but by 1968 the junta had drifted into open repression and many musicians were arrested or exiled. Bossa nova - its serenity and preoccupation with sun, the sea and love - suddenly seemed out of touch with these darker times.

Presenter Monica Vasconcelos, herself a bossa singer, travels to Rio to meet musicians that were part of the original bossa scene - Joyce and Marcus Valle, Eumir Deodato and music writer Ruy Castro.

Picture: Rio beach in the 1950s, Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Singer Monica Vasconcelos tells the musical and political story of bossa nova, the first modern music of Brazil.

The Siege Of Dien Bien Phu2014050320140504 (WS)

A turning point that lost France Indochina and won Vietnam for Ho Chi Minh

After the humiliations of World War II, France was insistent on reasserting itself as a world power. In their Vietnamese colony the nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh were just as determined to gain independence.

The showdown to a seven-year guerrilla war came in 1954 at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Survivors, politicians and historians explain how the horrors of a 56-day siege ended with the French garrison being virtually wiped out. In Paris desperate politicians even considered using American atomic weapons to try to save Dien Bien Phu.

Julian Jackson, professor of Modern French History recounts how French soldiers lost an empire in the mountains of Vietnam and how 60 years later the defeat still resonates in contemporary France. For the other European powers it marked the beginning of the end for their colonies in Africa and the Far East. Dien Bien Phu was the first time an indigenous force had defeated a modern well-equipped army. The lessons were not lost on rebels from Kenya to Malaya.

It also had profound implications for the onset of the Cold War. In Washington the battle led to President Eisenhower's first articulation of the domino theory about the possible expansion of Communism. For Moscow and Beijing, Dien Bien Phu represented a great leap forward. For the US the political vacuum left by the French abandonment of Indochina was to lead to their own ten-year war in Vietnam.

Picture: Captured French soldiers escorted by Vietnamese soldiers, walking to a prisoner camp in Dien Bien Phu in 1954, Credit:AFP/Getty

The Singing Fish Of Batticaloa2014100120141002 (WS)
20141004 (WS)

Since the 18th Century, Tamil fishermen have claimed to navigate by the mysterious music of the singing fish of the Batticaloa lagoon in eastern Sri Lanka. The fishermen's ancient name for the creature is Oorie Coolooroo Cradoo (crying shells); scientists believe that the underwater choristers are some kind of fish. But, after 30 years of civil war and the ravages of the tsunami, does any evidence of this strange nocturnal chorus remain?

Restrictions and curfews made it impossible to visit the lagoon at night and locals, suffering the loss and deprivation of a bitter conflict, had other priorities. The people of Batticaloa became disconnected from this ancient cultural symbol. Very few have heard the aquatic music, and many believe it's a myth.

But for Father Lorio, a Jesuit priest present at one of the earliest recordings of the phenomenon made using a homemade hyrdophone in the 1950s, the singing fish are the soundtrack to 60 years of profound turmoil and change he has witnessed in the region. And, for Prince Casinader, a Tamil journalist in his eighties, there is the belief that they could bring a sense of community and hope to his hometown.

Now a group of young Tamil scientists have joined the effort to rediscover this lost symbol. Guided by local fishermen, they embark on an unusual odyssey into the muddy lagoon to capture a new recording and establish if this elusive watery wonder has survived to enchant another generation with its song.

(Photo: A Sri Lankan fisherman throws his net into a lagoon off Batticaloa. Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Fishermen, scientists, a journalist and a Jesuit priest embark on an unusual odyssey to...

Fishermen, scientists, a journalist and a Jesuit priest embark on an unusual odyssey to find Sri Lanka's elusive watery wonder.

The Songs Of Comrade Time20111225

Monica Whitlock goes in search of The Children's Choir of the USSR.

The Children's Choir of the USSR sang to their leaders, they sang to their people, and through their songs projected a bright, happy dream of the Soviet Union to the furthest reaches of the Red Empire.

Beautiful children and beautiful voices singing sad Russian songs, Soviet fairy tales of progress and hope, and ballads of loss and love from the Great Patriotic War.

They could be heard and seen at great state occasions or providing the soundtrack for numerous Soviet cartoons.

In doing so, their music shaped an entire generation's childhood - all under the direction of the forceful Victor Popov.

Then, in 1991, the world they had sung about ceased to exist and the Soviet Union passed into memory.

The Story Of The Hunt For Bin Laden20110814

BBC Security correspondent Gordon Corera tells the untold tale of how the Americans hunted their most wanted man - from the caves of Tora Bora in Afghanistan through to his stronghold in the Pakistani city of Abbottabad.

It proved to be a cat and mouse game between the world's greatest superpower and a relatively small group of militants who showed themselves capable of outwitting the latest technology with barely more than simple cunning and a Kalashnikov.

US Special forces appear to have had Osama Bin Laden within their grasp but then the trail went cold despite a $25m ransom on his head.

Bounty hunters believed they could succeed where the American military failed but fared no better.

Then one of Bin Laden's followers made a fatal mistake - which led the way to Bin Laden's death.

Gordon Corera investigates, with contributions from members of the CIA who followed Bin Laden into the mountains, FBI agents who worked on a legal case, and from General Richard Myers, the former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Gordon Corera tells the story of the search for the world's most wanted terrorist

The Truth About Pope Francis2013041320130414 (WS)

Mark Dowd is in Buenos Aires to find out about Pope Francis’ past, speaking to colleagu...

Mark Dowd is in Buenos Aires to find out about Pope Francis’ past, speaking to colleagues, friends and his sister about him.

The Truth And Nothing But The Truth2013080620130807 (WS)
20130811 (WS)

How Dick Tracy and Wonder Woman have starring roles in the latest lie detecting technology

Dr Geoff Bunn investigates the latest lie-detecting technology with the help of Steven Rose, Emeritus professor of Neuroscience at the Open University, and Geraint Rees, director of the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. He discovers that the early history of the lie detector features a psychologist, William Marston, who went on to create the comic book character Wonder Woman, and an amateur magician, Leonarde Keeler, who was an inspiration for the comic strip hero, Dick Tracy.

He explores the history of the American obsession with lie detection, aided by Ken Alder, professor of History at North Western University, and Garyn Roberts, biographer of Chester Gould - who created Dick Tracy. He also hears from Bruce Burgess, founder of Polygraphs UK.

Dr Bunn is a senior lecturer in psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University, and the author of The Truth Machine: A Social History of the Lie Detector.

(Image: Pulse meters on a man's fingers used for a lie detector or polygraph test. Credit: Science Photo LIbrary)

Dr Geoff Bunn investigates the latest lie detecting technology, and discovers Dick Tracy and Wonder Woman have starring roles.

The War Over Syria20120403

Barbara Plett investigates how the fighting in Syria might reshape the Middle East.

The conflict in Syria is transfixing the Middle East.

But it is transforming it too.

Barbara Plett, the BBC's UN Correspondent, returns to the Middle East to examine how the future of the Assads could also shape the future of the region.

She charts the influence of neighbouring states over the conflict in Syria - with the Gulf States, especially Saudi Arabia and newly assertive Qatar - supporting the rebels.

Turkey, which is fast becoming a regional player, is on this side too, and could become the main conduit for military or logistical support.

Meanwhile Iran and its allied Lebanese force, Hezbollah, is firmly behind The Syrian regime.

And there's likely to be an increasing role for the new Arab democracies.

Barbara investigates how the fighting in Syria might reshape the Middle East.

The War Over Syria20120404

Barbara Plett investigates how the fighting in Syria might reshape the Middle East.

The War Over Syria20120407
The War Widows Of Afghanistan2014072320140724 (WS)
20140726 (WS)

British and Afghan women share their stories of being widowed by the same war

As the deadline for Nato troop withdrawal from Afghanistan approaches, Zarghuna Kargar hears the stories of two British and two Afghan women widowed by the 13-year-war.

Lisa and Jacqui live in Britain, Tajbibe and Marzia live in Afghanistan. Their lives are very different but they have one thing in common - they were all widowed by the same war. Their husbands were among the estimated 13000 Afghan soldiers and 453 British soldiers who have died in the war against the Taliban which began in 2001 and which draws to an official close with the withdrawal of Nato troops from Afghanistan this year.

Zarghuna Kargar hears how the lives of all four women changed the moment they received the news of their husbands' sudden deaths, how they have coped in the aftermath and what they feel about war today.

Picture: Jacqui (left) and Tajbibi (right)

Upsetting The Apple Cart: The Genius Of Steve Jobs20111115

Mark Gregory examines the legacy of Steve Jobs.

Did he invent a new way of doing business?

A US President wouldn't normally give a statement on the death of a businessman.

But then Steve Jobs was no ordinary businessman.

He built a company that is now one of the largest in the world, and persuaded people not only to buy his products, but to love them.

What then is Jobs' legacy?

How will he be compared to the great American entrepreneurs of the past, such as Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie?

Did he invent a new way of running an organisation?

Or was he really just an old-style businessman disguised in a turtle-neck sweater.

Mark Gregory reports.

(Image: A woman holds an apple with a heart and the name of Steve Jobs written on it.

Credit: Reuters)

Upsetting The Apple Cart: The Genius Of Steve Jobs20111116

Mark Gregory examines the legacy of Steve Jobs.

Did he invent a new way of doing business?

Voices From The Ghetto20121229

War, Lies And Audiotape2014082320140824 (WS)

Did President Johnson take his country to war with Vietnam on a lie, or was he misled?

The war between the United States and Vietnam cost over 1 million Vietnamese and 58,000 American lives. It left one country physically devastated and the other socially splintered. It began, President Lyndon Johnson told the world, with an "unprovoked attack" on American ships on the night of August 4, 1964.

What we know today is that the incident that was reported to have taken place in the South China Sea off the coast of Vietnam that night didn't ever happen. Yet three days later it was cited as the justification for the Gulf of Tonkin resolution: it authorised "the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression." The Gulf of Tonkin was the crucial turning point: in 1960 there were 900 American troops in Vietnam; by the end of 1965 there were nearly 200,000. Did President Johnson take his country to war on a lie, or was he misled?

Fifty years on, journalist and historian DD Guttenplan explores these dramatic events through archive recordings and new interviews with the key players, bringing all the evidence together for the first time. A fascinating archive of taped White House phone calls transports us back to that day: we'll listen in on President Johnson as he discusses the situation with Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and hear the situation unfold through conversations between key military personnel.

Daniel Ellsberg remembers being in the Pentagon receiving reports of the incident on the day, and Jim Stockdale tells us his father's story: he was flying above the USS Maddox when the attack supposedly happened. We'll also hear from journalist Leslie Gelb and historians Frances Fitzgerald and Fred Logevall.

Picture: President Lyndon Johnson, Credit: Keystone/Getty Images

Wheel And Come Again: 50 Years Of Jamaican Music2012081820120819 (WS)

Jamaica, the loudest island on the planet, has also produced some of the most daring and innovative music.

It's now 50 years on from Jamaica's independence from Britain and the Afro-Saxons have become Afrocentric.

In Wheel and Come Again, Colin Grant looks at the cycles of Jamaican music that have emerged from the dirt poverty of its ghettoes and the mystical beauty of its hinterland.

Colin charts the evolution of music from the gentle caricature of the Calypsonian-inflected island in the sun to the sexually-charged Dancehall; dropping in on its redemptive golden period along the way.

Finally, Colin shows the power and polarity of Jamaican music: the tension between Bob Marley's One Love and Peter Tosh's rejection of peace because "peace is the diploma you get in the cemetery".

(Image: Colin Grant and Bunny Wailer. Photo by Jasmine Grant)

Colin Grant looks at the cycles of Jamaican music in Wheel and Come Again.

Who's Left Holding The Baby2013122520131228 (WS)
20131229 (WS)

Community childcare or boarding kindergartens? Childcare options in Fiji and China

Like many working mums, Australian broadcaster, Madeleine Morris finds it tough balancing the demands of her job with a desire to be the best possible parent. She takes her daughter, Scarlett, on a journey to find out if there is a better way. In Fiji she finds a whole community getting involved, whilst in China she hears from the parents who leave children as young as three in boarding kindergartens.

Will Carlos Acosta Get To The Pointe2014030820140309 (WS)

Ballet star Carlos Acosta takes on saving an abandoned ballet school in Cuba

A decision by his father to send him to ballet school changed the direction of Carlos Acosta’s life.

Thanks to Fidel Castro’s belief that art should be accessible to all Cubans he received free ballet tuition. It shaped his character, and secured his future. Now he wants to give something back to his country by saving an abandoned ballet school in Havana. Vittorio Garatti’s School of Ballet is an extraordinary labyrinth of corridors, graceful arches and majestic brick and terracotta domes, and has been described as one of the most remarkable buildings of the 20th Century.

But the ballet star’s attempts to restore the building have stirred Latin passions and protest.

In, Will Carlos Acosta Get to the Pointe, Acosta travels back to his native Cuba with producer, Cecile Wright, to report on his bid to save the school, and in exploring the importance of music and dance to Cuba’s national identity, he examines what the fate of the ballet school symbolises about the country’s artistic legacy.

(Photo: Cuban dancer from the UK's Royal Ballet, Carlos Acosta, performs at Garcia Lorca theatre in Havana, 2009. Credit: STR/AFP/Getty Images)

Women Farmers: A Day In The Life Of Polly Apio20131021

In Uganda men own the land but women work in the fields to provide food for the family

Polly Apio is a smallholder farmer in rural Uganda. Almost as soon as she gets up in the morning she starts work and she doesn’t stop until it’s time to go to bed again.

Polly’s life is typical of most women in Uganda, where men own and control the land, but women who toil in the fields to provide the food to feed their families.

Women produce over 50% of all food grown worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, they grow around 90% of the food, yet little global investment is being made to support women farmers. With the help of the charity, Action Aid, Polly has been learning how best to farm her land. It provides training, and advice on things like crop rotation, the best crops to grow in the climate and soil, and money management. In turn, she passes on the training to other women.

Women’s access to land ownership, financial services, education, healthcare and human rights is the key to assuring food security for all, and emboldened by the support of the charity Polly is trying to set up a women’s co-operative to help and support women secure their rights.

Cecile Wright went to Uganda to experience a day in the life of Polly Apio, and to explore the efforts and determination of women in Uganda to take control of their lives.

Women On The Front Line2013102220131023 (WS)
20131027 (WS)

Hear from female soldiers about life for women on the military frontline

Emma Barnett hears from female soldiers in the Canadian and South African armies about life for women on the military frontline.

In early 2013, the United States Secretary of Defence announced that US armed forces would soon open positions to women in ground close combat units - units designed to engage with the enemy.

But in many armies those roles have been open to women for years. In this programme, Emma meets Brenda Hawke, a soldier who has served 16 years in the Canadian infantry, and Ashley Colette, an officer who received one of Canada's highest awards for her leadership of a combat unit in Afghanistan. And she speaks to women from the South African Army who have also served on the front line.

Emma examines which countries in the world do allow women to serve, and contrasts the experiences of these three women to present a picture of life for women on the military front line.

Picture: Ashley Colette on deployment in Afghanistan

Yellow Cab Blues2014070820140709 (WS)
20140713 (WS)

Meet New York's rookie cabbies - fledgling taxi-drivers trying to earn a living in the most stressful city in the world. Most are immigrants, already grappling with the challenges of a new language and a new culture. Now they have to deal with long hours, short fares, and grumpy passengers in the back. Will they make it?

The new drivers come from all over the world. Not long ago they were leading very different lives in Dhaka, Islamabad or Accra, dreaming of a new life in the US. Now they are in an airless basement below a Tibetan restaurant in Queens learning how to avoid traffic tickets and charm passengers into better tips.

And it is tips they need. Most New York cab-drivers lease rather than own a car. Every morning they pick it up and pay a few hundred dollars for the privilege. They work twelve-hour shifts, seven-days a week driving round and round waiting for a hail. On a bad day they wind up with less money than they started.

In this honest, funny feature, Cathy FitzGerald travels to New York to hear how the taxi immigrants make sense of their new lives. How do they square religious beliefs with passengers wanting to have sex or do drugs during the ride? And how do they stay calm when the guy in the back picks a fight?

(Photo: Sherrin lost and found her cab. Credit: Matt Thompson)

Cathy Fitzgerald hears honest and funny stories of how immigrants master the art of dri...

Cathy Fitzgerald hears honest and funny stories of how immigrants master the art of driving a taxi in New York City.

Yemen’s Swap Marriages2014072920140730 (WS)

Yemen’s sibling ‘swap’ marriages, where if one couple divorces, the other has to do too

‘I’ll marry your sister if you marry mine. And if you divorce my sister, I’ll divorce yours.’ That is Yemen’s ‘Shegar’, or swap marriage, an agreement between two men to marry each other’s sisters, thereby removing the need for expensive dowry payments. But the agreement also entails that if one marriage fails, the other couple must separate as well, even if they are happy.

BBC Arabic’s Mai Noman returns to her native Yemen and hears the stories of two women who have loved and lost because of Shegar.

Nadia lives in the village of ‘Sawan’ on the outskirts of the capital Sana’a with her family. She was married off at the age of 22 and has three children. Nadia had to pay a high emotional price because of her family’s decision to marry her off in the Shegar tradition. She was forced to divorce and now she and her mother have to live with the stigma that brings.

Nora and her brother Waleed had little say in marrying their cousins through Shegar. But what happens when one sibling’s happiness depends on ending the marriage of the other? Could you choose your sibling’s happiness over your own? Stay in an unhappy marriage so your sibling can stay in a happy one?

Mai asks why an old tradition that forces you to love only to force you to part, is still practised in Yemen. What do the religious authorities think of it? And is it tied to Islam?

In Yemen, the heart of Arabia, ancient traditions and values have kept the fabric of society unchanged. They helped preserve Yemen’s unique charm and character, but also imprisoned Yemen’s people in the past. Shegar marriage is one such tradition. It helps poorer families to marry, but at what price?

(Photo: A Yemeni groom is surrounded by relatives during his wedding in the old city of Sanaa. Credit: Marwan Naamani/AFP/Getty Images)

01Alive In Chernobyl2011042620110427

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have returned to live in a nuclear "dead zone".

01Alive In Chernobyl20110430
01Alive In Chernobyl20110501
01Alive In Chernobyl20110730

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have returned to live in a nuclear "dead zone".

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have ret.

01Alive In Chernobyl20110731

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have ret.

01Alive In Chernobyl20110801

On the 25th anniversary of the worst nuclear accident in history, Olga Betko travelled to Chernobyl - in her native Ukraine - to find the people who are living in the "dead zone".

In the last week of April 1986, when the nuclear reactor exploded, showering deadly radiation over the surrounding area, thousands of power station workers and their families were evacuated.

Later, other local residents who also lived nearby, were also evacuated.

By then many had been contaminated.

Life in the cities did not suit this group of people with its strong and ancient ties to the land.

Many suffered from depression and also prejudice, having fled the contaminated area.

Over the years a number of small groups of elderly rural people have defied the radiation and returned to live in their abandoned villages and are working the land they love.

Olga Betko, visited these tiny remote communities to see how they are surviving against the odds and how, in isolation, they are trying to recover a poisoned homeland.

Olga Betko finds people who have returned to live in a nuclear "dead zone"

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have returned to live in a nuclear "dead zone".

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have ret.

01America's Own Extremists20110628

Jonny Dymond looks at America's new internal threats, from Islamic extremists and right.

Jonny Dymond looks at America's new internal threats, from Islamic extremists and right-wing militias.

01Atomic States20110712

Richard Black explores how the atomic energy industry has developed, and the future for.

Richard Black explores how the atomic energy industry has developed, and the future for the world's nuclear nations.

01Atomic States20110713

Richard Black explores how the atomic energy industry has developed, and the future for.

01Controlling People20110927

The story of modern population control, and why it didn't work.

Matthew Connelly on a c.

Matthew Connelly on a campaign that began with the best ideals.

01Controlling People20110928

The world's population is due to reach seven billion people this year, and by around 2050 it could grow by yet another two billion.

At the same time, the number of children born to each woman is in many parts of the world, falling rapidly; some countries are failing to replace their current numbers and are starting to shrink.

Demographers, environmentalists and others fear unsustainable pressure on resources on one hand and ageing populations, labour shortages and economic collapse on the other.

So why is the world's population out of control?

This series aims to provide some answers by examining the history, and future, of attempts to manipulate fertility.

Our host is the historian, Professor Matthew Connelly of Columbia University, New York, who travels to India - one of the key battlegrounds in what was described as a war on population growth - waged by demographers and international development experts, and fought enthusiastically by the country's own political elite.

Using India as an exemplar, Professor Connelly documents a global campaign that began with the best humanitarian ideals, but which led to authoritarian control over some of the world's poorest citizens.

He uncovers a story of tragic mistakes and sometimes terrible human rights abuses, and shows how we will be living with the consequences for decades to come.

Matthew Connelly examines India's tragic history to control its population

The story of modern population control, and why it didn't work.

Matthew Connelly on a c.

01Danger In The Download20120501

Ed Butler assesses the ever-increasing threats from hackers and cyber weapons, and what.

Ed Butler assesses the ever-increasing threats from hackers and cyber weapons, and what can be done to protect internet users.

01Danger In The Download20120502

Ed Butler assesses the ever-increasing threats from hackers and cyber weapons, and what.

01Embracing The Dragon2011061420110615

Will Taiwan's new rapprochement with China bring opportunity?

Who'd want to be Taiwan?

An island of 23 million people right next to China, which sees it as a renegade province of its own, insisting that other countries do not recognise its government, and reserving the right to retake it - by military means if necessary.

For the last three years Taiwan's response to these tensions has been mainly conciliatory - under the presidency of Ma Ying-jeou, economic and cultural links with the Chinese mainland have flourished for the very first time, and the idea of formal independence has become more taboo than ever.

Yet polls suggest that increasing numbers of Taiwanese see themselves as separate from mainlanders, and many fear that closer ties will lead to reunification by stealth.

With Ma's presidential term now drawing to a close, this series considers the achievements and criticisms of his China policy and asks what Taiwan’s future options might be.

Along the way, we learn about the emerging Taiwanese identity, how Taiwanese and Chinese people get on face to face, and what Taiwan’s experiences tell us about Beijing's wider foreign policy.

Will Taiwan's new rapprochement with China bring opportunity, or hand Beijing control o.

Will Taiwan's new rapprochement with China bring opportunity, or hand Beijing control over what it sees as a renegade province?

01English In The East20120214

English has been the dominant global language but is it the language of the future in Asia

English has been the dominant global language for a century, but is it the language of the future in rising South East Asia?

In the first of two documentary programmes Jennifer Pak visits Malaysia and Singapore, two countries where colonial ties to the English language are loosening.

In Malaysia a renewed emphasis on Malay in schools and in culture is controversial with many parent groups anxious for their children's economic future and those concerned at losing a language that unites across ethnic backgrounds.

In Singapore we hear how Mandarin is becoming increasingly important together with the street 'Singlish'.

01English In The East20120215

English has been the dominant global language but is it the language of the future in Asia

01English In The East20120218
01Europe's Choice20120306

Allan Little gets the inside story on the roots of the Euro crisis speaking to politici.

Allan Little gets the inside story on the roots of the Euro crisis speaking to politicians, diplomats and technocrats involved.

01Europe's Choice20120307

Allan Little gets the inside story on the roots of the Euro crisis speaking to politici.

01Europe's Choice20120310

Allan Little gets the inside story on the roots of the Euro crisis speaking to politicians, diplomats and technocrats involved.

Allan Little gets the inside story on the roots of the Euro crisis speaking to politici.

01For King Or Country20110403

Arguing the case for and against monarchy as a form of government.

The first of two programmes looks at Sweden.

The first of two pro.

01Nigerian Crossroads20120417

Can this huge, complicated country become the pioneer for Africa? Mark Doyle investigates.

Can this huge, complicated country become the pioneer for Africa?

Nigeria is at a crossroads. One way leads to chaos, the other to a decent, modern state.

This year the Nigerian economy may overtake that of South Africa in size, and the country may then assume the real mantle of 'Giant of Africa' that it has grandiosely claimed for some time now - on size of its population alone.

In terms of foreign policy it's not so fanciful.

For many years Nigeria has been the benevolent 'Big Brother' of smaller states such as Liberia and Sierra Leone.

But Nigeria has major internal problems - Boko Haram is but the latest and most serious.

Widespread and endemic corruption continues to plague politics at all levels.

It's not partition yet. Nigeria's oil money may yet be the glue to hold its disparate interest groups together.

Mark Doyle investigates why Nigeria, with so much potential, is forever 'on the brink' internally?

01Nigerian Crossroads20120418

Can this huge, complicated country become the pioneer for Africa?

Nigeria is at a crossroads. One way leads to chaos, the other to a decent, modern state.

This year the Nigerian economy may overtake that of South Africa in size, and the country may then assume the real mantle of 'Giant of Africa' that it has grandiosely claimed for some time now - on size of its population alone.

In terms of foreign policy it's not so fanciful.

For many years Nigeria has been the benevolent 'Big Brother' of smaller states such as Liberia and Sierra Leone.

But Nigeria has major internal problems - Boko Haram is but the latest and most serious.

Widespread and endemic corruption continues to plague politics at all levels.

It's not partition yet. Nigeria's oil money may yet be the glue to hold its disparate interest groups together.

Mark Doyle investigates why Nigeria, with so much potential, is forever 'on the brink' internally?

Can this huge, complicated country become the pioneer for Africa? Mark Doyle investigates.

01Nigerian Crossroads20120421

Can this huge, complicated country become the pioneer for Africa? Mark Doyle investigates.

01Out In The World20111129

Richard Coles confronts accusations that the West is attempting to force gay rights on.

Richard Coles confronts accusations that the West is attempting to force gay rights on Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

01Out In The World20111130

Richard Coles confronts accusations that the West is attempting to force gay rights on.

01Radical Economics20111126

Was the economic crisis caused by fundamental problems with the system rather than a me.

Was the economic crisis caused by fundamental problems with the system rather than a mere failure of policy?

01Radical Economics20111128

Was the economic crisis caused by fundamental problems with the system rather than a me.

01Sporting Chances In South Sudan20120103

Farayi Mungazi looks at the close links between sport and national identity.

The close links between sport and national idenity are all too evident in many countries today.

Democrats and demagogues alike have at times used sport to plunder and unite their people.

In Sporting Chances, Farayi Mungazi explores the power of basketball to create a national identity in newly independent South Sudan, as well as give its people a sense of dignity and pride.

01Sporting Chances In South Sudan20120104

Farayi Mungazi looks at the close links between sport and national identity.

01Sporting Chances In South Sudan20120107
01The British Establishment: Who For?2011102220111023

Britain's Prime Minister David Cameron, in an emergency debate in Parliament following this summer's riots, revived a line from his general election campaign.

"Britain is broken", he said.

In this two-part series, the award-winning American broadcaster and author Michael Goldfarb challenges the assertion with a question: Is Britain really broken? If it is, then it is broken at the top.

From the City, to the police, to the press, to Parliament, and in cultural institutions including the nation's universities and even the BBC, a narrow elite, drawn from the least-diverse backgrounds, make the rules, socialise, and define what is and is not permissible among the nation's leaders.

The phone hacking scandal, described as the 'thuggish collusion between the media, the police and politicians', is just the latest example of the British Establishment being caught out.

The credit crunch, the ensuing outrage over executive pay as well as the MPs' expenses scandal, have all shown them to be tone-deaf to popular concerns.

Why does Britain's narrow and elite establishment keep stumbling from crisis to crisis?

01The Dark Side Of Diplomacy20111101

Lyse Doucet asks diplomats, politicians and activists how we should engage with brutal.

Lyse Doucet asks diplomats, politicians and activists how we should engage with brutal regimes.

01The Dark Side Of Diplomacy20111102

Lyse Doucet asks diplomats, politicians and activists how we should engage with brutal.

01The Future Of Amnesty International20110913

Fergal Keane tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founding and di.

Fergal Keane tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founding and discusses its future on the world stage.

01The Future Of Amnesty International20110914

Fergal Keane tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founding and di.

01The Future Of Amnesty International20110918

Matthew Bannister tells the story of Amnesty International at 50, and discusses its future on the world stage.

He examines the position it currently holds in the field of global human rights, and assesses the international influence its many campaigns, and both Nobel and UN prizes, have brought it.

In part one, Matthew asks how Amnesty has succeeded since its creation 50 years ago, and examines how the organisation was born and what it originally set out to achieve.

He talks to early volunteers and researchers to discover how Amnesty set out to be a pioneer, both in the field of human rights, and in the methods it has developed as a charitable campaigner on a global stage.

Matthew Bannister tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founded

01The New Establishment2011101820111019

Michael Goldfarb looks at why Britain's narrow and elite establishment keeps stumbling.

Michael Goldfarb looks at why Britain's narrow and elite establishment keeps stumbling from crisis to crisis.

01The Secret War On Terror20110830

Peter Taylor reveals the inside story of the intelligence war which has been fought aga.

Peter Taylor reveals the inside story of the intelligence war which has been fought against al-Qaeda over the last decade.

01The Secret War On Terror20110831

Peter Taylor reveals the inside story of the intelligence war which has been fought aga.

01The Secret War On Terror20110904

reveals the astonishing inside story of the intelligence war which has been fought against al-Qaeda over the last decade since 9/11.

With unparalleled access to Western intelligence and law enforcement agencies, and with exclusive interviews with those who have been at the sharp end of fighting the terrorists – from the CIA and the FBI to MI5 – Peter Taylor asks whether the West is winning and whether we are any safer from attack.

Is the West winning the war on terror and are we any safer from attacks?

01The Truth About Ngo's20111213

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of t.

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of transparency in Haiti, Malawi and India.

01The Truth About Ngo's20111214

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of t.

01The Truth About Ngo's20111220

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of t.

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of transparency in Haiti, Malawi and India.

01The Truth About Ngo's20111221

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of t.

01The Truth About Ngo's20111225

Allan Little investigates allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of transparency. This has been the decade of the NGOs (Non-Governmental Organsiations).

Their numbers, influence and range of activities have grown enormously. Many are now multi-million pound organisations.

While many NGOs conduct themselves well, there are increasing worries about the accountability of NGOs and the extent to which the work they do is appropriate in the host countries.

In this series Allan Little looks at the work of NGOs in Haiti, Malawi and India, to consider some key concerns: why, for example, does there seem to be so little co-ordination between NGOs in a place like Haiti?

Why, despite the vast effort and resources that flowed after the earthquake two years ago, are people still living in tents without basic amenities?

In Malawi we look at the political influence wielded by NGOs. Is their job really to behave as the de facto opposition to the government?

Should their role include an ambition to change people’s ideas on issues such as women’s rights and gay marriage?

Are NGOs causing a ‘brain drain’ in countries such as Malawi, by attracting well-educated young people with the high salaries they can afford to pay?

And in India we look at transparency and corruption and at who really benefits from the work of NGOs.

Many people think that NGOs and the way they are set up, funded and made accountable for their work, is now overdue for reform. We consider what a better future might mean for NGOs.

A look at allegations of NGO inefficiency, political bias and lack of transparency

01The Wealth Gap20120117

The gap between the super-rich and the rest has grown sharply around the world. Michael.

The gap between the super-rich and the rest has grown sharply around the world. Michael Robinson examines its effects on London

01The Wealth Gap20120118

The gap between the super-rich and the rest has grown sharply around the world. Michael.

01The Wealth Gap20120121
01Wars Of Diplomacy20110510

Two conflicts, one United Nations, two different responses.

Claire Bolderson examines t.

Claire Bolderson examines the crises in the Ivory Coast and Libya.

01Wars Of Diplomacy20110511

Two conflicts, one United Nations, two different responses.

Claire Bolderson examines t.

01Wars Of Diplomacy20110514
01Wars Of Diplomacy20110515
02Bubble Trouble?20110531
02Bubble Trouble?20110601
02Bubble Trouble?20110605

Across the world the cost of basic commodities is soaring.

Endless demand from China is blamed for the record price of copper; flood, fire and drought for boosting the cost of food; and political tension in the Middle East for the sharply-rising price of oil.

But are such fundamental forces the whole story?

Michael Robinson asks whether investors and speculators are making prices more volatile and examines the role of the giant traders, banks and companies which now increasingly dominate the world's commodity markets.

Episode Two

Michael goes deep into the argument about supply and demand of a single commodity - copper.

Michael Robinson investigates the skyrocketing prices of the world's basic goods

The BBC investigates the skyrocketing prices of the worlds basic goods.

02Controlling People20111004

The story of modern population control, and why it didn't work

The world’s population is due to reach seven billion people this year, and by around 2050 it could grow by yet another two billion.

At the same time, the number of children born to each woman is – in many parts of the world – falling rapidly; some countries are failing to replace their current numbers and are starting to shrink.

Demographers, environmentalists and others fear unsustainable pressure on resources on one hand and ageing populations, labour shortages and economic collapse on the other.

So why is the world’s population out of control?

This series aims to provide some answers by examining the history, and future, of attempts to manipulate fertility.

Our host is the historian, Professor Matthew Connelly of Columbia University, New York, who travels to India - one of the key battlegrounds in what was described as a war on population growth, waged by demographers and international development experts, and fought enthusiastically by the country’s own political elite.

Using India as an exemplar, Professor Connelly documents a global campaign that began with the best humanitarian ideals, but which led to authoritarian control over some of the world’s poorest citizens.

He uncovers a story of tragic mistakes and sometimes terrible human rights abuses, and shows how we will be living with the consequences for decades to come.

02Controlling People20111005

The story of modern population control, and why it didn't work

02Controlling People20111008

The world's population is due to reach seven billion people this year, and by around 2050 it could grow by yet another two billion.

At the same time, the number of children born to each woman is in many parts of the world, falling rapidly; some countries are failing to replace their current numbers and are starting to shrink.

Demographers, environmentalists and others fear unsustainable pressure on resources on one hand and ageing populations, labour shortages and economic collapse on the other.

So why is the world's population out of control?

This series aims to provide some answers by examining the history, and future, of attempts to manipulate fertility.

Our host is the historian, Professor Matthew Connelly of Columbia University, New York, who travels to India - one of the key battlegrounds in what was described as a war on population growth - waged by demographers and international development experts, and fought enthusiastically by the country's own political elite.

Using India as an exemplar, Professor Connelly documents a global campaign that began with the best humanitarian ideals, but which led to authoritarian control over some of the world's poorest citizens.

He uncovers a story of tragic mistakes and sometimes terrible human rights abuses, and shows how we will be living with the consequences for decades to come.

Matthew Connelly examines India's mass sterilisation campaign to control its population.

02Controlling People20111009

Matthew Connelly examines India's mass sterilisation campaign to control its population.

02Danger In The Download20120508
02Danger In The Download20120509
02Danger In The Download20120512
02Europe's Choice, Breaking The Pact20120313

Allan looks at the failure to enforce the rules of the Stability and Growth Pact.

Allan Little looks at the key moments and issues which brought the EU to the current crisis.

In this episode he focuses on the first years of the last decade.

"The Stability and Growth Pact": the mechanism with the most boring name and yet the most crucial of purposes - to keep the Euro in check.

Its low inflation, low debt criteria had been arrived upon as a means to trying to ensure a German-style fiscal probity amongst the 12 countries that had joined the Euro by 2001 - many more than many privately thought suitable for entry.

But there was no external enforcement mechanism for the rules - the Commission could recommend action but couldn't compel it.

In effect, when countries contravened, it was up to ministers of member states to police the pact.

When Germany - one of the European superpowers - broke the rules in 2003 under the strains of paying for re-unification, it was not penalised.

Why? Did this send a fatal message to countries like Greece and Italy that they too could bend the rules without consequence?

02Europe's Choice, Breaking The Pact20120314

Allan looks at the failure to enforce the rules of the Stability and Growth Pact.

02Europe's Choice, Breaking The Pact20120317

Allan Little looks at the key moments and issues which brought the EU to the current crisis.

In this episode he focuses on the first years of the last decade.

"The Stability and Growth Pact": the mechanism with the most boring name and yet the most crucial of purposes - to keep the Euro in check.

Its low inflation, low debt criteria had been arrived upon as a means to trying to ensure a German-style fiscal probity amongst the 12 countries that had joined the Euro by 2001 - many more than many privately thought suitable for entry.

But there was no external enforcement mechanism for the rules - the Commission could recommend action but couldn't compel it.

In effect, when countries contravened, it was up to ministers of member states to police the pact.

When Germany - one of the European superpowers - broke the rules in 2003 under the strains of paying for re-unification, it was not penalised.

Why? Did this send a fatal message to countries like Greece and Italy that they too could bend the rules without consequence?

(Image: A person holding a one euro coin and a Greek one drachma coin in front of a Greek national flag. Credit: Philippe Huguen/AFP/Getty Images)

Allan Little looks at the failure to enforce the rules of the Stability and Growth Pact.

Allan looks at the failure to enforce the rules of the Stability and Growth Pact.

02 LASTAlive In Chernobyl20110503

Olga Betko returns to Chernobyl, on the 25th anniversary of the nuclear disaster

On the 25th anniversary of the nuclear disaster at the Chernobyl power plant, presenter Olga Betko travels to Chernobyl - in her native Ukraine - to find the people who are living in what is known as the "dead zone".

In the last week of April 1986, when the nuclear reactor exploded, many power station workers and their families were evacuated.

It was not until a week later that many local rural families and farmers who also lived in the 'Exclusion Zone', were also evacuated to cities.

This documentary follows the stories of a number of small groups of elderly rural people who have defied the radiation and returned from the cities to live in their abandoned villages, once again working the land they love.

Olga Betko visits these tiny remote communities to see how they are surviving in isolation and also looks at how people there are recovering a poisoned homeland.

Bill Law travels to Egypt to revisit five women that he met 3 years ago, to tell the st.

Bill Law travels to Egypt to revisit five women that he met 3 years ago, to tell the story of the revolution through their eye

02 LASTAlive In Chernobyl20110504

Olga Betko returns to Chernobyl, on the 25th anniversary of the nuclear disaster

02 LASTAlive In Chernobyl20110508
02 LASTAlive In Chernobyl20110806

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have ret.

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have returned to live in a nuclear "dead zone".

02 LASTAlive In Chernobyl20110807
02 LASTAlive In Chernobyl20110808

On the 25th anniversary of the worst nuclear accident in history, Olga Betko travelled to Chernobyl - in her native Ukraine - to find the people who are living in the "dead zone".

In the last week of April 1986, when the nuclear reactor exploded, showering deadly radiation over the surrounding area, thousands of power station workers and their families were evacuated.

Later, other local residents who also lived nearby, were also evacuated.

By then many had been contaminated.

Life in the cities did not suit this group of people with its strong and ancient ties to the land.

Many suffered from depression and also prejudice, having fled the contaminated area.

Over the years a number of small groups of elderly rural people have ignored the radiation and returned to live in their abandoned villages and are working the land they love.

Olga Betko, visited these tiny remote communities to see how they are surviving against the odds and how, in isolation, they are trying to recover a poisoned homeland.

Olga Betko finds people who have returned to live in a nuclear "dead zone"

On the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Olga Betko finds people who have ret.

02 LASTAmerica's Own Extremists20110705

Why the next big challenge to US security could come from within the country

Jonny Dymond looks at America's new internal threats, from Islamic extremists and right-wing militias.

America devotes vast resources to countering external threats, and the past decade's wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused attention abroad.

However, there are signs that the next big challenge to US security could come from within the country.

Episode Two

America is facing a resurgent threat from violent right-wing groups.

The militia movement - a loose collection of groups united by their opposition to the federal government - lost steam 15 years ago after its adherents killed 168 people in Oklahoma City.

But now an emboldened right-wing has given the movement new life.

Jonny goes inside the militia renewal.

02 LASTAmerica's Own Extremists20110709

Why the next big challenge to US security could come from within the country

02 LASTAtomic States20110719

Richard Black explores the history and likely future of the nuclear energy industry

BBC Environment Correspondent Richard Black explores the history and likely future of the nuclear energy industry.

02 LASTAtomic States20110720

Richard Black explores the history and likely future of the nuclear energy industry

02 LASTAtomic States20110723
02 LASTAtomic States20110724
02 LASTEmbracing The Dragon2011062120110622

Will Taiwan's new rapprochement with China bring opportunity, or hand Beijing control o.

Will Taiwan's new rapprochement with China bring opportunity, or hand Beijing control over what it sees as a renegade province?

02 LASTEmbracing The Dragon20110625

Will Taiwan's new rapprochement with China bring opportunity, or hand Beijing control o.

02 LASTEnglish In The East20120221

English has been the dominant global language but is it the language of the future in Asia

Jennifer Pak visits Hanoi in Vietnam to look at how life is changing in the city as more people are adopting the English language.

Hanoi's Lenin Park under the former Soviet-style command economy, people gathered to exercise while Russian songs played on municipal speakers.

Today young people in Vietnam dance to western pop music, many describing the lyrics as the language of freedom.

However, there is a new culture associated with the English language which is challenging the deferential social model in Vietnam.

Jennifer meets staff from a local company who are having difficulty adjusting to some aspects of English culture and also meets the famous Vietnamese singer My Linh, who says whilst she didn't express herself in her youth, her children's generation talk openly about their thoughts and feelings.

They still don't talk to the older generation however, so she adds them on Facebook to see how they really think.

02 LASTEnglish In The East20120222
02 LASTFor King Or Country?20110405

Meet the ardent monarchists who prefer the crown to the US constitution

Aristotle stated that monarchy is the only form of government in which power is exercised for the good of all, but nearly 2,500 years later, does the institution remain preferable to an elected head of state?

In this two-part documentary, an ardent monarchist and committed republican examine the case for and against monarchy as a form of government.

Arguing the case for and against monarchy as a form of government.

The second of two pr.

The second of two programmes looks at the USA.

02 LASTFor King Or Country?20110406

Meet the ardent monarchists who prefer the crown to the US constitution

Arguing the case for and against monarchy as a form of government.

The second of two pr.

02 LASTFor King Or Country?20110409
02 LASTFor King Or Country?20110410

Meet the ardent monarchists who prefer the crown to the US constitution

Arguing the case for and against monarchy as a form of government.

The second of two pr.

02 LASTNigerian Crossroads20120424

Nigeria is at a crossroads between chaos and a modern state. Can it become the pioneer.

Nigeria is at a crossroads between chaos and a modern state. Can it become the pioneer for Africa? Mark Doyle investigates.

02 LASTNigerian Crossroads20120425

Nigeria is at a crossroads between chaos and a modern state. Can it become the pioneer.

02 LASTOut In The World20111206
02 LASTOut In The World20111207
02 LASTRadical Economics20111203

The role of credit in the build up to the global financial crisis is well known - but what has our reliance on credit been doing to the wider economy and to human behaviour?

The expansion of consumer credit has been encouraged by social democratic as well as centre right governments.

But some on the left believe that the growth of the financial sector has given birth to a novel form of capitalism and with that a new kind of worker exploitation.

Paul Mason meets the economists of "financialisation" who believe that credit has become the defining relationship between workers and employers, citizens and public services.

Paul Mason is the author of Meltdown: The End of the Age of Greed.

(Image: Generic Visa Mastercard credit cards with identification numbers obscured.

Credit: Getty)

Paul Mason asks whether the expansion of credit created a new form of worker exploitation.

02 LASTSporting Chances In South Sudan20120110

Farayi Mungazi looks at the close links between sport and national identity in South Su.

Farayi Mungazi looks at the close links between sport and national identity in South Sudan and Australia.

02 LASTSporting Chances In South Sudan20120111

Farayi Mungazi looks at the close links between sport and national identity in South Su.

02 LASTSporting Chances In South Sudan20120114
02 LASTThe British Establishment: Who For?2011102520111026
02 LASTThe British Establishment: Who For?20111029
02 LASTThe Dark Side Of Diplomacy20111108
02 LASTThe Dark Side Of Diplomacy20111109
02 LASTThe Dark Side Of Diplomacy20111112
02 LASTThe Future Of Amnesty International20110920

Matthew Bannister tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founded

Matthew Bannister tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founding and discusses its future on the world stage.

02 LASTThe Future Of Amnesty International20110921

Matthew Bannister tells the story of Amnesty International 50 years after it founded

02 LASTThe Future Of Amnesty International20110924
02 LASTThe Future Of Amnesty International20110925
02 LASTThe Secret War On Terror2011090620110907
02 LASTThe Truth About Ngo's, India20111227

A look at transparency and corruption in India. Who really benefits from the work of NGOs?

This has been the decade of the NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations).

Their numbers, influence and range of activities have grown enormously.

Many are now multi-million pound organisations. While many NGOs conduct themselves well, there are increasing worries about the accountability of NGOs and the extent to which the work they do is appropriate in the host countries.

Allan Little looks at the work of NGOs in Malawi, India and Haiti, to consider some key concerns.

In India we look at transparency and corruption and at who really benefits from the work of NGOs.

Many people think that NGOs and the way they are set up, funded and made accountable for their work are now overdue for reform.

We consider what a better future might mean for NGOs.

02 LASTThe Truth About Ngo's, India20111228

A look at transparency and corruption in India. Who really benefits from the work of NGOs?

02 LASTThe Wealth Gap2012012420120128
02 LASTWars Of Diplomacy20110517
02 LASTWars Of Diplomacy20110518
02 LASTWars Of Diplomacy20110522
03 LASTBubble Trouble?20110607

Michael Robinson investigates the skyrocketing prices of the world's basic goods

Across the world the cost of basic commodities is soaring.

Endless demand from China is blamed for the record price of copper; flood, fire and drought for boosting the cost of food; and political tension in the Middle East for the sharply-rising price of oil.

But are such fundamental forces the whole story?

Michael Robinson asks whether investors and speculators are making prices more volatile and examines the role of the giant traders, banks and companies which now increasingly dominate the world's commodity markets.

Episode Three

Michael hears from key politicians, regulators and lobbyists about the drive to legislate against in what some call 'excessive speculation.'

03 LASTBubble Trouble?20110608

Michael Robinson investigates the skyrocketing prices of the world's basic goods

03 LASTBubble Trouble?20110611
03 LASTBubble Trouble?20110612
03 LASTControlling People20111011

The story of modern population control, and why it didn't work

The world's population is due to reach seven billion people this year, and by around 2050 it could grow by yet another two billion.

At the same time, the number of children born to each woman is in many parts of the world, falling rapidly; some countries are failing to replace their current numbers and are starting to shrink.

Demographers, environmentalists and others fear unsustainable pressure on resources on one hand and ageing populations, labour shortages and economic collapse on the other.

So why is the world's population out of control?

This series aims to provide some answers by examining the history, and future, of attempts to manipulate fertility.

Our host is the historian, Professor Matthew Connelly of Columbia University, New York, who travels to India - one of the key battlegrounds in what was described as a war on population growth - waged by demographers and international development experts, and fought enthusiastically by the country's own political elite.

Using India as an exemplar, Professor Connelly documents a global campaign that began with the best humanitarian ideals, but which led to authoritarian control over some of the world's poorest citizens.

He uncovers a story of tragic mistakes and sometimes terrible human rights abuses, and shows how we will be living with the consequences for decades to come.

03 LASTControlling People20111012
03 LASTControlling People20111016

The world's population is due to reach seven billion people this year, and by around 2050 it could grow by yet another two billion.

At the same time, the number of children born to each woman is in many parts of the world, falling rapidly; some countries are failing to replace their current numbers and are starting to shrink.

Demographers, environmentalists and others fear unsustainable pressure on resources on one hand and ageing populations, labour shortages and economic collapse on the other.

So why is the world's population out of control?

This series aims to provide some answers by examining the history, and future, of attempts to manipulate fertility.

Our host is the historian, Professor Matthew Connelly of Columbia University, New York, who travels to India - one of the key battlegrounds in what was described as a war on population growth - waged by demographers and international development experts, and fought enthusiastically by the country's own political elite.

Using India as an exemplar, Professor Connelly documents a global campaign that began with the best humanitarian ideals, but which led to authoritarian control over some of the world's poorest citizens.

He uncovers a story of tragic mistakes and sometimes terrible human rights abuses, and shows how we will be living with the consequences for decades to come.

Matthew Connelly looks at the consequences of India's methods to control its population.

03 LASTEurope's Choice, Deeper Not Wider20120320

Allan examines new resentments and divisions within the EU exposed by the crisis.

Allan Little looks at key moments and issues which brought the EU to the current crisis, focusing on the events of the last 18 months.

The latest crisis has exposed new resentments and divisions within the EU.

Countries like Greece and Italy have had both prime ministers and austerity measures imposed upon them by an executive in Brussels that voters did not directly elect.

Other member states like Finland, who survived its own period of recession and austerity in 1991 without being bailed out by the EU, are seeing the rise of nationalist movements which are resisting the increased control in Brussels.

There is a belief amongst some of them that this crisis was engineered as a means of deepening the grip of the European institutions.

Opinion polls in Turkey show the lowest support for EU membership ever.

Even Germany - one of Europe's greatest advocates and beneficiaries - is expanding its exports to non-traditional markets like China.

What will the EU look like in 10 years time?

03 LASTEurope's Choice, Deeper Not Wider20120321

Allan examines new resentments and divisions within the EU exposed by the crisis.

03 LASTEurope's Choice, Deeper Not Wider20120324

Allan Little looks at key moments and issues which brought the EU to the current crisis, focusing on the events of the last 18 months.

The latest crisis has exposed new resentments and divisions within the EU.

Countries like Greece and Italy have had both prime ministers and austerity measures imposed upon them by an executive in Brussels that voters did not directly elect.

Other member states like Finland, who survived its own period of recession and austerity in 1991 without being bailed out by the EU, are seeing the rise of nationalist movements which are resisting the increased control in Brussels.

There is a belief amongst some of them that this crisis was engineered as a means of deepening the grip of the European institutions.

Opinion polls in Turkey show the lowest support for EU membership ever.

Even Germany - one of Europe's greatest advocates and beneficiaries - is expanding its exports to non-traditional markets like China.

What will the EU look like in 10 years time?

Allan examines new resentments and divisions within the EU exposed by the crisis.