Discovery

Gabrielle Walker joins scientists from the British Antarctic Survey on board HMS Endurance as they travel to the last great wilderness on Earth, Antarctica.

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Episodes

EpisodeTitleFirst
Broadcast
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20070120

The Big Ideas.

1/3.

The latest ideas in science that attempt to answer questions on topics such as how the universe works and how life first appeared on earth.

20070121

The Big Ideas.

1/3.

The latest ideas in science that attempt to answer questions on topics such as how the universe works and how life first appeared on earth.

20070125

The Big Ideas.

2/3.

The latest ideas in science that attempt to answer questions on topics such as how the universe works and how life first appeared on earth.

20070127

The Big Ideas.

2/3.

The latest ideas in science that attempt to answer questions on topics such as how the universe works and how life first appeared on earth.

20070128

The Big Ideas.

2/3.

The latest ideas in science that attempt to answer questions on topics such as how the universe works and how life first appeared on earth.

20070131

The Big Ideas.

3/3.

The last of three programmes explaining the latest big ideas in science that attempt to answer major questions, such as when did Homo sapiens first appear?

20070201

The Big Ideas.

3/3.

The last of three programmes explaining the latest big ideas in science that attempt to answer major questions, such as when did Homo sapiens first appear?

20070203

The Big Ideas.

3/3.

The last of three programmes explaining the latest big ideas in science that attempt to answer major questions, such as when did Homo sapiens first appear?

20070204

The Big Ideas.

3/3.

The last of three programmes explaining the latest big ideas in science that attempt to answer major questions, such as when did Homo sapiens first appear?

20070207
20070210
20070211

India: Geoff Watts talks to President APJ Abdul Kalam and leading Indian scientists about what India needs to do to make a bigger global impact in basic research.

20070214

India.

Space: Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear India's ambitious new project that will see the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070215

India.

Space: Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear India's ambitious new project that will see the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070217

India.

Space: Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear India's ambitious new project that will see the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070218

India.

Space: Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear India's ambitious new project that will see the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070221

India.

Space: Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear India's ambitious new project that will see the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070222

India.

Space: Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear India's ambitious new project that will see the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070224

Geoff Watts visits the National Centre for Astrophysics in Bangalore to see how India has contributed to understanding the universe.

20070225

Geoff Watts visits the National Centre for Astrophysics in Bangalore to see how India has contributed to understanding the universe.

20070228

Geoff Watts visits the National Botanic Society in Lucknow, where researchers think new drugs could come from plants and herbs used in traditional Indian medicine.

20070301

Geoff Watts visits the National Botanic Society in Lucknow, where researchers think new drugs could come from plants and herbs used in traditional Indian medicine.

20070303

Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear about India's contribution to space research, and the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

20070304

Geoff Watts visits the International Space Research Organisation to hear about India's contribution to space research, and the country's first unmanned mission to the moon.

2007030720070308

Peter Evans meets dinosaur hunters who say we are in a golden age of dinosaur discovery.

Will this reveal why they disappeared?

2007031020070311

Peter Evans meets dinosaur hunters who say we are in a golden age of dinosaur discovery.

Will this reveal why they disappeared?

2007031420070315

Peter Evans discovers that the invisibility cloak is no longer stuck in the realm of fantasy, but is soon to become a reality.

20070317

1/2.

The series exploring the most significant scientific and technological ideas focuses on modern optics.

20070318

Peter Evans discovers that the invisibility cloak is no longer stuck in the realm of fantasy, but is soon to become a reality.

20070322

Science and technology series.

1/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070324

Science and technology series.

1/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070325

Science and technology series.

1/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070329

Science and technology series.

2/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070404

Science and technology series.

3/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070405

Science and technology series.

3/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070408

Science and technology series.

3/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070415

Science and technology series.

4/4.

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20070422

Low Carbon Solutions: 1/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

20070425

Low Carbon Solutions: 2/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

20070426

Low Carbon Solutions: 2/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

20070429

Low Carbon Solutions: 2/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

20070502

Low Carbon Solutions: 3/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

Low Carbon Solutions: 2/3.

20070503

Low Carbon Solutions: 3/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

20070506

Low Carbon Solutions: 3/3.

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

20070509

Genes and Sport: Kirsten Weber looks at a human gene that may tell us more about an athlete's predisposition to a particular sport.

20070510

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20070516

Scientific development and research.

20070517

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20070520

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20070523

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20070524

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20070527

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20070530

The Science of Yachting: A look at the science and technology behind the sport of yachting.

20070603

The Science of Yachting: A look at the science and technology behind the sport of yachting.

20070606

Indispensables.

1/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 1 looks at the matchbox.

20070607

Indispensables.

1/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 1 looks at the matchbox.

20070610

Indispensables.

1/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 1 looks at the matchbox.

20070613

Indispensables.

2/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 2 looks at toothpaste.

20070614

Indispensables.

2/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 2 looks at toothpaste.

20070617

Indispensables.

2/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 2 looks at toothpaste.

20070624

Indispensables: 3/4.

Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

This episode looks at the battery.

20070701

Indispensables.

4/4: Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 4 looks at the refrigerator.

20070704

The Science of Sailing: With the America's Cup on the horizon, Richard Fleming guides us through the choppy waters of hi-tech yachting.

20070705

The Science of Sailing: With the America's Cup on the horizon, Richard Fleming guides us through the choppy waters of hi-tech yachting.

20070708

The Science of Sailing: With the America's Cup on the horizon, Richard Fleming guides us through the choppy waters of hi-tech yachting.

20070711

Genes and Sport: Kirsten Webster looks at the discovery of a new gene that may take the identification of sporting talent directly to the laboratory.

20070712

Genes and Sport: Kirsten Webster looks at the discovery of a new gene that may take the identification of sporting talent directly to the laboratory.

20070715

Genes and Sport: Kirsten Webster looks at the discovery of a new gene that may take the identification of sporting talent directly to the laboratory.

20070719

Globesity: A look at the genetics of obesity.

20070722

Globesity: A look at the genetics of obesity.

20070729

The Dating Game.

1/4: Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archaeologists reveal the past.

20070809

The Dating Game.

3/4: Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archaeologists reveal the past.

20070816

The Dating Game.

4/4: Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archaeologists reveal the past.

20070819

The Dating Game.

4/4: Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archaeologists reveal the past.

20070822

The Voice: 1/3.

Robert Sandell looks at the development of the human voice, including its versatility and individual qualities.

20070823

The Voice: 1/3.

Robert Sandell looks at the development of the human voice, including its versatility and individual qualities.

20070826

The Voice.

1/3: Robert Sandell looks at the development of the human voice from childhood to adulthood, including its versatility and individual qualities.

20070902

The Voice.

2/3: Robert Sandell looks at the development of the human voice from childhood to adulthood, including its versatility and individual qualities.

20070923

Superconductivity: Peter Evans investigates superconductors - revolutionary materials which conduct electricity without loss at high temperatures.

20070926

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20070927

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071017

Geoff Watts looks at China's space programme and why it is so keen to have its own astronauts.

20071018

Geoff Watts looks at China's space programme and why it is so keen to have its own astronauts.

20071021

Geoff Watts looks at China's space programme and why it is so keen to have its own astronauts.

20071024

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071025
20071031
20071101
20071103

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071104

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071107

A discussion on the environment in China.

20071108

A discussion on the environment in China.

20071110

This edition of the science programme features a discussion on the environment in China.

20071111

This edition of the science programme features a discussion on the environment in China.

20071114

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071115

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071117

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071118

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071121
20071122

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071124

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071125

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20071128

Rise of Resistance: 1/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071129

Rise of Resistance: 1/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071201

Rise of Resistance: 1/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071202

Rise of Resistance: 1/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071206

Rise of Resistance: 2/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071208

Rise of Resistance: 2/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071209

Rise of Resistance: 2/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071212

Rise of Resistance: 3/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071213

Rise of Resistance: 3/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071215

Rise of Resistance: 3/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071216

Rise of Resistance: 3/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071219

Rise of Resistance: 4/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071220

Rise of Resistance: 4/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071223

Rise of Resistance: 4/4.

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

20071226

Looking at the life and work of the Hubble Space Telescope since its launch in 1990.

20071227

Looking at the life and work of the Hubble Space Telescope since its launch in 1990.

20071229

Looking at the life and work of the Hubble Space Telescope since its launch in 1990.

20071230

Looking at the life and work of the Hubble Space Telescope since its launch in 1990.

20080102

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080103

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080105
20080106
20080109

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080110
20080112

An investigation into the contribution of ships to global warming, looking at new designs that could mean less polluting shipping.

20080113

An investigation into the contribution of ships to global warming, looking at new designs that could mean less polluting shipping.

20080116

The science programme asks why we experience disgust and whether it is a universal human emotion.

20080117

The science programme asks why we experience disgust and whether it is a universal human emotion.

20080119

The science programme asks why we experience disgust and whether it is a universal human emotion.

20080120

The science programme asks why we experience disgust and whether it is a universal human emotion.

20080123

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080124

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080126

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080127

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080130
20080131
20080202

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080203

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080206

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080207
20080209

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080210

Sue Nelson chairs three discussions on the big issues in science.

20080213

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080214

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080216

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080217

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080220

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080221
20080223

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080224

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080227

Science in Russia: 1/2.

Richard Hollingham investigates how scientists are adjusting to the new political and economic framework in Russia.

20080228

Science in Russia: 1/2.

Richard Hollingham investigates how scientists are adjusting to the new political and economic framework in Russia.

20080301

Science in Russia: 1/2.

Richard Hollingham investigates how scientists are adjusting to the new political and economic framework in Russia.

20080309

Science in Russia: 2/2.

Richard Hollingham investigates space science, traditionally one of Russia's strongest scientific sectors.

20080315

Food Science.

1/3: A major documentary series that explores the research scientists are carrying out to ensure food security in the future.

20080316

Food Science.

1/3: A major documentary series that explores the research scientists are carrying out to ensure food security in the future.

20080322

Food Science.

2/3: A major documentary series that explores the research scientists are carrying out to ensure food security in the future.

20080406

Antarctica.

1/4:.

20080409

Antarctica.

2/4:.

20080413

Antarctica.

2/4:

20080416

Antarctica.

3/4:

20080417

Antarctica.

3/4:.

20080420

Antarctica.

3/4:.

20080501

Africalab.

1/2: Hugh Levinson asks if developing Africa's scientific capability is the key to economic transformation in Africa.

20080508

Africalab.

2/2: Hugh Levinson asks if developing Africa's scientific capability is the key to economic transformation in Africa.

20080514

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about biofuels.

20080515

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about biofuels.

20080521

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about embryonic stem cell research.

20080522

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about embryonic stem cell research.

20080528

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about the militarisation of space.

20080529

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about the militarisation of space.

20080604

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about science.

20080605

Sue Nelson chairs a discussion about science.

20080611

1/2.

Saving Coral Reefs: Andrew Luck-Baker looks at the efforts to save the world's coral reefs.

20080612

1/2.

Saving Coral Reefs: Andrew Luck-Baker looks at the efforts to save the world's coral reefs.

20080702

Children have been seen as smaller adults when it comes to medicines, but now a report suggests a new approach is needed.

20080703

Children have been seen as smaller adults when it comes to medicines, but now a report suggests a new approach is needed.

20080709

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080710

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080717

1/2.

The Need for Speed: Gareth Mitchell looks at our need for speed in different areas of modern life and asks what is stopping us from getting faster.

20080723

Gareth Mitchell looks at our need for speed in different areas of modern life and asks what is stopping us from getting faster.

2/2: The Human Body.

Will records stop being broken?

20080724

Gareth Mitchell looks at our need for speed in different areas of modern life and asks what is stopping us from getting faster.

2/2: The Human Body.

Will records stop being broken?

20080730

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080731

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080806
20080807

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080813

Life's Soundtrack: 1/2.

Trevor Cox explores how our hearing and speech changes from the womb, through birth, childhood, adulthood and old age.

20080814

Life's Soundtrack: 1/2.

Trevor Cox explores how our hearing and speech changes from the womb, through birth, childhood, adulthood and old age.

20080820

Life's Soundtrack: 2/2.

Trevor Cox explores how our hearing and speech changes from the womb, through birth, childhood, adulthood and old age.

20080821

Life's Soundtrack: 2/2.

Trevor Cox explores how our hearing and speech changes from the womb, through birth, childhood, adulthood and old age.

20080827

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080828

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080903

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20080904
20080910

1/3.

Physicists Brian Cox and Brian Greene and actor Alan Alda discuss why physics is such an exciting subject.

20080911

1/3.

Physicists Brian Cox and Brian Greene and actor Alan Alda discuss why physics is such an exciting subject.

20080917

1/2.

CERN: Simon Singh looks at the switch-on of CERN's Large Hadron Collider, and the discovery of the most significant subatomic particles.

20080918

1/2.

CERN: Simon Singh looks at the switch-on of CERN's Large Hadron Collider, and the discovery of the most significant subatomic particles.

20080924

2/2.

CERN: Simon Singh looks at the switch-on of CERN's Large Hadron Collider, and the discovery of the most significant subatomic particles.

20080925

2/2.

CERN: Simon Singh looks at the switch-on of CERN's Large Hadron Collider, and the discovery of the most significant subatomic particles.

20081002

1/3.

Looking into the Mind: Pam Rutherford meets scientists looking at the brain to catch thoughts, find how we experience pain and where we store memories.

20081008

2/3.

Looking into the Mind: Pam Rutherford meets scientists looking at the brain to catch thoughts, find how we experience pain and where we store memories.

20081009

2/3.

Looking into the Mind: Pam Rutherford meets scientists looking at the brain to catch thoughts, find how we experience pain and where we store memories.

20081016

3/3.

Looking into the Mind: Pam Rutherford meets scientists looking at the brain to catch thoughts, find how we experience pain and where we store memories.

20081022

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081023

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081029
20081030

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081105

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081106

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081112

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081113

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

20081119
20081120

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

2008112620081127

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

In-depth exploration of the most significant scientific and technological ideas, discoveries and debates.

2008120320081204

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

2008121020081211

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

2008121720081218
2008122420081225

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

2009011420090115

Roland Pease explores light�s continuing role in the endless frontier of scientific pro.

Roland Pease explores light�s continuing role in the endless frontier of scientific progress.

2009012120090122

Roland Pease explores light�s continuing role in endless frontier of scientific progress.

2009012820090129

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

2009020420090205
2009021120090212

In Darwin's Shadow: Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how.

In Darwin's Shadow: Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how Darwin's ideas have influenced research.

2009031120090312
20090318

Discovery explores matters of lifespan and death among our early human ancestors.

For much of human evolution, life was short and brutal.

People today regularly live into their sixties, seventies and eighties.

But when during our evolution could our ancestors expect to be old by today's standards?

One of the obstacles to reaching a good age was being killed and eaten by other people.

Evidence comes from a gruesome archaeological discovery in northern Spain where early humans may have used cannibalism to terrorise their neighbours 800 000 years ago.

And when did our ancestors start to bury and honour their dead with rituals? Fossil finds from Ethiopia and Spain suggests the practise goes back more than half a million years.

20090325

How sniffer dogs are trained to be used to fight crime and enhance security.

Travel through most large railway stations and airports and you can't miss the teams of detection dogs and their handlers.

Since 9/11 sniffer dogs are increasingly being used in the name of crime fighting and security.

The canine sense of smell is a thousand times more powerful than ours.

But how can these animals be trained to smell a counterfeit banknote from a stash of real ones, detect a gram of cocaine in a package of flour, or find a body that's been buried for decades? Sue Broom finds out in Sniffing Out Crime.

20090506

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

20090513

The Large Binocular Telescope, the world's largest telescope is nearing completion.

The world's largest telescope is nearing completion on a mountain top in the United States.

By combining the power of its vast mirrors, the Large Binocular Telescope will image the Universe with ten times the detail of NASA's Hubble telescope.

Presenter Andrew Luck-baker takes a tour of the 600 tonne instrument and talks to the astronomers expecting to see planets orbiting and being born around distant stars with this ‘next generation' instrument.

And he visits the spinning furnace in which its monsters mirrors were made.

20090520

Ian Peacock discovers why certain smells can transport us back to our childhood.

How do smells impact on memories and emotions? Science is unraveling how a whiff of perfume or a newly mown lawn can offer us a free ticket back to our childhood.

2009052720090531
2009060320090604
2009061720090618

The stem cell story has ethical, political and economic controversies, but Sue Broom st.

The stem cell story has ethical, political and economic controversies, but Sue Broom steers a clear course through the science.

2009062420090625

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

20090923

Kakapo, Cleopatra and Pavarotti are cryptic names for genes.

Sue Broom cracks the code.

Kakapo, Cleopatra and Pavarotti are cryptic names for genes; the clue to what they do lies in their names.

Sue Broom cracks the code in this subtle game of scientific one upmanship.

Chardonnay, Hedgehog and Cheap Dates all have one thing in common.

They are all names for genes, specifically of fruit fly, or drosophila, genes.

The trick is you have to guess what it is, so for example Amontillado is a allusion to the Edgar Allan Poe book where the hero is walled in alive; the gene amontillado refers to mutant larvae who can't hatch.

Chardonnay is a reference to the white blood cells and other wine genes are Chablis, Retsina and Chianti.

The wine collection is housed at Dr Leonard Zon's laboratory at Harvard Medical School.

When one of Dr Zon's students discovers a new wine gene, they are awarded with a bottle of that particular wine, although he has got wise to them choosing some of the more rarified and expensive vintages.

Other labs prefer to use Shakespeare characters, musical references or more colloquial terms such as Lush, referring to an increased affection for alcohol.

Sometimes there are races to name the gene, and a fight may break out between institutions.

Kathy Matthews of the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Centre in Indiana proudly says that fly geneticists were the first geneticists and therefore in the early days it was like being in the Wild West, but now political correctness is moving in.

More seriously, worm, mice and human geneticists think they should tone down their gene names.

Its not appropriate they say to call a gene a Sonic Hedgehog.

But Kathy and her colleagues are resisting; it is part of their tradition, they say.

A witty, whimsical or colloquial name can get a scientist lot of attention in the scientific community.

Sue Broom looks at some of the more famous examples and charts the resistance to turning Van Gogh into a chain of numbers and letters.

Genes have cryptic names.

The clue to what they do lies in their names.

Sue Broom looks.

Sue Broom looks at this game of scientific oneupmanship.

20090930

Sue Nelson investigates the humble source of the silicon chip.

Silicon is the second most common element in the Earth's crust.

It's in our mountains and forms the miles of sand on our beaches.

But despite this abundance, the world's supply of silicon chips relies on a single mining town in North Carolina.

That's because the small community of Spruce Pine is home to the purest quartz on Earth - and it's essential for making the chips that run every computer, digital radio, washing machine and microwave on the planet.

But why is quartz so important? The answer lies in how computer chips are made.

This uniquely pure mineral is destined to form the mixing bowls and tools that make the manufacture of silicon chips possible.

If the quartz is contaminated, then it's useless.

But by a stroke of geological luck these rocks formed in the shadow of the Blue Ridge Mountains are just perfect.

Without them, microchip development as we know it would grind to a halt.

Such technologically crucial materials don't come cheap.

And with such huge mineral wealth on their doorstep, the residents of Spruce Pine are sitting on a real-life big rock candy mountain.

Mining is the backbone of the local economy and has shaped the area's history, storytelling and bluegrass culture.

But as new quartz deposits are discovered in countries such as Norway, could Spruce Pine's reign be over? And what will the people of the town do if their last major industry disappears? Chips with Everything meets the locals of this Mitchell County town and digs beneath the surface of this strategically important mineral.

The world's supply of silicon chips relies on a mining town in North Carolina.

Sue Nels.

Sue Nelson looks at the industry in Spruce Pine.

20091028

Gareth Mitchell asks if nuclear fusion could at last be close to generating energy.

Nuclear fusion is the holy grail of alternative energy.

It is clean, green and could supply limitless energy to the world, but despite decades of research in some of the most expensive science facilities in the world, it has remained an elusive goal.

Scientists working at a new experimental facility in California are set to use giant laser beams to try and initiate nuclear fusion.

If nuclear fusion could be made to work commercially, the energy released will be of stellar proportions; this, after all, is the process that powers the Sun.

The total energy that could ever be created using wind, wave and solar power is ridiculously small by comparison.

Nuclear power, which is generated by fission not fusion, requires uranium - which will run out - and, of course, generates radioactive waste.

Gareth witnesses the start of a new era of nuclear fusion experiments.

He also goes to the Joint European Torus facility in Oxfordshire, which has been using a different technique to create nuclear fusion for nearly 30 years.

He finds out about ITER, the next big fusion experiment, which is just being built in the south of France.

20091104

Richard Hollingham reports on synthetic biology, a new science whose supporters hope wi.

Richard Hollingham reports on synthetic biology, a new science whose supporters hope will help redesign biological systems.

20091111

Story of German partition and reunification as seen through one of its companies, Zeiss.

This edition of Discovery examines the German partition and reunification as seen through the lens of one of the country's most prestigious companies, Carl Zeiss.

Like Germany itself, Carl Zeiss was split in two in 1945.

The history of the two factories, both specialising in optical technologies, encapsulates post-war political, social and technological separation, and subsequent re-unification.

Reporter Tim Whewell charts the history of the company, founded in 1846, which built a global reputation for producing high quality microscopes, scientific instruments, cameras and lenses.

Originally based in Jena in eastern Germany, the company was divided at the end of the second World War, with the Americans taking top Zeiss scientists west, to Oberkocken and the peoples' enterprise, V.E.B Carl Zeiss Jena, continuing in the GDR.

Like Germany itself, where early post war hopes lingered that the country wouldn't be divided, both parts of the Carl Zeiss company initially struggled to maintain contact.

But the bitterness and mistrust of the Cold War soon created deep political, economic and social divisons and the two parts of the company became bitter international rivals, arguing about who owned the Carl Zeiss trademark on the world market.

But in November 1989, 20 years ago, the Berlin Wall came down and while Germany reunified, Carl Zeiss in Oberkocken was determined that it too, should be reunited with Carl Zeiss in the East.

For this Discovery, Tim Whewell, speaks to the key figures who negotiated the subsequent unification of Carl Zeiss, to the workers in Jena, many of whom lost their jobs and to current staff and the company's leadership about the impact of this merger.

This edition of Discovery is part of BBC World Service's 1989: Europe's Revolution coverage, marking the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall

The story of German partition and reunification through one of the country's most prest.

The story of German partition and reunification through one of the country's most prestigious companies, Carl Zeiss.

20091125

How has Romanian agricultural science reinvented itself after the 1989 Revolution?

On Monday December 25th 1989, Christmas Day, Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena were tried and executed, and their communist regime overthrown.

At a stroke, a system of state controlled farming that prided itself on its efficiency and scientific approach came to an end.

Collective and state farms were dismantled, and the scientific infrastructure that had advised about animal and plant breeding, about soil quality, about mechanisation lost its status and its funding.

In this Discovery programme, Tim Whewell looks at what's happened to Romanian agriculture since 1989, and how agricultural science has had to reinvent itself in a post-communist, free market economy.

He visits one of the largest private farms in Romania and talks to its owner, Mr Stefan Poienaru, about the years before the Revolution.

Mr Poienaru now farms 19,000 hectares, and produces wine, cereals, sunflowers and rape seed as well as sheep and goats.

Tim meets Professor Cristian Hera, President of the Romanian Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences.

He also visits two research stations: the Fundulea Agricultural Research and Development Institute near Bucharest, and the National Institute of Research and Development for Potato and Sugar Beet at Brasov.

Both institutes are finding it hard to adapt post-communist politics and economics.

There seems to be general agreement among the bigger farmers and the agricultural scientists that if Romania is to fulfil its agricultural potential then it has to find a way of bringing land back into larger, more efficient units - as it had been before the 1989 Revolution.

This programme tells the story of Romanian agriculture, through communist collectivisat.

This programme tells the story of Romanian agriculture, through communist collectivisation to reform after the revolution.

2010030320100304
20100310

Twenty years after the emergence of the world wide web, Rory Cellan Jones looks at the.

Twenty years after the emergence of the world wide web, Rory Cellan Jones looks at the science driving its third decade.

2010042120100428

In a special edition of DISCOVERY, Geoff Watts is joined by some of the world's leading volcano experts to discuss the scientific impact of the eruption of Eyjafjallajoekull in Iceland.

He will be asking the scientists about the difficulties of predicting volcanic eruptions and the problems of assessing the dangers to aircraft.

What have vulcanologists learnt from previous eruptions in other parts of the world? And what are the long term consequences for flight and for the climate?

A special edition of DISCOVERY on the impact of the eruption of Eyjafjallajoekull.

Designer babies" are implausible, but will governments still use genetic science to al.

"Designer babies" are implausible, but will governments still use genetic science to alter populations?"

20100505

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? Geoff Watts

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? Geoff Watts asks what makes a science genius.

20100623

Jon Stewart talks to researchers trying to mitigate the effects of the oil spill from t.

Jon Stewart talks to researchers trying to mitigate the effects of the oil spill from the explosion of a Gulf of Mexico oil rig.

20100630

In the battle to stop viral attack on people, plants and livestock why isn't humankind.

In the battle to stop viral attack on people, plants and livestock why isn't humankind winning?

20100707

Dr.

Stuart Brown explores the psychological and social importance of play, revealing ho.

Stuart Brown explores the psychological and social importance of play, revealing how it shapes our brains and our emotions.

20100721

Experts warn that by 2030 asbestos could be linked to millions of deaths.

Despite this,.

Despite this, its use continues across the world.

2010082520100828

Karen Bartlett asks what is thrill? And can it be replicated psychologically, genetical.

Karen Bartlett asks what is thrill? And can it be replicated psychologically, genetically or technically for entertainment?

20100922

Kevin Fong examines the equation that seeks to answer one of the most profound question.

Kevin Fong examines the equation that seeks to answer one of the most profound questions in science: Are we alone in the cosmos?

20100929

Brian Cox presents a tribute to the great physicist, Richard Feynman

Brian Cox presents a tribute to Richard Feynman.

Widely regarded as the finest physicist of his generation and the most influential since Einstein, Feynman did much to popularise science, through lectures, books and television, not least his dramatic revelation before the world's media at a press conference in which he demonstrated the exact cause of the Challenger Shuttle explosion in 1986.

Described as the 'Mozart of physics', Feynman's amazing life and career seemingly had no end of highlights.

A student at MIT and then Princeton (where he obtained an unprecedented perfect score on the entrance exam for maths and physics), he was drafted onto the Manhattan Project as a junior scientist.

There his energy and talents made a significant mark on two of the project's leaders, Robert Oppenheimer and Hans Bethe.

The latter would become Feynman's lifelong mentor and friend.

Bethe called his student "a magician", setting him apart from other scientists as ‘no ordinary genius’.

In 1965, Feynman shared a Nobel Prize for his unique contribution to the field of Quantum Electrodynamics making him the most celebrated, influential and best known American Physicist of his generation.

He was possessed with a remarkable ability not only to understand the inner workings of the natural world but also an innate talent at communicating them to the rest of us, as revealed in his best selling books and landmark television series.

As curious as he was clever, Feynman not only made great contributions to physics, but also to other branches of science and is widely acknowledged as the father of nanotechnology.

In this programme we hear from colleagues, friends and former students as well as the great man himself about the beauty of nature and the importance of science to our understanding of the world.

20101006

Medical sleuths in West Africa make startling discoveries that could change child healt.

Medical sleuths in West Africa make startling discoveries that could change child health care worldwide.

20101020

Does the head really rule the heart as modern science would tell us? Tim Healey asks if.

Does the head really rule the heart as modern science would tell us? Tim Healey asks if the heart plays a role in our emotions.

20101027

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World Service with the Wellcome Collection.

2010121520101216

Nanoparticles are all around us.

What effect could they be having on our environment?

20101222

Nanoparticles are all around us.

What effect could they be having on our environment?

20110209

Dr Adam Hart explores the remarkable properties of honey, from its basic chemistry to t.

Dr Adam Hart explores the remarkable properties of honey, from its basic chemistry to the biological processes that create it.

20110216

Astronaut Jeff Hoffman looks back on 30 years of the US Space Shuttle

On 12th April 1981, the first US Space Shuttle, Columbia, blasted off from Cape Canaveral.

Now, 30 years later, as NASA prepares for the end on an era with the final Shuttle flights, Jeff Hoffman, a veteran of five Shuttle missions, looks back on three decades of the ‘Space Transportation System’ as it is officially known.

Why did it never become the low-cost re-useable ride into space that had been intended, and what will the US Human Spaceflight program do without it?

There have been five space-worthy Shuttles.

Now, following terrible accidents that destroyed Challenger and Columbia, there are three.

Each is likely to make one last flight this year.

Then they will become museum pieces and, for a while at least, the only way Americans will reach the International Space Station is as fare-paying passengers on Russian rockets.

Constellation, an ambitious but under-funded plan by President George W Bush to return Americans to the Moon and on to Mars, has been cancelled by President Obama.

Congress has charged NASA to develop a heavy-lift rocket to take astronauts beyond Earth, but at a price they say it can’t be done for.

Ferrying cargo and humans to the ISS is being left to private enterprise and there are some exiting, low cost options under development.

But none will be ready until long after the Shuttle retires.

A generation of engineers and scientists was inspired by the Apollo Moon landings.

They are mostly approaching retirement themselves, so how can NASA inspire a new generation?

20110309

Would you eat artificial meat, grown in a lab? Geoff Watts investigates

It doesn't look like the start of a food revolution, but small scraps of pig muscle tissue growing in a Dutch laboratory might be just that.

Professor Mark Post and his research team at the University of Maastricht are the first to have persuaded cells taken from the muscle fibres of a live pig to grow in dishes in a laboratory.

With increasing pressure on food supply and growing criticism of meat as an inefficient and environmentally costly form of nutrition, Geoff Watts looks at the science behind the idea of growing artificial meat.

Geoff visits Maastricht in Holland to see the muscle tissue being grown.

It’s on a small scale at the moment, and is limited by cost and production techniques.

Professor Post is optimistic about scaling up production, but he can’t predict how long it will take to transform the present short, thin strips of tissue into something with the texture and taste of real meat.

Geoff also talks to meat expert Professor Jeff Wood at the University of Bristol.

Jeff says that the flavour of meat is every bit as complicated and subtle as tasting wine.

He’s sceptical that an artificial product can ever be as tasty and satisfying as the real thing.

Mark Post accepts that producing meat in a lab doesn’t compare to raising live animals.

But unless large numbers of people change their eating habits, artificial meat production might become a case of "needs must".

2011032320110326

Vera Frankl investigates 'Internet Addiction', talking to web users and experts from the UK, USA and China.

Vera Frankl investigates 'Internet Addiction', talking to web users and experts from th.

2011032320110324

Vera Frankl investigates 'Internet Addiction', talking to web users and experts from th.

Vera Frankl investigates 'Internet Addiction', talking to web users and experts from the UK, USA and China.

2011040420110411

2011040420110409
20110606

Thirty years ago this week, the first cases of young gay men affected by a variety of mysterious symptoms and infections were reported in Los Angeles in California.

They had what would later become known as Aids.

For Discovery, the BBC's Jon Stewart looks back at how those first cases were recognised - and what has happened since.

How Aids appeared to come from nowhere 30 years ago

20110613
20110620
20110627
20110704
20110711
20110718
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20111010
20111017
2011120520111212

Vivienne Parry explores the crucial role the hormone leptin plays in the body.

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2012070920120710
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2012121720121218 (WS)
20121223 (WS)
01/08/201120110802
02/05/201120110503

Lucie Green reports on plans for a radio telescope the size of a continent

02/05/201120110507

Lucie Green reports on plans for a radio telescope the size of a continent

02/05/201120110509

Lucie Green reports on plans for a radio telescope the size of a continent

03/06/200920090607

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

03/10/201120111004
04/02/200920090205

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

04/06/20122012060520120605 (WS)
04/07/201120110705
04/11/200920091105

Richard Hollingham reports on synthetic biology, a new science whose supporters hope wi.

04/11/200920091108

Richard Hollingham reports on synthetic biology, a new science whose supporters hope will help redesign biological systems.

Richard Hollingham reports on synthetic biology, a new science whose supporters hope wi.

05/03/201220120306

A Discovery special looking at Fukushima one year after the earthquake and tsunami.

05/05/201020100506

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? Geoff Watts

05/09/201120110906
05/09/201120110910

The world's first animal with an artificial genetic code.

In a breakthrough in synthetic biology, Cambridge researchers have succeeded in re-writing a key part of an animal's genetic code.

The animal is a tiny, engineered species of laboratory worm, whose cells glow red, thanks to an unnatural amino acid the animals have been reprogrammed to recognise.

Most genetic engineering reshuffles genes that already exist in nature.

This work adds an extra card to nature's deck - vastly expanding the range of biomolecules researchers can work with.

The lead scientist behind the work, Dr Jason Chin, describes the development as "potentially transformational".

Last year Dr Chin won the European Molecular Biology Organisation's Gold Medal for his earlier work on reprogramming bacteria and yeast cells.

Roland Pease goes to the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge to meet the team behind the breakthrough and learn how it could help researchers illuminate hard problems in life sciences.

The world’s first animal with an artificial genetic code - Roland Pease reports.

05/09/201120110912

The world’s first animal with an artificial genetic code - Roland Pease reports.

05/12/201120111211

When leptin failed to be a wonder solution to obesity, this hormone produced by fat cells, disappeared from the headlines.

Twenty years on scientists now believe leptin is critical to how the body works, regulating appetite, the immune response, inflammation and depression.

Vivienne Parry investigates.

Vivienne Parry explores the crucial role the hormone leptin plays in the body.

06/02/201220120207
06/05/200920090507

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

06/06/201120110607

How Aids appeared to come from nowhere 30 years ago

06/10/201020101007

Medical sleuths in West Africa make startling discoveries that could change child healt.

07/01/200920090108

Roland Pease explores light�s continuing role in endless frontier of scientific progress.

07/07/201020100708

Dr.

Stuart Brown explores the psychological and social importance of play, revealing ho.

07/11/201120111108
07/11/201120111112
08/08/201120110809
09/02/201120110210

Dr Adam Hart explores the remarkable properties of honey, from its basic chemistry to t.

09/02/201120110212

Dr Adam Hart explores the remarkable properties of honey, from its basic chemistry to t.

09/03/201120110310

It doesn't look like the start of a food revolution, but small scraps of pig muscle tissue growing in a Dutch laboratory might be just that.

Professor Mark Post and his research team at the University of Maastricht are the first to have persuaded cells taken from the muscle fibres of a live pig to grow in dishes in a laboratory.

With increasing pressure on food supply and growing criticism of meat as an inefficient and environmentally costly form of nutrition, Geoff Watts looks at the science behind the idea of growing artificial meat.

Geoff visits Maastricht in Holland to see the muscle tissue being grown.

It’s on a small scale at the moment, and is limited by cost and production techniques.

Professor Post is optimistic about scaling up production, but he can’t predict how long it will take to transform the present short, thin strips of tissue into something with the texture and taste of real meat.

Geoff also talks to meat expert Professor Jeff Wood at the University of Bristol.

Jeff says that the flavour of meat is every bit as complicated and subtle as tasting wine.

He’s sceptical that an artificial product can ever be as tasty and satisfying as the real thing.

Mark Post accepts that producing meat in a lab doesn’t compare to raising live animals.

But unless large numbers of people change their eating habits, artificial meat production might become a case of "needs must".

Would you eat artificial meat, grown in a lab? Geoff Watts investigates

09/03/201120110312

It doesn't look like the start of a food revolution, but small scraps of pig muscle tissue growing in a Dutch laboratory might be just that.

Professor Mark Post and his research team at the University of Maastricht are the first to have persuaded cells taken from the muscle fibres of a live pig to grow in dishes in a laboratory.

With increasing pressure on food supply and growing criticism of meat as an inefficient and environmentally costly form of nutrition, Geoff Watts looks at the science behind the idea of growing artificial meat.

Geoff visits Maastricht in Holland to see the muscle tissue being grown.

It’s on a small scale at the moment, and is limited by cost and production techniques.

Professor Post is optimistic about scaling up production, but he can’t predict how long it will take to transform the present short, thin strips of tissue into something with the texture and taste of real meat.

Geoff also talks to meat expert Professor Jeff Wood at the University of Bristol.

Jeff says that the flavour of meat is every bit as complicated and subtle as tasting wine.

He’s sceptical that an artificial product can ever be as tasty and satisfying as the real thing.

Mark Post accepts that producing meat in a lab doesn’t compare to raising live animals.

But unless large numbers of people change their eating habits, artificial meat production might become a case of "needs must".

Would you eat artificial meat, grown in a lab? Geoff Watts investigates

09/05/201120110510

Inflight Science – Brian Clegg guides Jon Stewart in the science of aeroplane flight

Physicist and science writer Brian Clegg guides Jon Stewart on a journey though the science of aeroplane flight.

The whole experience of flying is filled with scientific discoveries – starting with how huge, heavy jumbo jets manage to get off the ground, how they navigate and why, unlike in Hollywood movies, it’s practically impossible to open the door mid flight?

09/05/201120110514

Inflight Science – Brian Clegg guides Jon Stewart in the science of aeroplane flight

09/05/201120110516

Inflight Science – Brian Clegg guides Jon Stewart in the science of aeroplane flight

10/03/201020100311

Twenty years after the emergence of the world wide web, Rory Cellan Jones looks at the.

10/10/201120111011
1000 Days: A Legacy Of Life2012050720120514

Could health depend on what happens in the womb? Mark Porter reports on this new idea.

1000 Days: A Legacy Of Life2012050720120513

Could health depend on what happens in the womb? Mark Porter reports on this new idea.

1000 Days: A Legacy Of Life2012050720120512

Could health depend on what happens in the womb? Mark Porter reports on this new idea.

Imagine if your health as an adult is partly determined by the nutrition and environment you were exposed to during a critical period of development - the first 1000 days of life. A strong body of scientific evidence supports this explosive idea, and is gradually turning medical thinking on its head. To understand the cause of chronic adult disease, including ageing, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity and lung problems we need to look much further back than adult lifestyle – but to the first 1000 days.

Dr Mark Porter investigates this influential idea and meets the world experts leading this burgeoning field of research. He talks to David Barker, Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Southampton and the man behind the Barker Theory. This links the risk of developing illnesses in adult life to poor nutrition in the womb – typically evident when a baby is born underweight. Low birth weight is associated with a number of long term health problems in adults, ranging from osteoporosis to stroke. Chronic disease may be expressions of key developments in the womb. “That does not mean you are doomed, it means you are vulnerable” explains Professor David Barker.

Researchers have studied the Dutch Famine or ‘Hunger Winter’ at the end of the Second World War where babies developing in the womb were exposed to severe conditions. Nearly seventy years later, Tessa Roseboom, a researcher at the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, has found long term health risks for Dutch adults who were in the womb during that difficult winter.

In recognising the long term impact of events during these early critical phases of development, the medical profession could dramatically change its approach to disease prevention.

Imagine if your health as an adult is partly determined by the nutrition and environment you were exposed to during a critical period of development - the first 1000 days of life. A strong body of scientific evidence supports this explosive idea, and is gradually turning medical thinking on its head. To understand the cause of chronic adult disease, including ageing, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity and lung problems we need to look much further back than adult lifestyle – but to the first 1000 days.

Dr Mark Porter investigates this influential idea and meets the world experts leading this burgeoning field of research. He talks to David Barker, Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Southampton and the man behind the Barker Theory. This links the risk of developing illnesses in adult life to poor nutrition in the womb – typically evident when a baby is born underweight. Low birth weight is associated with a number of long term health problems in adults, ranging from osteoporosis to stroke. Chronic disease may be expressions of key developments in the womb. “That does not mean you are doomed, it means you are vulnerable” explains Professor David Barker.

Researchers have studied the Dutch Famine or ‘Hunger Winter’ at the end of the Second World War where babies developing in the womb were exposed to severe conditions. Nearly seventy years later, Tessa Roseboom, a researcher at the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, has found long term health risks for Dutch adults who were in the womb during that difficult winter.

11/02/200920090212

In Darwin's Shadow: Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how.

11/07/201120110712
11/11/200920091112

Story of German partition and reunification as seen through one of its companies, Zeiss.

The story of German partition and reunification through one of the country's most prest.

11/11/200920091115

This edition of Discovery examines German partition and reunification as seen through the lens of one of the country's most prestigious companies, Carl Zeiss.

Like Germany itself, Carl Zeiss was divided after 1945 and the history of the two Zeiss factories, both specialising in optical technologies, mirrors post-war political, social and technological separation and subsequent re-unification.

Reporter Tim Whewell charts the history of the company, founded in 1846, which built a global reputation for producing high quality microscopes, scientific instruments, cameras and lenses.

Originally based in Jena in eastern Germany, the company was split at the end of the Second World War, with the Americans taking top Zeiss scientists west, to Oberkocken and the peoples' enterprise, V.E.B Carl Zeiss Jena, continuing in the GDR.

Like Germany itself, where early post war hopes lingered that the country wouldn't be divided, both parts of the Carl Zeiss company initially struggled to maintain contact.

But the bitterness and mistrust of the Cold War soon created deep political, economic and social divisions and the two parts of the company became bitter international rivals, arguing about who owned the Carl Zeiss trademark on the world market.

But in November 1989, 20 years ago, the Berlin Wall came down and while Germany reunified, Carl Zeiss in Oberkocken was determined that it too, should be reunited with Carl Zeiss in the East.

For this Discovery, Tim Whewell, speaks to the key figures who negotiated the subsequent unification of Carl Zeiss, to workers in Jena, many of whom lost their jobs and to current staff and the company's leadership about the impact of this merger.

This edition of Discovery is part of BBC World Service's 1989: Europe's Revolution coverage, marking the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Carl Zeiss: A State Within a State.

Story of German partition and reunification as seen through one of its companies, Zeiss.

12/09/201120110913
13/05/200920090514

The Large Binocular Telescope, the world's largest telescope is nearing completion.

13/05/200920090517

The Large Binocular Telescope, the world's largest telescope is nearing completion.

13/06/201120110614

This week's Discovery looks at whether monkeys and apes have language

This week's Discovery looks at the controversy over language.

Not human language, but that used by our closest relatives in the animal kingdom monkeys and apes.

Can they really communicate in a way that constitutes language and if so does this mean they are capable of what we might regard as conscious decision making?

14/11/201120111115

Jon Stewart examines how scientists are trying to bridge the gap between robots and humans

14/11/201120111120

Jon Stewart examines how scientists are trying to bridge the gap between robots and humans

14/11/201120111121

Jon Stewart examines how scientists are trying to bridge the gap between robots and humans

15/08/201120110816
15/12/201020101218

Nano-particles are all around us.

Some are man-made, others occur naturally.

Because they're so tiny - one nanometre is one billionth of a metre - nanoparticles can only be seen through an electron microscope.

Nanoparticles have unique physical properties, and scientists are looking for ways to exploit these characteristics.

Nanoparticles are currently used in medicine, in food, in clothes and cosmetics.

In the future, nanoparticles could also be used to help improve energy generation and storage.

They might also help us remove contaminants from polluted water.

In the first of two programmes about nanotechnology, Richard Hollingham investigates how a better understanding of the properties of nanoparticles is helping researchers develop new medical treatments.

Richard hears more about their characteristics and potential from Richard Moore at the Institute of Nanotechnology in Stirling.

Richard then talks to Dr Simon Holland and Wendy Knight at GlaxoSmithKline about research into using nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic agents to precise locations in the body.

Richard also visits MagForce, a German research company, that's developing a novel therapy using heated nanoparticles of iron oxide to destroy brain cancers.

Nano-particles are used in all sorts of products, from medicines to cosmetics and clothes

16/02/201120110217

Astronaut Jeff Hoffman looks back on 30 years of the US Space Shuttle

16/02/201120110219

Astronaut Jeff Hoffman looks back on 30 years of the US Space Shuttle

16/04/201220120417
16/05/201120110517
17/10/201120111018
18/03/200920090319

Discovery explores matters of lifespan and death among our early human ancestors.

18/04/201120110419
18/04/201120110423
18/04/201120110425
18/07/201120110719
18/07/201120110723
18/07/201120110725
19/12/201120111220
19/12/201120111225

Higgs particles at CERN. Roland Pease visits the world’s biggest atom smasher.

The Higgs particle is the final cornerstone of scientists’ model of the material universe. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN was built so researchers could discover it.

Last week, they announced a partial sighting – the ghost of a Higgs particle hoving into view in their plethora of data. But it could be just a phantom, and may start to fade with more data next year.

Roland Pease meets the scientists who are chasing this legendary particle, and gets exclusive access to the preparations for next year’s experiments.

19/12/201120111226

Higgs particles at CERN. Roland Pease visits the world’s biggest atom smasher.

220070401

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

20/05/200920090521

Ian Peacock discovers why certain smells can transport us back to our childhood.

20/05/200920090524

How do smells impact on memories and emotions? Science is unraveling how a whiff of perfume or a newly mown lawn can offer us a free ticket back to our childhood.

Ian Peacock discovers why certain smells can transport us back to our childhood.

20/06/201120110621
20/10/201020101021

Does the head really rule the heart as modern science would tell us? Tim Healey asks if.

21/04/201020100422

Designer babies" are implausible, but will governments still use genetic science to al."

21/04/201020100429

A special edition of DISCOVERY on the impact of the eruption of Eyjafjallajoekull.

21/07/201020100722

Experts warn that by 2030 asbestos could be linked to millions of deaths.

Despite this,.

21/07/201020100724

Canada mines and exports white asbestos or chrysotile to developing countries such as India.

The industry says that white asbestos can be used safely.

But a scientific controversy rages around the continued use of white asbestos,

And the World Health Organisation says that the most efficient way to eliminate asbestos related diseases, such as lung cancer, is to stop using all types of asbestos.

In Discovery, as part of the season of programmes Dangers in the Dust: Inside the Global Asbestos Trade, a joint investigation by the BBC and the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists Steve Bradshaw meets scientists on both sides of the debate.

Steve Bradshaw investigates the scientific controversy surrounding white asbestos.

21/11/201120111122
22/09/201020100923

Kevin Fong examines the equation that seeks to answer one of the most profound question.

22/12/201020101223

Nanoparticles are all around us.

What effect could they be having on our environment?

22/12/201020101225

Nanoparticles are all around us.

Some are man-made, others occur naturally.

Because they're so tiny - one nanometre is one billionth of a metre - nanoparticles can only be seen through an electron microscope.

Nanoparticles have unique physical properties, and scientists are looking for ways to exploit these characteristics.

Nanoparticles are currently used in medicine, in food, in clothes and cosmetics.

In the future, nanoparticles could also be used to help improve energy generation and storage.

They might also help us to remove contaminants from polluted water.

In the second of two programmes about nanotechnology, Richard Hollingham concentrates on the environmental uses for nanotechnology, especially water and energy generation.

Richard talks to Professor Eugene Cloete from Stellenbosch University in South Africa.

Professor Cloete has developed a water filter that looks like a teabag and which uses nanofibres to filter out contaminants, including cholera bacteria.

He visits the University of Brighton where a team led by Professor Andrew Cundy is developing ways of purifying large amounts of water at source, from reservoirs, lakes or rivers.

Richard also meets researchers at the University of Cambridge who are developing thin films of nanocrystals that capture sunlight and turn it into electrical energy.

As nanoparticles become more widely used, there’s growing concern about their safety.

Richard talks to Professor Ian Colbeck from Essex University about the potential dangers of nanoparticles escaping into the environment.

He also talks to Richard Denison from the Environmental Defence Fund in Washington who’s concerned about the lack of controls over the commercial exploitation of nanoparticles.

Nanoparticles are used in all sorts of products, from medicines to cosmetics and clothes.

23/01/201220120124
23/05/201120110524
23/06/201020100624

Jon Stewart talks to researchers trying to mitigate the effects of the oil spill from t.

23/09/200920090924

Kakapo, Cleopatra and Pavarotti are cryptic names for genes.

Sue Broom cracks the code.

Genes have cryptic names.

The clue to what they do lies in their names.

Sue Broom looks.

23/09/200920090927

Kakapo, Cleopatra and Pavarotti are cryptic names for genes; the clue to what they do lies in their names.

Sue Broom cracks the code in this subtle game of scientific one upmanship.

Chardonnay, Hedgehog and Cheap Dates all have one thing in common.

They are all names for genes, specifically of fruit fly, or drosophila, genes.

The trick is you have to guess what it is, so for example Amontillado is a allusion to the Edgar Allan Poe book where the hero is walled in alive; the gene amontillado refers to mutant larvae who can't hatch.

Chardonnay is a reference to the white blood cells and other wine genes are Chablis, Retsina and Chianti.

The wine collection is housed at Dr Leonard Zon's laboratory at Harvard Medical School.

When one of Dr Zon's students discovers a new wine gene, they are awarded with a bottle of that particular wine, although he has got wise to them choosing some of the more rarified and expensive vintages.

Other labs prefer to use Shakespeare characters, musical references or more colloquial terms such as Lush, referring to an increased affection for alcohol.

Sometimes there are races to name the gene, and a fight may break out between institutions.

Kathy Matthews of the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Centre in Indiana proudly says that fly geneticists were the first geneticists and therefore in the early days it was like being in the Wild West, but now political correctness is moving in.

More seriously, worm, mice and human geneticists think they should tone down their gene names.

Its not appropriate they say to call a gene a Sonic Hedgehog.

But Kathy and her colleagues are resisting; it is part of their tradition, they say.

A witty, whimsical or colloquial name can get a scientist lot of attention in the scientific community.

Sue Broom looks at some of the more famous examples and charts the resistance to turning Van Gogh into a chain of numbers and letters.

Kakapo, Cleopatra and Pavarotti are cryptic names for genes.

Sue Broom cracks the code.

25/03/200920090326

How sniffer dogs are trained to be used to fight crime and enhance security.

Exploration and breakthroughs in science.

Every Wednesday.

25/07/201120110726
25/08/201020100826

Karen Bartlett asks what is thrill? And can it be replicated psychologically, genetical.

25/11/200920091126

How has Romanian agricultural science reinvented itself after the 1989 Revolution?

This programme tells the story of Romanian agriculture, through communist collectivisat.

25/11/200920091129

How has Romanian agricultural science reinvented itself after the 1989 Revolution?

27/06/201120110628
27/10/201020101028

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

28/10/200920091029

Gareth Mitchell asks if nuclear fusion could at last be close to generating energy.

28/11/201120111129
29/09/201020100930

Brian Cox presents a tribute to the great physicist, Richard Feynman

29/09/201020101208

Ben Goldacre explores the battle to protect science writers from the threat of libel ac.

Ben Goldacre explores the battle to protect science writers from the threat of libel action.

29/09/201020101209

Ben Goldacre explores the battle to protect science writers from the threat of libel ac.

30/01/201220120131
30/06/201020100701

In the battle to stop viral attack on people, plants and livestock why isn't humankind.

30/09/200920091001

Sue Nelson investigates the humble source of the silicon chip.

The world's supply of silicon chips relies on a mining town in North Carolina.

Sue Nels.

30/09/200920091004

Silicon is the second most common element in the Earth's crust.

It's in our mountains and forms the miles of sand on our beaches.

But despite this abundance, the world's supply of silicon chips relies on a single mining town in North Carolina.

That's because the small community of Spruce Pine is home to the purest quartz on Earth - and it's essential for making the chips that run every computer, digital radio, washing machine and microwave on the planet.

But why is quartz so important? The answer lies in how computer chips are made.

This uniquely pure mineral is destined to form the mixing bowls and tools that make the manufacture of silicon chips possible.

If the quartz is contaminated, then it's useless.

But by a stroke of geological luck these rocks formed in the shadow of the Blue Ridge Mountains are just perfect.

Without them, microchip development as we know it would grind to a halt.

Such technologically crucial materials don't come cheap.

And with such huge mineral wealth on their doorstep, the residents of Spruce Pine are sitting on a real-life big rock candy mountain.

Mining is the backbone of the local economy and has shaped the area's history, storytelling and bluegrass culture.

But as new quartz deposits are discovered in countries such as Norway, could Spruce Pine's reign be over? And what will the people of the town do if their last major industry disappears? Chips with Everything meets the locals of this Mitchell County town and digs beneath the surface of this strategically important mineral.

Sue Nelson investigates the humble source of the silicon chip.

31/10/201120111101
4 Last2007041120070412

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

Africalab - 120080430

Hugh Levinson asks if developing Africa's scientific capability is the key to economic transformation in Africa.

Africalab - 2 Last20080507
Ageing & Telomeres 220110808

If you’re among the lucky few, you’ll live past 90 without suffering years of debilitating illnesses.

Your final decline will come swiftly and relatively gently.

In this week’s Discovery Andrew Luck-Baker looks at whether scientists can extend this kind of final exit to many more of us.

Their research centres on structures in our cells known as telomeres.

More immediately, this science may also lead to a kind of new cancer therapy.

New insights into why we age and how we might live more healthily for longer

Ageing & Telomeres 220110809

New insights into why we age and how we might live more healthily for longer

Ageing & Telomeres 220110813

If you’re among the lucky few, you’ll live past 90 without suffering years of debilitating illnesses.

Your final decline will come swiftly and relatively gently.

In this week’s Discovery Andrew Luck-Baker looks at whether scientists can extend this kind of final exit to many more of us.

Their research centres on structures in our cells known as telomeres.

More immediately, this science may also lead to a kind of new cancer therapy.

New insights into why we age and how we might live more healthily for longer

Ageing & Telomeres 220110815

New insights into why we age and how we might live more healthily for longer

Antarctic Subglacial Lake Exploration2011120520111206

Exploring Antarctica's subglacial lakes for lifeforms new to science.

One hundred years since humans first ventured to the South Pole, we are on the verge of a new era in Antarctic exploration.

In Discovery, Andrew Luck-Baker talks to scientists who'll soon be entering the last untouched realms on the planet.

They are poised to drill into ancient lakes trapped beneath thousands of metres of polar ice.

British, Russian and United states scientists all have ambitious projects underway to do this.

Among other quests, they will search for unique forms of life in these deep and hidden icy lakes.

Their efforts might ultimately lead to finding life on other worlds.

When leptin failed to be a wonder solution to obesity, this hormone produced by fat cells, disappeared from the headlines.

Twenty years on scientists now believe leptin is critical to how the body works, regulating appetite, the immune response, inflammation and depression.

Vivienne Parry investigates.

Vivienne Parry explores the crucial role the hormone leptin plays in the body

Antarctica - 120080402
Antarctica - 120080403
Antarctica - 220080410
Antarctica - 4 Last20080423
Antarctica - 4 Last20080424
Antarctica - 4 Last20080427
Antivirals20111212

An increasing understanding of genetics has uncovered new targets for antiviral drug treatments.

Although still in the very early stages, scientists say they may be able to develop drug treatments which can be used against a range of viruses.

At present antiviral drugs are very specific, usually attacking just one virus.

However the research which Kevin Fong examines in this edition of Discovery suggests 'broad spectrum antivirals', drugs capable of curing all viral infections from the common cold to HIV, may be with us in a few years time.

Such drugs could revolutionise medicine dealing a blow to viruses in much the same way as the invention of antibiotics did to bacterial infections over the last century.

Antivirals.

Kevin Fong looks at new techniques aiming to cure all viral infections

Antivirals20111213

Kevin Fong looks at new techniques aiming to cure all viral infections

Antivirals20111218

An increasing understanding of genetics has uncovered new targets for antiviral drug treatments.

Although still in the very early stages, scientists say they may be able to develop drug treatments which can be used against a range of viruses.

At present antiviral drugs are very specific, usually attacking just one virus.

However the research which Kevin Fong examines in this edition of Discovery suggests 'broad spectrum antivirals', drugs capable of curing all viral infections from the common cold to HIV, may be with us in a few years time.

Such drugs could revolutionise medicine dealing a blow to viruses in much the same way as the invention of antibiotics did to bacterial infections over the last century.

Kevin Fong looks at new techniques aiming to cure all viral infections.

Antivirals20111219

Kevin Fong looks at new techniques aiming to cure all viral infections.

Artificial Blood2012070920120716
20120710 (WS)

Vivienne Parry meets scientists hoping to create artificial blood.

Could creating "blood" in the laboratory make infections passed on through blood transfusions a thing of the past? Vivienne Parry investigates.

The drive behind the quest for creating a blood substitute was originally from the US Military - during the Vietnam War a clean, reliable and portable alternative to donor blood would have helped to save many lives.

Donated blood can only be kept for a limited time, needs refrigerating and has to be cross matched according to which ABO group people belong to. The "universal donor" - O negative blood - can be used on accident victims before a match is found. But it's in very short supply and often many units of blood are required.

The history of creating blood has had a chequered past - with some products abandoned because of side effects and others proving too costly to produce. One analysis of clinical trials on blood substitutes in 2008 revealed a higher incidence of heart attacks in patients who'd been given them, compared with those who received human blood.

Some scientists have tried using the pigment found in oxygen-carrying red blood cells - haemoglobin. This molecule is normally packed into the cells, so that it can "grab" oxygen breathed in by the lungs and release it in minute capillaries, providing the body with the oxygen needed to surivive. But "free" haemoglobin is toxic to the body - presenting researchers with a technical challenge.

Another approach has been to grow human red blood cells from cells extracted from umbilical cords - known as blood pharming. But with the average blood transfusion containing 2.5 million million red blood cells the scale of production would have to be enormous. A special cocktail of growth factors coax these stem cells into becoming red blood cells just like those the body produces naturally.

(Image: A syringe filled with blood)

Artificial Blood2012070920120715

Could creating "blood" in the laboratory make infections passed on through blood transfusions a thing of the past? Vivienne Parry investigates.

The drive behind the quest for creating a blood substitute was originally from the US Military - during the Vietnam War a clean, reliable and portable alternative to donor blood would have helped to save many lives.

Donated blood can only be kept for a limited time, needs refrigerating and has to be cross matched according to which ABO group people belong to. The "universal donor" - O negative blood - can be used on accident victims before a match is found. But it's in very short supply and often many units of blood are required.

The history of creating blood has had a chequered past - with some products abandoned because of side effects and others proving too costly to produce. One analysis of clinical trials on blood substitutes in 2008 revealed a higher incidence of heart attacks in patients who'd been given them, compared with those who received human blood.

Some scientists have tried using the pigment found in oxygen-carrying red blood cells - haemoglobin. This molecule is normally packed into the cells, so that it can "grab" oxygen breathed in by the lungs and release it in minute capillaries, providing the body with the oxygen needed to surivive. But "free" haemoglobin is toxic to the body - presenting researchers with a technical challenge.

Another approach has been to grow human red blood cells from cells extracted from umbilical cords - known as blood pharming. But with the average blood transfusion containing 2.5 million million red blood cells the scale of production would have to be enormous. A special cocktail of growth factors coax these stem cells into becoming red blood cells just like those the body produces naturally.

(Image: A syringe filled with blood)

Artificial Life20100609

Roland Pease explores the latest attempts to create life in a lab.

Roland Pease explores Craig Venter's research into artificial life and others who are working towards creating life in a lab.

Artificial Life20100610

Roland Pease explores the latest attempts to create life in a lab.

Artificial Photosynthesis2012071620120722
20120722 (WS)
20120723 (WS)

Prof Andrea Sella reports on the race to better nature at harnessing the sun's energy.

Chemist Andrea Sella explores the current race to do photosynthesis better than nature ever achieved.

In just a few hundred years mankind has burnt fossil fuels that had taken natural photosynthesis billions of years to create.

Now, around the world hundreds of millions of pounds are being spent on the race to develop a robust, cheap and efficient way to turn the light from the sun into fuels we can use.

At a time when politicians everywhere debate the economic and climatic burdens of our future energy needs, such a "solar fuel" would be a genuinely novel alternative energy.

(Image: Some beech leaves. Credit: Martin Dohrn /Science Photo Library)

Clinical Trials - 22007010320070104

In March 2006, six men given new drug TGN 1412 to test became violently ill.

In this series, Vivienne Parry looks at the past and future of clinical testing.

Clinical Trials - 220070106

In March 2006, six men given new drug TGN 1412 to test became violently ill.

In this series, Vivienne Parry looks at the past and future of clinical testing.

Clinical Trials - 3 Last20070113

Conclusion of the three-part series in which Vivienne Parry examines the future of drug testing.

Clinical Trials - 3 Last20070114

Conclusion of the three-part series in which Vivienne Parry examines the future of drug testing.

Czech Republic - The Story Of Semtex20091118

The story of Semtex, a Czech plastic explosive that took centre stage in the military s.

The story of Semtex, a Czech plastic explosive that took centre stage in the military struggle between East and West.

Czech Republic - The Story Of Semtex20091119

The story of Semtex, a Czech plastic explosive that took centre stage in the military s.

Dating The Past - 120070725

Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archeaologists reveal the past.

Dating The Past - 120070726

Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archeaologists reveal the past.

Dengue Fever20110524

Release of Genetically Modified mosquitoes to control Dengue fever in Brazil.

Dengue fever is carried in the tropics all around the world by the mosquito: Aedis aegypti.

The disease passes from person to person via these mosquitoes.

Dengue doesn’t exist in forests and fields, only where people live, so it’s particularly prevalent in towns.

Dengue is endemic in Brazil.

The only weapon against it is chemical spray.

But it’s hard to catch the mozzies as they lurk in the tiniest pool of water.

Also, once you get infected with Dengue (symptoms ranging from mild-flu-like to bedridden ‘breakbone fever’) all subsequent infections just get worse.

It’s why the Brazilians are desperate to find a new way of stopping Dengue – for which there is no vaccine.

That’s the reason Brazil is the first country in the world to run a GM mosquito public health programme.

They already have facilities for producing vast numbers of sterile mosquitoes – though they produce them via irradiation.

Last summer we reported on caged outdoor trials in Mexico of mosquitoes genetically modified to fight Dengue.

In Brazil in February this year, UK company Oxitec, in collaboration with the University of Sao Paolo and a company called Moscamed in Brazil, started doing test releases in the city of Juazeiro, in Bahia province of N E Brazil.

(Juazeiro is close to Brazil’s major tropical fruit exporting city of Petrolina).

The test was to see whether the GM mozzies would survive and do their job in the wild, which they seemed to.

Dengue Fever20110530

Release of genetically modified mosquitoes to control Dengue fever in Brazil

is carried in the tropics all around the world by the mosquito Aedis aegypti.

The disease passes from person to person via these mosquitoes.

Dengue doesn’t exist in forests and fields, only where people live, so it’s particularly prevalent in towns.

Dengue is endemic in Brazil.

The only weapon against it is chemical spray.

But it’s hard to catch the mozzies as they lurk in the tiniest pool of water.

Also, once you get infected with Dengue (symptoms ranging from mild-flu-like to bedridden ‘breakbone fever’) all subsequent infections just get worse.

It’s why the Brazilians are desperate to find a new way of stopping Dengue – for which there is no vaccine.

That’s the reason Brazil is the first country in the world to run a GM mosquito public health programme.

They already have facilities for producing vast numbers of sterile mosquitoes – though they produce them via irradiation.

Last summer we reported on caged outdoor trials in Mexico of mosquitoes genetically modified to fight Dengue.

In Brazil in February this year, UK company Oxitec, in collaboration with the University of Sao Paolo and a company called Moscamed in Brazil, started doing test releases in the city of Juazeiro, in Bahia province of N E Brazil.

(Juazeiro is close to Brazil’s major tropical fruit exporting city of Petrolina).

The test was to see whether the GM mozzies would survive and do their job in the wild, which they seemed to.

Depression20120123

Geoff Watts meets researchers looking for clues to the origins of depression as a way of finding new solutions to treating it. In the first of two programmes Geoff talks to the father of evolutionary medicine, Randolph Nesse and asks why hasn’t natural selection made us less vulnerable to psychological diseases? Could it be that depression is in some way useful to our lives?

Geoff Watts meets researchers asking the question: why do we get depressed?

Depression20120124

Geoff Watts meets researchers asking the question: why do we get depressed?

Depression20120128

Geoff Watts meets researchers asking the question: why do we get depressed?

Depression20120129

Geoff Watts meets researchers asking the question: why do we get depressed?

Depression20120130

Geoff Watts meets researchers trying to find a new way to fight depression by studying those who never get it. In the second of two programmes Geoff meets scientists at the University of Manchester, studying the brains of people who have undergone traumatic life events without becoming seriously depressed and comparing them to the brains of those people who do. The hope is that new psychological therapies or even preventative medications might be developed to treat the one in five people who will at some point in their lives, become clinically depressed.

Geoff Watts meets researchers trying to find a new way to fight depression

Geoff Watts meets researchers looking for clues to the origins of depression as a way of finding new solutions to treating it.

In the first of two programmes Geoff talks to the father of evolutionary medicine, Randolph Nesse and asks why hasn't natural selection made us less vulnerable to psychological diseases?

Could it be that depression is in some way useful to our lives?

(Image: A depressed young boy. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Geoff Watts meets researchers asking the question: why do we get depressed?

Depression20120131

Geoff Watts meets researchers trying to find a new way to fight depression

Depression20120204

Geoff Watts meets researchers trying to find a new way to fight depression

Depression20120206

Geoff Watts meets researchers trying to find a new way to fight depression by studying those who never get it.

In the second of two programmes Geoff meets scientists at the University of Manchester, studying the brains of people who have undergone traumatic life events without becoming seriously depressed and comparing them to the brains of those people who do.

The hope is that new psychological therapies or even preventative medications might be developed to treat the one in five people who will at some point in their lives, become clinically depressed.

(Image: MRI scan of the head and brain. Credit: Corbis Royalty Free)

Geoff Watts meets researchers trying to find a new way to fight depression.

Designer Babies20100501

Could genetic manipulation succeed and enable governments to meddle with designer babies?

It's not yet possible to select a gene for intelligence, height or athletic prowess - so there are unlikely to be many embryos obtained for designer baby production lines", argues journalist Andrew Brown.

But outside the lab, thinking about how to "plan" populations hasn't been abandoned altogether.

Some fear that in parts of Africa and South and East Asia - where being female is almost considered a handicap, gene selection technology could be used to alter the gender balance of populations.

What can be done to prevent this? Speaking to leading scientists, demographers, family planners and to parents, Andrew Brown discovers the motivations behind trying to manipulate the science.

He finds out if attempts at manipulation could be successful on a big scale and how far scientists can influence public opinion on the issue."

Discovery: James Gleick20110530

James Gleick is an acclaimed science writer who first came to prominence in the late 1980s with Chaos: Making a New Science his groundbreaking work chronicling the development of chaos theory.

Now comes The Information; A history; a theory a flood.

The new book expertly charts the evolution of the language of communication from the talking drum to the personal computer.

In Discovery Colin Grant talks to James Gleick about the ideas that have been illuminated in The Information.

Several pioneering figures are thrown up in Gleick’s account, including Ada Byron, regarded by some as the first computer programmer long before the birth of computers.

Charles Babbage the 19th century inventor of an Analytical machine, is also a key player.

But at the heart of the Information is an examination of Information Theory which was first proposed by the mathematician Claude Shannon in 1948.

Information Theory underpins all digital communication.

Grant discusses the lasting importance of Information Theory and the work of Shannon and his predecessors on the world of science.

Discovery talks to James Gleick, about his book, The Information, a history of information

Discovery: James Gleick20110531

Discovery talks to James Gleick, about his book, The Information, a history of information

Discovery: Smallpox20110517

Jon Stewart asks if remaining stocks of smallpox virus should be destroyed.

Should we deliberately make a living organism extinct? Some argue that we should, where that organism is a deadly virus that killed around 300 million people during the 20th Century, leaving many more scarred for life.

The organism in question is the smallpox virus.

Smallpox is one of the few complete medical success stories, the only disease to have been totally eradicated in Nature.

The last natural case occurred in 1977 in Somalia, after a long and intensive vaccination campaign that used 2.4 billion doses of vaccine.

But there was one more smallpox death, in 1978, when a laboratory worker in Birmingham, England was accidently infected with virus stored there.

Those stocks were destroyed, leaving only two secure reserves; one in Atlanta in the USA and one now in Siberia.

But should these too now be destroyed?

Jon Stewart looks at the history of smallpox and discusses its possible future with Edward Hammond, consultant to The Third World Network NGO, who believes the virus should be destroyed; and Raymond Weinstein of Georgetown University School of Medicine who makes the case for preserving it in secure facilities for possible research to combat disease or bioterrorism.

Discovery: Smallpox20110521

Jon Stewart asks if remaining stocks of smallpox virus should be destroyed.

Discovery: Smallpox20110523

Jon Stewart asks if remaining stocks of smallpox virus should be destroyed.

Discovery: Telomeres20110801

Is there a test that tells you how long you'll live?

If you read and believed some newspaper headlines in recent months, you might think so.

The claim surrounds an area of ageing research known as telomere biology.

Telomeres are DNA structures which cap the ends of our chromosomes.

They shorten over the course of our lives.

Some scientists believe measuring their length reveals how fast we are ageing biologically and are making telomere tests available to the public for the first time.

What's the science behind telomere length and what can it really tell you about your heath and life prospects?

Andrew Luck-Baker reports from a meeting of leading telomere researchers in Stockholm.

Is there a test for how long you will live? Controversies in cutting edge ageing research

Is there a test that tells you how long you’ll live? If you read and believed some newspaper headlines in recent months, you might think so.

What’s the science behind telomere length and what can it really tell you about your heath and life prospects? Andrew Luck-Baker reports from a meeting of leading telomere researchers in Stockholm.

Discovery: Telomeres20110802

Is there a test for how long you will live? Controversies in cutting edge ageing research

Discovery: Telomeres20110806

Is there a test for how long you will live? Controversies in cutting edge ageing research

Discovery: Telomeres20110808

Is there a test that tells you how long you'll live?

If you read and believed some newspaper headlines in recent months, you might think so.

The claim surrounds an area of ageing research known as telomere biology.

Telomeres are DNA structures which cap the ends of our chromosomes.

They shorten over the course of our lives.

Some scientists believe measuring their length reveals how fast we are ageing biologically and are making telomere tests available to the public for the first time.

What's the science behind telomere length and what can it really tell you about your heath and life prospects?

Andrew Luck-Baker reports from a meeting of leading telomere researchers in Stockholm.

Is there a test for how long you will live? Controversies in cutting edge ageing research

End Of Drug Discovery - 12012100820121014 (WS)
20121015 (WS)

The long and expensive struggle to get medicines to market

We are in desperate need of new medicines for the major diseases facing us in the 21st Century such as Alzheimer's and obesity. And we are running out of antibiotics that are effective against bacteria that are now resistant to many old varieties. As bringing new and improved drugs to patients becomes more difficult and more expensive - it can take 20 years and around $1 billion to bring a medicine to market - Geoff Watts asks what's gone wrong and what can be done to get new pharmaceutical treatments to patients.

Geoff talks to a number of researchers who have worked both within the pharmaceutical industry and publicly funded laboratories to get their views on why the source of drugs has dried up. These include Dr Patrick Vallance, of global pharmaceutical giant GSK, Professor Paul Workman of the Institute of Cancer Research, and Professor Chas Bountra of Oxford University's Structural Genomics Consortium.

They argue that the age of the blockbuster drug which can treat millions of patients is over and that we don't know enough science to be able to find treatments for conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Tilli Tansey, Professor of the History of Modern Medical Science at Queen Mary University in London puts the state of drug discovery in its historical context.

(Image: Pills and capsules. Credit: Science Photo Library)

End Of Drug Discovery - 22012101520121022 (WS)

We are in desperate need of new medicines for the major diseases facing us in the 21st century such as Alzheimer's and obesity. And we are running out of antibiotics that are effective against bacteria that are now resistant to many old varieties. As bringing new and improved drugs to patients becomes more difficult and more expensive - it can take 20 years and around $1 billion to bring a medicine to market.

In the second programme looking at the problem with drug discovery, Geoff Watts asks what can be done to get new pharmaceutical treatments to patients.

He discovers that the industry is risk averse and regulations to ensure that drugs are safe and effective are burdensome. But there are pilot projects to speed up the process.

Geoff finds out that the experts believe that there needs to be a fundamental change in the drug development process, and the key ingredient is collaboration - between industry and academia and between different drug companies. He also discovers that the medical charity, the Wellcome Trust, is putting money into the development of antibiotics, a field not of interest to many pharmaceutical companies.

(Image: Pills in a jar, Credit: Getty Images)

Energy Harvesting20080625

Gareth Mitchell meets the scientists who are developing ways of generating electricity from human and mechanical vibration.

Energy Harvesting20080626

Gareth Mitchell meets the scientists who are developing ways of generating electricity from human and mechanical vibration.

Exchanges At The Frontier20101030

At 80, would you want the body of a 40 year old?

Cynthia Kenyon is professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the University of California at San Francisco.

She is a leading specialist in the genetics of ageing.

Compare the life spans of similarly-sized animals, living in similar environments and their life expectancies can be very different; for mice it's two years; for canaries it's 15 years; and for bats it can be 50 years.

Her work has revealed a latent ability in organisms to live longer - and with a younger body - than they currently do.

Kenyon has been able to extend the life of her experimental subjects - a species of worm - by up to a factor of six.

Now she is exploring whether any such a thing is possible for humans.

If it is, is this something that we would want to experience?

The philosopher AC Grayling and an audience of the public at Wellcome Collection in London test Cynthia Kenyon on the science of her research and the possible implications of her findings.

AC Grayling discussed the genetics of ageing with experimental scientist Cynthia Kenyon

Fifty Years Of Human Spaceflight - The Yuri Gagarin Legacy20110418

Experts discuss the future of the Russian space programme

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian space programme was in disarray.

Starved of funding and with cosmonauts orbiting in the Mir Space Station having lost the nation that sent them, even the main launch site at Baikonur was no longer in the same Union.

But a legacy of solid, reliable rockets has ensured their future as a commercial launch provider.

In particular, Russian rockets have been the main vehicles for delivering both cargo and crew to the International Space Station.

With the end of space shuttle flights, they will, for a while at least, be the only way of getting humans to the ISS.

They have even flown fare-paying tourists.

In this programme, Richard Hollingham reviews recent successes and asks a panel of experts what the next 50 years might hold for the Russian space programme.

Guests

Frank de Winne (ESA astronaut who has commanded the International Space Station)

Dr Iya Whiteley (Psychologist at UCL, the European Astronaut Centre and the University of Bath)

Dr Roald Sagdeev, (former Head of the Soviet Space Science Institute and advisor to President Gorbachev)

Yuri Karash (Moscow-based commentator on Russian space).

Fingerprints On Trial20110402

Fingerprinting has long-been seen as the Gold Standard of forensic science.

This century-old discipline has played a key role in evidence-gathering for law enforcement agencies around the world.

But Claudia Hammond investigates the science behind fingerprinting and hears claims that this branch of forensic science is fallible, subjective and lacking in scientific rigour.

She considers a growing body of research from cognitive psychology and neuroscience which demonstrates the very real potential for mistakes, despite the fact that for years, fingerprint experts have claimed that if their methods are used correctly, their error rate is zero.

Claudia hears from Brandon Mayfield, a lawyer from Oregon in the USA, who faced a possible death penalty when FBI experts asserted that they were one hundred per cent sure that his fingerprints matched a print found at the scene of the 2004 Madrid train bombings.

The FBI was forced to release Mr Mayfield and issue a public apology.

But his case and another high-profile fingerprinting error, the Shirley McKie case in Scotland, have turned a critical spotlight onto fingerprint evidence around the world.

Critics say fingerprinting isn’t fit for purpose, Claudia Hammond investigates

Fingerprints On Trial2011040420110405

Critics say fingerprinting isn’t fit for purpose, Claudia Hammond investigates

Fingerprinting has long-been seen as the Gold Standard of forensic science.

This century-old discipline has played a key role in evidence-gathering for law enforcement agencies around the world.

But Claudia Hammond investigates the science behind fingerprinting and hears claims that this branch of forensic science is fallible, subjective and lacking in scientific rigour.

She considers a growing body of research from cognitive psychology and neuroscience which demonstrates the very real potential for mistakes, despite the fact that for years, fingerprint experts have claimed that if their methods are used correctly, their error rate is zero.

Claudia hears from Brandon Mayfield, a lawyer from Oregon in the USA, who faced a possible death penalty when FBI experts asserted that they were one hundred per cent sure that his fingerprints matched a print found at the scene of the 2004 Madrid train bombings.

The FBI was forced to release Mr Mayfield and issue a public apology.

But his case and another high-profile fingerprinting error, the Shirley McKie case in Scotland, have turned a critical spotlight onto fingerprint evidence around the world.

Flu2012061120120618

Two teams of virologists found themselves at the heart of bioterrorism maelstrom late last year when their studies on mutant bird flu were suppressed by US authorities.

While security experts feared the reports were recipes for bioweapons of mass destruction, the researchers argued they held important lessons for the threat of natural flu pandemics developing in the wild.

Now the authorities have backed down and the reports have been released. Kevin Fong hears how tiny variations in the genes of bird flu can completely change the behaviour of the pathogens and he asks whether deliberate genetic manipulation in the lab can replicate the natural genetic variations occurring in farms around the world.

In 2009, the new strain of H1N1 flu emerged from a few villages in Mexico to infect the world in weeks. What experts fear is that a simple genetic change to H5N1 bird flu could allow it to spread as fast, but with far deadlier consequences. They argue that by identifying dangerous variants in the lab first, we'd be better prepared with vaccines ahead of the danger.

Producer Roland Pease.

(Image: A coloured transmission electron micrograph of the H5N1 virus, better known as bird flu. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Food Science - 12008031220080313

A major documentary series that explores the research scientists are carrying out to ensure food security in the future.

Food Science - 220080319
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Four Cities - 120070321

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

From Cradle To Grave20110822

In medicine, there are few certainties when it comes to cause and effect.

Diseases can take a long time to develop and people tend overall to live a long time.

And during their lives they're exposed to an almost endless series of experiences that might alter their risk of developing a particular condition (diet, social class, lifestyle, economics, education and so on).

So the only way we can be reasonably certain about the risks is to observe vast numbers of people over a long period of time and record what happens to them.

It's costly, it's unbelievably slow but it works and it's the bedrock of medicine.

Without the numerous evidence-based discoveries that have come out of decades of longitudinal science, medicine would be stuck in the dark ages.

In this programme, Dr Ben Goldacre, medic and author of Bad Science explores the past, present and future of longitudinal research.

How did these monumental long term-studies come about? What have we learned from them and what do we still need to know?

Ben talks to some of the pioneers of epidemiology including Sir Michael Marmot whose famous study on civil servants changed our view of executive stress and Professor Diana Kuh, who now leads the 1946 cohort study.

And he meets the scientists behind a new UK Birth cohort study, starting in 2012 which will track a whole new generation of children, starting from their development in the womb to their final days of life.

Dr Ben Goldacre explores the science of epidemiology, from the cradle the grave.

From Cradle To Grave20110823

Dr Ben Goldacre explores the science of epidemiology, from the cradle the grave.

From Cradle To Grave20110827

In medicine, there are few certainties when it comes to cause and effect.

Diseases can take a long time to develop and people tend overall to live a long time.

And during their lives they're exposed to an almost endless series of experiences that might alter their risk of developing a particular condition (diet, social class, lifestyle, economics, education and so on).

So, the only way we can be reasonably certain about the risks is to observe vast numbers of people over a long period of time and record what happens to them.

It's costly, it's unbelievably slow but it works and it's the bedrock of medicine.

Without the numerous evidence-based discoveries that have come out of decades of longitudinal science, medicine would be stuck in the dark ages.

In this programme, Dr Ben Goldacre, medic and author of Bad Science explores the past, present and future of longitudinal research.

How did these monumental long term-studies come about?

What have we learned from them and what do we still need to know?

Ben talks to some of the pioneers of epidemiology including Sir Michael Marmot whose famous study on civil servants changed our view of executive stress and Professor Diana Kuh, who now leads the 1946 cohort study.

And he meets the scientists behind a new UK Birth cohort study, starting in 2012 which will track a whole new generation of children, starting from their development in the womb to their final days of life.

Dr Ben Goldacre explores the science of epidemiology, from the cradle to the grave

From Cradle To Grave20110829

Dr Ben Goldacre explores the science of epidemiology, from the cradle to the grave

Fukushima Nuclear Accident20120310

Its nearly a year (March 11 2011) since Japan was struck by a huge earthquake and Tsunami. Clouds of radioactive fall out from damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi power station spread across heavily populated areas many kilometres from the plant.

The government and power company TEPCO have been heavily criticised for not telling the local population soon enough about what was going on - in many cases people evacuated to areas with higher radiation levels than those they fled. As a result, deep mistrust developed towards government or TEPCO pronouncements on the nuclear incident.

In this special one hour edition of Discovery Mariko Oi, visits the Fukushima prefecture to find out what has happened since. She meets scientists working to piece together an accurate picture of the effects of the radioactive fall out, both on the environment and human health. She hears from local community grassroots organisations, many people living in fear of radiation, they argue for a mass clean up operation to reduce radiation levels to zero and further evacuations, especially of children.

Mariko examines the current decontamination efforts, which involve removing and disposing of huge quantities of soil and concrete contaminated with caesium 137 – a radioactive isotope which can persist in the environment for 30 years or more. The programme questions whether attempting to remove such contamination is really effective -or even necessary, and contrasts the fears of radiation with the scientific reality.

The Scientific legacy of the Fukushima nuclear accident.

Fukushima Nuclear Accident20120312

It's nearly a year (11 March 2011) since Japan was struck by a huge earthquake and Tsunami.

Clouds of radioactive fall out from damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi power station spread across heavily populated areas - many kilometres from the plant.

The government and power company TEPCO have been heavily criticised for not telling the local population soon enough about what was going on - in many cases people evacuated to areas with higher radiation levels than those they fled.

As a result, deep mistrust developed towards government or TEPCO pronouncements on the nuclear incident.

In this special one hour edition of Discovery Mariko Oi, visits the Fukushima prefecture to find out what has happened since.

She meets scientists working to piece together an accurate picture of the effects of the radioactive fall out, both on the environment and human health.

She hears from local community grassroots organisations, many people living in fear of radiation, they argue for a mass clean up operation to reduce radiation levels to zero and further evacuations, especially of children.

Mariko examines the current decontamination efforts, which involve removing and disposing of huge quantities of soil and concrete contaminated with caesium 137 – a radioactive isotope which can persist in the environment for 30 years or more.

The programme questions whether attempting to remove such contamination is really effective - or even necessary, and contrasts the fears of radiation with the scientific reality.

(Image: A journalist watching stricken Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant at Okuma town in Fukushima prefecture. Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

The scientific legacy of the Fukushima nuclear accident.

Future Flight: Prog 1 Of 22012072320120724 (WS)
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Gareth Mitchell meets the engineers who will transform the way we fly around the world.

Gareth Mitchell meets the engineers who will transform the way we fly around the world and finds out what aircraft might look like in the future.

Gareth visits the flight gallery at the Science Museum in London with the curator, Dr Andrew Nahum, who shows him how the basic shape of aircraft has hardly changed in 70 years, since the days of the DC3. Andrew Nahum also talks about why Concorde was in service for such a short time.

David Caughey, Emeritus Professor of Aeronautical Engineering at Cornell University, points out that the blended wing shaped aircraft is more energy efficient. So Gareth asks why we don't see them in service today - the answer is that apart from the innate caution of the airline manufacturers, the passengers would have no windows and it could be hard to evacuate such a craft speedily in an emergency.

Gareth talks to Professor Jeff Jupp who worked on the wings of the largest passenger plane, the A380, about the technical challenges.

Professor Paul Weaver at Bristol University tells Gareth about his work on making wings that change shape like birds'.

And Colin Sirett, Head of Research and Technology at Airbus UK, discusses some ideas for planes of the future, such as see-through fuselages and pods that take passengers from the airport and attach to the aircraft.

(Image: The Douglas DC-3)

Future Flight: Prog 2 Of 22012073020120731 (WS)
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Gareth Mitchell meets the engineers who are designing flying cars and green aircraft.

Gareth has a go at flying a personal aircraft in the flight simulator at Liverpool University. Doctors Mike Jump and Mark White explain that the EU-funded project MyCopter is seriously looking at the prospect of flying personal vehicles that are as easy to drive as a car.

Sophie Robinson, a Ph.D student at Liverpool University, explains how her research into the safety and stability of auto-gyros, flying machines that already exist for personal travel, could set standards for the flying cars of the future.

Prof Jeff Jupp, who worked on the wings of the largest passenger plane, the A380, talks about alternative fuels to kerosene and new designs for engines. These look rather old-school, as they have propellers, but they will make the aircraft more energy efficient. But there may be a downside in that they could be noisier and slower than jet engines.

Dr Will Graham describes the work he has done on the Silent Aircraft project, in which the engines are set inside the wings.

(Image: The SkyRider, one of the concepts of the MyCopter project. Image courtesy of Gareth Padfield, FS&C)

Gene Therapy2012070220120703
20120708 (WS)
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- repairing malfunctioning cells by mending their DNA - offers an elegant solution to diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, caused by a single flawed gene.

It's a very simple concept to describe - simply insert a 'normal' gene to do the job - but it's this process, the delivery of the gene, that's proving to be so difficult and time consuming. Since the first human study began in 1990 the field has struggled with various technical challenges and set-backs.

But over a decade on, researchers are beginning to report successes in treating several devastating diseases. Geoff Watts finds out about some of the new techniques for gene therapy, and discovers how these are now being used in a trial of a new method of gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

Twelve years ago, a group of scientists from Imperial College in London, Oxford and Edinburgh formed the Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium. This year they started the world's biggest trial of gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

Funded by the Cystic Fibrosis Trust, the Medical Research Council and The National Institute for Health Research , the trial will treat 120 CF patients with either a placebo or a healthy copy of the gene that causes CF. The gene is wrapped up in a fat globule, or liposome and delivered in aerosol form directly to the lungs.

(Image: Eric Alton)

Geoff Watts explores new techniques in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis

Gene therapy - repairing malfunctioning cells by mending their DNA - offers an elegant solution to diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, caused by a single flawed gene.

Globesity20070718

A look at the genetics of obesity.

Graphene20100915

Roland Pease reports on a new form of carbon that looks set to transform technology

Discovered in Manchester just a few years ago, graphene is an atomically thin form of carbon that looks set to transform technology.

In the short time it has been known, graphene has been found to be among the toughest of materials, has almost no resistance to electricity, is chemically inert, impermeable to gases, almost completely transparent...

Potential uses include the ultimate in nano-electronics, touch screens, hydrogen storage for zero-emission cars, solar panels, DNA sequencing, ultracapacitors for the next generation of electric cars, chemical sensors.

Graphene20100916

Roland Pease reports on a new form of carbon that looks set to transform technology

Green Ears20110820

Many of us think of our gardens, parks and green urban spaces as retreats and oases of calm from our busy lives, others think of them as places for fun, socialising and play, whereas there are some who think of them as just hard work.

Whatever we think, we usually think of them in terms of what they look like, even maybe what they smell like.

But in Green Ears, Professor Trevor Cox explores what they sound like.

Acoustics play a massive part in our sense of space.

With loud noises like traffic or industrial works actually causing us harm.

The right sorts of sounds, at the right volume and pitch though can really help to enhance our sense of tranquility.

So what are the sounds we most like to hear in our gardens? Water tricking, birds singing, bees buzzing, wind rustling leaves and children playing (quietly or from a distance!) can be as calming as beautiful planting and clever layout.

But it has to be the right trickle of water, get it wrong and you may find you want to rush to the loo! too loud and the sense of Niagra Falls in your small back yard can feel threatening.

Trevor talks to the scientists who have put it to the test and found the water sound we all seem to enjoy.

He talks to garden designers who not only think about harmonising colours and textures of plants, but think about how they'll attract birds and insects into the garden as well as creating cocooned quiet spaces and introducing natural noises.

Plants can also be used to block out or distract you from unwanted sounds.

Green walls not only reflect sounds, but they can also absorb them.

Again water can be used to distract you from a busy motorway - and these have all been used to varying effect by urban planners aiming to create pockets of peace and calm in busy cities.

Trevor also explores the use of artificial sounds in our green spaces and finds out how a garden in Florence is being used as a sound laboratory to test cutting edge sonic devices to see if they can increase the harmony of the garden.

Professor Trevor Cox explores the world of sonic design applied to our outdoor spaces

Green Ears20110822

Professor Trevor Cox explores the world of sonic design applied to our outdoor spaces

Hallucination - 12012111920121120 (WS)
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Geoff Watts explores the science of hallucination

In the second of two Discovery programmes, Geoff Watts meets researchers attempting to unlock the mysteries of hallucination as well as some of those who experience the phenomenon.

In this programme, Geoff Watts meets researchers attempting to unlock the mysteries of hallucination as well as some of those who experience the phenomenon. Geoff visits Dr Dominic Ffytche of the Institute of Psychiatry in London, and undergoes a stroboscopic experiment designed to induce hallucinations in subjects whilst their brains are being scanned. We hear some of the vivid accounts from hallucinators, including Doris, who has macular degeneration. Over the last year, her failing eyesight has resulted in an array of objects and images appearing before her with startling clarity, from relatively benign baskets of flowers to the rather more distressing sight of dark, haunting figures sitting by her bed. Her condition is known as Charles Bonnet Syndrome and Dr Ffytche estimates that over 2 million people suffer from this in the UK alone, mostly in silence, due to the fear of being labelled as 'mad'. Geoff also visits Kelly Diederen's lab at Cambridge University, which is investigating the origin of auditory hallucinations - hearing voices. Common in people with schizophrenia, Dr Diederen is instead, scanning the brains of so-called "healthy hallucinators", individuals who otherwise lead perfectly functional lives save for the fact that they hear voices on a daily basis. Could they hold the key to understanding and treating a key symptom of psychosis?

Happiness20110425

Claudia Hammond investigates why happiness seems to have hit the headlines recently and asks whether happiness and a sense of wellbeing are skills that can be taught.

A growing body of evidence, from fields such as positive psychology, suggests that happier, more optimistic people live longer and are ultimately more successful than people with a more pessimistic nature.

But is optimism something that can be learnt, and can it be applied to an entire nation?

The British government's recent announcement that it will be measuring the nation's wellbeing as an alternative indicator to the nation's progress has caused some controversy.

Discovery delves into the world of positive psychology and asks if how we feel as a population really matters, and whether a happier nation is ultimately a more successful one.

Claudia Hammond searches for happiness by delving into the world of positive psychology

Happy Birthday, Neptune20110829

On July 12th 2011, Neptune was one year old - one Neptunian year that is.

The furthest planet from the sun it’s only now completed one solar orbit since its discovery in 1846, traveling so slowly each Neptunian season lasts forty Earth years.

Too distant to spot with the naked eye the ancients could never have known of Neptune’s existence.

Nineteenth century astronomers had to climb on the shoulders of scientific giants to see it.

First a tiny blue disc now an ice giant whose strange atmospheric features send shivers down the spines of astronomers today.

What twists and turns of fate, what scientific clues and personality clashes won the race for Neptune’s discovery? Some say Galileo spotted it 200 years earlier, secretly noting its existence in a coded Latin anagram awaiting further proof.

Forensic tests of the ink he used could solve the puzzle along with painstaking studies of his original manuscripts in Florence.

It’s late spring, early summer in Neptune today.

It has been for decades now.

Astronomers can only watch and marvel at the quirky movements and sudden shifts & disappearances of the vast ‘black spot’ amongst its clouds.

What is it? Where does it come from? What can you ever know about a world when even the most advanced human telescopes have only studied it for a season?

In the Solar System’s outer darkness planet Neptune has its first ‘official’ birthday.

Happy Birthday, Neptune20110830

In the Solar System’s outer darkness planet Neptune has its first ‘official’ birthday.

Happy Birthday, Neptune20110903

In the Solar System’s outer darkness planet Neptune has its first ‘official’ birthday.

Happy Birthday, Neptune20110905

In the Solar System's outer darkness, planet Neptune has its first 'official' birthday.

On 12 July 2011, Neptune was one year old - one Neptunian year that is.

The furthest planet from the sun, it's only now completed one solar orbit since its discovery in 1846, traveling so slowly each Neptunian season lasts 40 Earth years.

Too distant to spot with the naked eye, the ancients could never have known of Neptune's existence.

Nineteenth century astronomers had to climb on the shoulders of scientific giants to see it.

First a tiny blue disc now an ice giant whose strange atmospheric features send shivers down the spines of astronomers today.

What twists and turns of fate, what scientific clues and personality clashes won the race for Neptune's discovery?

Some say Galileo spotted it 200 years earlier, secretly noting its existence in a coded Latin anagram awaiting further proof.

Forensic tests of the ink he used could solve the puzzle along with painstaking studies of his original manuscripts in Florence.

It's late spring, early summer in Neptune today.

It has been for decades now.

Astronomers can only watch and marvel at the quirky movements and sudden shifts and disappearances of the vast 'black spot' amongst its clouds.

What is it?

Where does it come from?

What can you ever know about a world when even the most advanced human telescopes have only studied it for a season?

Hurricane Rash2012052120120526
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Plastic Surgery does not always have a good press, more often associated with the excesses of Hollywood.

But the birth of modern day reconstruction has far nobler roots.

Dr Kevin Fong looks at the surprising, and heroic origins of the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

It is a field that was born in response to the great air-battles of World War II, and the development of a new fighter plane - the Hawker Hurricane - that left its legacy not just in terms of success in the air, but in the devastating injuries caused to many of the airmen who flew them.

He looks at the work of pioneering surgeon Archie McIndoe and his brave airmen "guineapigs" who underwent months, if not years, of painful surgery that led to the birth of modern day reconstructive surgery.

Plastic Surgery does not always have a good press, more often associated with the excesses of Hollywood. But the birth of modern day reconstruction has far nobler roots. Dr Kevin Fong looks at the surprising, and heroic origins of the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. It is a field that was born in response to the great air-battles of the second world war, and the development of a new fighter plane, the Hawker Hurricane, that left its legacy not just in terms of success in the air, but in the devastating injuries caused to many of the airmen who flew them. He looks at the work of pioneering surgeon Archie McIndoe and his brave airmen “guineapigs” who underwent months, if not years, of painful surgery that led to the birth of modern day reconstructive surgery.

Hypersonic Flight2012010220120103
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For more than half a century aeronautical engineers have been working on the dream of hypersonic passenger flight.

London to Sydney in four hours is an often cited goal.

In Discovery Gareth Mitchell looks not at the past history of hypersonics, but at current developments.

He meets engineers working on the propulsion systems and developing new materials specifically for hypersonic flight.

Technologies which could be one applied to space craft as well as aeroplanes.

Gareth Mitchell asks how near we are to achieving hypersonic flight.

In Darwin's Shadow2009021820090219

Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how Darwin's ideas have influenced research.

In Darwin's Shadow2009022520090226

Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how Darwin's ideas have influenced research.

In Darwin's Shadow2009030420090305

Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how Darwin's ideas have influenced research.

In Darwin's Shadow: Professor Steve Jones talks to scientists and historians about how.

In Our Own Image Prog 320110926

Human uniqueness takes many forms - we can communicate complex ideas; we have developed technologies, such as medicine and transport; and we change our environment to suit our biology.

But how does human culture affect our biology - our genes?

In the final part of this series Geneticist and broadcaster Adam Rutherford explores the complex and sometimes controversial world of human evolution.

He talks to geneticists, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists to try and understand and untangle the relationship between our biology – our genes and our cultural and social behaviour.

Have we, as Professor Steve Jones thinks, evolved beyond evolution by natural selection? He thinks that in the western, developed world, the normal driving force for evolution by natural selection is tailing off.

We are all having a similar number of babies and those children are surviving and having children of their own.

The impact of this is that there’s no longer an opportunity for genes which may be beneficial to be selectively passed on.

As these trends increase, he says that "if we haven't already stopped evolving, we soon will."

Seeing evolution in action isn't easy, by its very nature, it only occurs on a generational time-scale.

But there is evidence of very recent human evolution, some of which may still be occurring now.

Since the Human Genome was decoded, geneticists are finding regions of genetic code which are relatively stable amongst populations - the so called "Darwin's Fingerprint" - evidence that these genes have been selected for and passed on, in the past.

Examples of these include genes for lactose tolerance, which evolved in dairy herders, as recently as 3000 years ago, and is thought to still be spreading as the world switches to a dairy-rich diet.

Disease-resistance is also seen in our genomes, as is apparent increases in the length of time women are able to have babies.

Probably the most important area of human evolution since we split from our last common ancestor with chimpanzees, is in the development of our brains.

But there is very little evidence that our brains are still evolving – biologically.

Being more intelligent does not mean that you will have more babies and pass your ‘brainy’ genes to more children.

Cognitive psychologist, Steven Pinker thinks that “just because our society is changing and our way of life is changing beyond recognition doesn’t mean that our genes are changing as well.”

But, Kevin Laland, at St Andrews University says we’re not just passive actors in our genetic destiny.

In fact it’s our ability to change our environment which not only drives out cultural evolution, but has a direct effect on our genes as well.

Many recent examples of human evolution have happened in closed societies and are a result of pairing up within a limited gene pool.

One example is the Ashkanazi Jews, who may have evolved increased intelligence, as well as a number of heritable diseases.

With societies now starting to open up, and the increasing acceptance of interracial and cultural marriages; ease of travel; and increased connectivity through the internet etc.

Adam Rutherford asks if we’re heading for a much more homogenous society? And what will this mean for our genetic diversity and possible future evolution?

Adam Rutherford looks at the impact of modern society on evolution.

In Our Own Image Prog 320110927

Adam Rutherford looks at the impact of modern society on evolution.

In Our Own Image, Prog 220110919

In the second episode of this 3 part series Geneticist and broadcaster Adam Rutherford explores the complex and sometimes controversial world of human evolution.

He talks to geneticists, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists to try and understand and untangle the relationship between our biology – our genes and our cultural and social behaviour.

Have we, as Professor Steve Jones thinks, evolved beyond evolution by natural selection? He thinks that in the western, developed world, the normal driving force for evolution by natural selection is tailing off.

We are all having a similar number of babies and those children are surviving and having children of their own.

The impact of this is that there’s no longer an opportunity for genes which may be beneficial to be selectively passed on.

As these trends increase, he says that "if we haven't already stopped evolving, we soon will."

Seeing evolution in action isn't easy, by its very nature, it only occurs on a generational time-scale.

But there is evidence of very recent human evolution, some of which may still be occurring now – particularly fueld by disease epedemics, from flu to HIV.

Since the Human Genome was decoded, geneticists are finding regions of genetic code which are relatively stable amongst populations - the so called "Darwin's Fingerprint" - evidence that these genes have been selected for and passed on, in the past.

Examples of these include genes for lactose tolerance, which evolved in dairy herders, as recently as 3000 years ago, and is thought to still be spreading as the world switches to a dairy-rich diet.

Disease-resistance is also seen in our genomes, as is apparent increases in the length of time women are able to have babies.

But, Kevin Laland, at St Andrews University says we’re not just passive actors in our genetic destiny.

In fact it’s our ability to change our environment which not only drives out cultural evolution, but has a direct effect on our genes as well.

In the second of a 3 part series Adam Rutherford looks at current human evolution

In Our Own Image, Prog 220110920

In the second of a 3 part series Adam Rutherford looks at current human evolution

India20070208

Geoff Watts talks to President APJ Abdul Kalam and leading Indian scientists about what India needs to do to make a bigger global impact in basic research.

India's E-governance Project20111105

Angela Saini reports from India on the country’s vast e-governance project aimed at driving out corruption, reducing bureaucracy and getting the nation’s 1.2 billion people online.

Everything from a country-wide unique ID scheme (based on the iris system – Biometrics), to a roll out of service kiosks where everything from a parking fine to a death certificate can be issued.

One of the main drivers behind this is immense task reducing both corruption and bureaucracy by going electronic - that's the idea - does it stand up? She asks critics as well as proponents.

This can be thought of as a kind of Click special - and combines some of the science and technology with the impact and implications on society.

Angela Saini reports from India on the country’s vast e-governance project

India's E-governance Project20111107

Angela Saini reports from India on the country’s vast e-governance project

Indispensables - 320070620

This episode looks at the battery.

Indispensables - 320070621

This episode looks at the battery.

Indispensables - 4 Last20070627

The refrigerator.

Indispensables - 4 Last20070628

Erika Wright investigates revolutionary inventions now taken for granted across the world.

Part 4 looks at the refrigerator.

Last Man, First Scientist On The Moon2012120320121204 (WS)
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Astronaut remembers his time on the Moon in the final Apollo mission, 40 years ago.

Kevin Fong talks to one of the last two men on the Moon, forty years after the final Apollo 17 mission blasted off on 7th December 1972. As an Apollo astronaut, Harrison Schmitt was special. He was was the only geologist ever to explore the lunar surface. The field work Dr Schmitt did, and the rocks he and his fellow astronauts brought back, revolutionised our understanding of the Moon and the Earth. Dr Schmitt also shares the human experience of running around another planet and explains why he thinks we should go back, and beyond.

The conversation also features archive recordings of the two Apollo 17 moon walkers, Schmitt and Commander Eugene Cernan talking from the lunar surface and Challenger module to NASA’s mission control in Houston in 1972.

Looking Into The Mind - 120081001

Pam Rutherford meets scientists looking at the brain to catch thoughts, find how we experience pain and where we store memories.

Looking Into The Mind - 3 Last20081015

Pam Rutherford meets scientists looking at the brain to catch thoughts, find how we experience pain and where we store memories.

Low Carbon Solutions - 120070418

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

Low Carbon Solutions - 120070419

Roland Pease asks whether low-carbon solutions are the answer to combating climate change.

Martin Seigert2012123120130101 (WS)

Jim Al-Khalili goes under the Antarctic ice with glaciologist, Martin Siegert.

For fifteen years, Martin Siegert has dreamt about Lake Ellsworth, a hidden lake buried beneath the Antarctic ice that's been cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years. Having studied data from airborne radar surveys, Martin knew the lake must exist and was determined to find out more. Finally, this winter, a team of British scientists led by Martin are in the Antarctic attempting to drill through three kilometres of ice to unlock the secrets of this hidden lake. Can life exist in such a cold, dark and isolated place? And if so what form will it take? Martin explains why, unlike so many Antarctic scientists, he prefers analysing data to having icy adventures.

Memristors20110316

Is it the end of the road for the computer revolution? Roland Pease investigates.

We take it for granted that mobile phones today do as much, or more, than the cumbersome personal computers we bought just a decade ago.

But many industry insiders believe that silicon chips are about to hit the buffers.

Without the hardware to support them, computers may not continue to evolve at the same astonishing rate.

Arranging transistors, a thousand times smaller than a human hair, on a silicon chip isn't easy.

But the ability to manipulate such miniscule entities is just one of the challenges chip manufacturers are facing and it's probably not the most serious.

When transistors are smaller than this, silicon starts to lose the properties that make it so useful for building logic circuits.

Will memristors - resistors with memory - be the next great leap forward in digital technology? Based on a thin film of titanium dioxide, they can do the work of billions of silicon chips using a fraction of their power.

In 1965, Intel employee Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that manufacturers could fit on a silicon chip would double every two years.

That prediction became known as Moore’s Law, and over the last four decades, the law has proved to be correct.

But now even Moore himself wonders whether this dramatic rate of progress can be sustained.

Roland Pease asks if this is really the end for Moore's Law.

Or will memristors drive the next technological advance to even smaller and faster devices?

Memristors20110317

Is it the end of the road for the computer revolution? Roland Pease investigates.

Memristors20110319

We take it for granted that mobile phones today do as much, or more, than the cumbersome personal computers we bought just a decade ago.

But many industry insiders believe that silicon chips are about to hit the buffers.

Without the hardware to support them, computers may not continue to evolve at the same astonishing rate.

Arranging transistors, a thousand times smaller than a human hair, on a silicon chip isn't easy.

But the ability to manipulate such miniscule entities is just one of the challenges chip manufacturers are facing and it's probably not the most serious.

When transistors are smaller than this, silicon starts to lose the properties that make it so useful for building logic circuits.

Will memristors - resistors with memory - be the next great leap forward in digital technology? Based on a thin film of titanium dioxide, they can do the work of billions of silicon chips using a fraction of their power.

In 1965, Intel employee Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that manufacturers could fit on a silicon chip would double every two years.

That prediction became known as Moore’s Law, and over the last four decades, the law has proved to be correct.

But now even Moore himself wonders whether this dramatic rate of progress can be sustained.

Roland Pease asks if this is really the end for Moore's Law.

Or will memristors drive the next technological advance to even smaller and faster devices?

Is it the end of the road for the computer revolution? Roland Pease investigates

Mindreading20070912

Peter Evans investigates brain scanning technology and the new field of 'neuroethics' arising from it.

Mindreading20070913
Mindreading20070916
Moments Of Genius20100508

From the moment a Dutch draper stared at a drop of pond water, to an experiment that put Einstein to the test.

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? What does it take to be a science genius?

Geoff Watts and guest Patricia Fara enjoy and discuss moments of genius chosen, by among others, mathematician Marcus Du Sautoy, writer Eoin Colfer, Professor Lord Winston, broadcaster Carol Vorderman and comedian Ben Miller.

Artists, scientists & broadcasters describe their favourite moments of scientific genius.

Muscle Wastage20100908

Vivienne Parry reports on new research into tackling muscle wastage

We're all familiar by now with being told to "use it or lose it" when it comes to certain aspects of our health and bodies, and never more so than for muscles.

But in this edition of Discovery, Vivienne Parry hears how new research into muscle wastage is turning the accepted view on its head.

Startling results from a large-scale study have seen elderly peoples' muscles completely rebuilt through diet and exercise.

The detailed molecular pathways within muscles are beginning to be understood well enough for drug companies to target new ways of replacing what is lost, offering hope to the many thousands of people who suffer from muscle wastage due to illness or ageing.

Muscle Wastage20100909

Vivienne Parry reports on new research into tackling muscle wastage

Muscle Wastage20100911

Vivienne Parry reports on new research into tackling muscle wastage

Nakhla Meteorite20110725

On 28th June 1911 an explosion erupted in the sky over the Nakhla region of Alexandria in Egypt.

A chunk of rock, about the size of a football, had broken away from the surface of Mars several million years ago.

It floated around the Solar System until eventually the Martian rock was pulled into our planet's gravitational field.

When it fell to Earth a century ago, eyewitnesses saw an explosion high in the atmosphere, as the meteor split into dozens of fragments which hurtled towards them and were buried up to a meter deep in the ground.

Dr Marek Kukula, Public Astronomer at the Royal Observatory Greenwich, looks at the legacy of the Nakhla meteorite.

These precious rocks are now being used by scientists to ground-truth data sent back from Spirit and Opportunity - the two rovers currently exploring the Martian surface.

Producer: Michelle Martin

How a meteorite that landed on Earth 100 years ago is helping astronomers explore Mars.

Nakhla Meteorite20110726

How a meteorite that landed on Earth 100 years ago is helping astronomers explore Mars.

Nakhla Meteorite20110801

On 28 June 1911 an explosion erupted in the sky over the Nakhla region of Alexandria in Egypt.

A chunk of rock, about the size of a football, had broken away from the surface of Mars several million years ago.

It floated around the Solar System until eventually the Martian rock was pulled into our planet's gravitational field.

When it fell to Earth a century ago, eyewitnesses saw an explosion high in the atmosphere, as the meteor split into dozens of fragments which hurtled towards them and were buried up to a meter deep in the ground.

Dr Marek Kukula, Public Astronomer at the Royal Observatory Greenwich, looks at the legacy of the Nakhla meteorite.

These precious rocks are now being used by scientists to ground-truth data sent back from Spirit and Opportunity - the two rovers currently exploring the Martian surface.

Producer: Michelle Martin

How a meteorite that landed on Earth 100 years ago is helping astronomers explore Mars

Nasa's Curiosity Robot Lands On Mars2012080620120807 (WS)
20120811 (WS)
20120813 (WS)

– the search for extraterrestrial life steps up.

After the most daring and complex landing of a robot on another planet, the search for evidence of life on Mars enters a new era.

Nasa's Curiosity rover is now sitting inside Gale Crater, a vast depression close to the Martian equator.

Also known as the Mars Science Laboratory, the one tonne machine is the most sophisticated science robot ever placed on another world.

Over the coming years Curiosity will climb a mountain at the crater's heart, gathering evidence on one of science's greatest questions – was there ever life on Mars?

The $2.5 billion project will discover whether Mars once had conditions suitable for the evolution and survival of life.

BBC Space specialist Jonathan Amos talks to mission scientists about where Curiosity is going and what it will do as it trundles up Mars' Mount Sharp.

(Image: Nasa's Curiosity rover. Credit: Nasa/JPL-Caltech/PA Wire)

Neutrinos20111127

For six months, CERN scientists guarded the best kept secret in science - that they'd seen tiny subatomic particles called neutrinos breaking the universal speed limit.

The measurements were at the boundaries of scientific techniques - the discrepancy was just 10s of nanoseconds; parts of their apparatus barely ran at that speed.

For six months they checked and then re- checked again every step of their analysis.

And still the result held up.

When the results were finally released at the end of September, the headline writers had a field day.

Nothing sells copy like proof that Einstein was wrong.

But fellow researchers at CERN were less excited.

The overwhelming belief was that there still remained some hidden error.

And for those who ran the experiment, the dreadful concern that sooner or later that error could turn up, and their triumph might become the stuff of mockery.

And the next day the investigations continued.

Roland Pease meets the scientists who have staked their reputations on the result, on the critics who think they can spot the mistake, and the theoreticians who think they can explain it all.

Roland Pease investigates if neutrinos travel faster than the speed of light.

Neutrinos20111128

Roland Pease investigates if neutrinos travel faster than the speed of light.

Particle Physics2012121020121211 (WS)
20121216 (WS)

Tracey Logan asks what particle physicists are doing after finding the Higgs boson.

Finding the Higgs boson on July 4th 2012 was the last piece in physicists' Standard model of matter. But Tracey Logan discovers there's much more for them to find out at the Large Hadron Collider. To start with there is a lot of work to establish what kind of Higgs boson it is.

Tracey visits CERN and an experiment called LHCb which is trying to find out why there's a lot more matter than anti-matter in the universe today. Dr Tara Shears of Liverpool University is her guide.

Tracey also talks to physicists who are hoping to find dark matter in the debris of the collisions at the LHC. Scientists know there's plenty of dark matter in the universe, from its effects on galaxies, but they don't know what it is. Tracey discovers that this fact isn't stopping the particle physicists carrying out experiments.

Rise Of Resistance - 220071205

The bugs are starting to fight back against drugs.

All major diseases have drugs that no longer work.

Andrew Luck-Baker reports.

Rise Of Resistance - 4 Last20071222
Robots That Care20111113

In the first of a two-part series, Jon Stewart charts the advances in robotics that are increasingly leading to direct one-to-one contact between humans and robots.

Jon visits robotocists and their collaborators in the US and UK and asks how the robots will be used in the future.

He examines the way cinema has shaped our ideas of robots and investigates the gulf between our expectations of what robots can do and the reality.

A fundamental question that scientists are posing is how we should consider the robots who, in the near future, will live alongside us in our homes.

Should they be considered slaves, pets or friends?

Jon also explores how the ideas of author Isaac Asimov, that firstly robots should do no harm, have evolved over the decades.

Photo: Getty

In the first of two programmes, Jon Stewart investigates the rise of social robots.

Robots That Care20111114

In the first of two programmes, Jon Stewart investigates the rise of social robots.

In the second of a two-part Discovery series, Robots that Care, Jon Stewart visits research institutes in the USA and UK to explore the brave new ideas about how robots may be able to help humans on a one-to-one basis.

He talks to key roboticists in Japan, Europe and the USA, their collaborators and volunteers about the practicalities and ethics of using robots to help people.

A number of studies have been done and more are underway in the use of robots for people wanting to lose weight and for children who are autistic.

Robotocists are also conducting long-term projects with people who have suffered strokes.

The robots are designed as personal instructors to help motivate and restore motor function.

But they must be emotionally smart and coax rather than order about like a sergeant major.

The roboticists are also examining how they might customise their robots to fit the personalities of the people whom they will serve.

We have put robots on the moon but it seems that it is more difficult to put them in homes.

A visit to a robot house in the UK shows that there are many pitfalls still to overcome before robots will be useful in our living rooms and kitchens.

Finally, Robots that Care asks: what are the dangers of making the robots too human?

Are there problems of dependency?

What ethical and moral questions arise when robots socialise human beings?

Jon Stewart examines how scientists are trying to bridge the gap between robots and humans

Saving Coral Reefs - 2 Last20080618

Andrew Luck-Baker looks at the efforts to save the world's coral reefs.

Saving Coral Reefs - 2 Last20080619

Andrew Luck-Baker looks at the efforts to save the world's coral reefs.

Saving The Ganges River Dolphin2012081320120814 (WS)
20120818 (WS)
20120819 (WS)
20120820 (WS)

On the Brahmaputra, counting and saving the Ganges River Dolphin.

Discovery this week goes in search of the Gangetic River Dolphin, an extraordinary creature which inhabits the muddy waters of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers.

Not long ago, the dolphin was a common sight for people along these mighty water ways, but now it's one of the world's rarest freshwater mammals.

Andrew Luck-Baker joins Indian biologists studying the dolphins and the threats to them along the stretch of the Brahmaputra in the state of Assam.

In a joint project between Aaranyak, an Indian conservation organisation, and the Zoological Society of London, the scientists are also mobilising local communities to protect this special animal and the ecosystem they share with it.

Science And Libel20101211

The blogger and the author of Bad Science, Dr Ben Goldacre, himself a defendant in a lengthy and costly legal case, explores the battle to keep libel out of science and what it might mean for us and the future of medical research if that battle is lost.

For more than 300 years, scientists have been able to criticise one another's research without fear of legal retribution.

But in recent years, this has changed and the ability to examine the quality and validity of claims around medical evidence in particular, is under threat.

Scientists are being sued whilst science journals are being threatened with legal action if they publish articles that might be critical of a patented drug or medical device.

This is extremely worrying, not just for science but for everyone, because as potential patients, it's all of us who have most to lose.

In science there is potential to do great harm even when the sole intention is to do good.

Treatments that were thought to be saving lives have in the past been proven to do the opposite.

To ensure that medical treatments aren’t unintentionally harming patients, it's necessary, argues Dr Goldacre, for scientists to examine evidence, get access to all of the data and publish their concerns without the shadow of an expensive and time-consuming court case hanging over them.

Ben Goldacre explores the battle to keep libel out of science.

Science Betrayed20110405

Adam Rutherford investigates science fraud and asks how it can be prevented.

What happens when science goes bad? From the anthropological hoax of Piltdown man back in 1912, through to more recent cases, such as that of Dr Hwang Woo-suk, the Korean scientist accused of faking his "breakthrough" in stem cell research, there have been some dramatic and spectacular examples of scientists, who, for whatever reason, have chosen to be less than honest with their research and data.

Adam Rutherford looks at the impact of science fraud, and asks if deceit and misconduct are more common than we think.

And what can be done to halt the cheating before it does any damage.

Science Betrayed20110409

Adam Rutherford investigates science fraud and asks how it can be prevented.

Science Betrayed2011041120110412

What happens when science goes bad? From the anthropological hoax of Piltdown man back in 1912, through to more recent cases, such as that of Dr Hwang Woo-suk, the Korean scientist accused of faking his "breakthrough" in stem cell research.

There have been some dramatic and spectacular examples of scientists, who, for whatever reason, have chosen to be less than honest with their research and data.

Adam Rutherford looks at the impact of science fraud, and asks if deceit and misconduct are more common than we think.

And what can be done to halt the cheating before it does any damage.

Adam Rutherford investigates science fraud and asks how it can be prevented.

Science In Russia - 120080302

Richard Hollingham investigates how scientists are adjusting to the new political and economic framework in Russia.

Science In Russia - 2 Last2008030520080306
20080308 (WS)

Richard Hollingham investigates space science, traditionally one of Russia's strongest scientific sectors.

Scientists Go To Hollywood20100901

Adam Rutherford talks to the scientific advisors behind some well known films and TV shows

Adam Rutherford heads to tinseltown to talk to the scientists who have left the lab for the glamour of the filmset.

Although the silverscreen may not be known for its scientific accuracy, in recent years hollywood does seem to have come calling, where science is concerned.

A growing number of scientists seem to be taking time out of their day job to advise hollywood directors and producers on the portrayal of science, and scientists, in some very well known films and TV series.

Adam visits the set of one of the most well known science based TV shows, CSI NewYork to meet the writer and co-producer, himself a former forensic scientist.

He talks to physicist Brian Cox about his role as science advisor to the Danny Boyle directed movie Sunshine.

He meets the new wave of hollywood movie makers who are turning to the real life scientists to help improve not only the image of science on screen, but to inspire some of their most fantastical plot line, and finds out whether factually incorrect science in the movies really matters?

According to the US National Academy of Science, it does.

So much so that they have now set up a programme specifically designed to help their scientists work with the entertainment industry, to improve and foster a positive image of science on screen.

Adam meets the producer of one of this year's biggest hollywood blockbuster about his ambition to keep the science fact in the science fiction as accurate as possible, and how the scientists he worked with came up with some far more intriguing plot twists and turns than anything his writers could have dreamt up.

Scientists Go To Hollywood20100902

Adam Rutherford talks to the scientific advisors behind some well known films and TV shows

Scientists Go To Hollywood20100904

Adam Rutherford talks to the scientific advisors behind some well known films and TV shows

Scott's Legacy: Programme 1 - Antarctica20120417

Amundsen may have beaten Scott to the South Pole but science was the real winner.

Kevin Fong looks beyond the failure of Robert Falcon Scott's expedition to be the first to reach the South Pole and focuses instead on the scientific legacy of Scott's explorations of Antarctica between 1901 and 1912.

In recent years, much has been written about Scott the polar loser and bungler.

But that personalised focus ignores the pioneering scientific research and discoveries.

The revelations transformed Antarctica from an unknown quantity on the map into a profoundly important continent in the Earth's past and present.

Before Scott and Shackleton trekked across the vast ice sheets in the early 1900s, no-one was sure whether there was even a continent there.

Some geographers had suggested Antarctica was merely a vast raft of ice anchored to a scattering of islands.

The science teams on Scott’s expeditions made fundamental discoveries about Antarctic weather and began to realise the frozen continent's fundamental role in global climate and ocean circulation.

They discovered rocks and fossils which showed Antarctica was once a balmy forested place.

They mapped the magnetism around the South Pole for both science and navigators.

They found many new species of animals and revealed the extraordinary winter breeding habits of the penguins.

The dedication to scientific discovery is most poignantly revealed by fossils that Scott's party collected after their disappointment of being beaten by Amundsen and a few weeks before they froze to death trudging across the Ross ice shelf.

They found a particular plant fossil which had been one of the Holy Grails on the early explorations of Antarctica's interior.

Its discovery proved an hypothesis raised by Darwin among others that all the southern continents were once linked together by a landmass that would lain where Antarctica is today.

The fossils were also important evidence to support the new and controversial theory of Continental Drift - a theory which now underpins the entirety of modern Earth science.

(Image: Historical image of the team of the Terra Nova Expedition standing by a Norwegian tent at the South Pole. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Scott's Legacy: Programme 1 - Antarctica20120421

Kevin Fong looks beyond the failure of Robert Falcon Scott's expedition to be the first to reach the South Pole and focuses instead on the scientific legacy of Scott's explorations of Antarctica between 1901 and 1912.

In recent years, much has been written about Scott the polar loser and bungler.

But that personalised focus ignores the pioneering scientific research and discoveries.

The revelations transformed Antarctica from an unknown quantity on the map into a profoundly important continent in the Earth's past and present.

Before Scott and Shackleton trekked across the vast ice sheets in the early 1900s, no-one was sure whether there was even a continent there.

Some geographers had suggested Antarctica was merely a vast raft of ice anchored to a scattering of islands.

The science teams on Scott’s expeditions made fundamental discoveries about Antarctic weather and began to realise the frozen continent's fundamental role in global climate and ocean circulation.

They discovered rocks and fossils which showed Antarctica was once a balmy forested place.

They mapped the magnetism around the South Pole for both science and navigators.

They found many new species of animals and revealed the extraordinary winter breeding habits of the penguins.

The dedication to scientific discovery is most poignantly revealed by fossils that Scott's party collected after their disappointment of being beaten by Amundsen and a few weeks before they froze to death trudging across the Ross ice shelf.

They found a particular plant fossil which had been one of the Holy Grails on the early explorations of Antarctica's interior.

Its discovery proved an hypothesis raised by Darwin among others that all the southern continents were once linked together by a landmass that would lain where Antarctica is today.

The fossils were also important evidence to support the new and controversial theory of Continental Drift - a theory which now underpins the entirety of modern Earth science.

(Image: Historical image of the team of the Terra Nova Expedition standing by a Norwegian tent at the South Pole. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Amundsen may have beaten Scott to the South Pole but science was the real winner.

Scott's Legacy: Programme 1 - Antarctica20120422

Amundsen may have beaten Scott to the South Pole but science was the real winner.

Scott's Legacy: Programme 1 - Antarctica20120423

Amundsen may have beaten Scott to the South Pole but science was the real winner.

Scott's Legacy: Programme 2 - Moon20120423

Can the heroic age of Antarctic exploration help to show us the way back to the Moon?

One hundred years ago, Scott reached the South Pole. However, more than four decades passed before people went back there. On the Moon, Neil Armstrong took his leap for mankind in 1969 and it has been forty years since the last astronaut left the lunar surface. Presenter Kevin Fong talks to space scientists and historians to find out if Robert Scott's Antarctic exploits provide a road map for future human exploration of the Moon and the planet Mars.

Imperial and geopolitical motivations lay behind both South Polar exploration and the effort which took humans briefly to the lunar surface. But what would get us back to the Moon - would it be geopolitical rivalry or science?

In times of economic austerity (in the West at least), what scientific questions are important enough to justify exploration of the Moon? The six short Apollo visits to the lunar surface were enough to crack the mystery of how the Moon itself formed - namely that a Mars sized planet crashed into the early Earth. The molten rock that was blasted into orbit by that collision coalesced as our lunar neighbour.

Sending astronauts back to explore the rocks of the Moon could solve the most important mysteries about the early Earth - when did life first evolve and under what sort of conditions? Their findings could also settle the questions about the origins of our oceans here on Earth.

Among Kevin's other interviewee are NASA's Chief Administrator Charles Bolden, Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt (the only geologist to walk on the Moon), NASA scientists Chris McKay and Jennifer Heldmann, Dr Ian Crawford of Birbeck College, University of London and space historian Roger Launius of the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institute.

Can the heroic age of Antarctic exploration show the way back to the Moon?

Scott's Legacy: Programme 2 - Moon20120424

Can the heroic age of Antarctic exploration show the way back to the Moon?

Scott's Legacy: Programme 2 - Moon20120429

Can the heroic age of Antarctic exploration help to show us the way back to the Moon?

One hundred years ago, Scott reached the South Pole. However, more than four decades passed before people went back there. On the Moon, Neil Armstrong took his leap for mankind in 1969 and it has been forty years since the last astronaut left the lunar surface. Presenter Kevin Fong talks to space scientists and historians to find out if Robert Scott's Antarctic exploits provide a road map for future human exploration of the Moon and the planet Mars.

Imperial and geopolitical motivations lay behind both South Polar exploration and the effort which took humans briefly to the lunar surface. But what would get us back to the Moon - would it be geopolitical rivalry or science?

In times of economic austerity (in the West at least), what scientific questions are important enough to justify exploration of the Moon? The six short Apollo visits to the lunar surface were enough to crack the mystery of how the Moon itself formed - namely that a Mars sized planet crashed into the early Earth. The molten rock that was blasted into orbit by that collision coalesced as our lunar neighbour.

Sending astronauts back to explore the rocks of the Moon could solve the most important mysteries about the early Earth - when did life first evolve and under what sort of conditions? Their findings could also settle the questions about the origins of our oceans here on Earth.

Among Kevin's other interviewee are NASA's Chief Administrator Charles Bolden, Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt (the only geologist to walk on the Moon), NASA scientists Chris McKay and Jennifer Heldmann, Dr Ian Crawford of Birbeck College, University of London and space historian Roger Launius of the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institute.

Can the heroic age of Antarctic exploration show the way back to the Moon?

Scott's Legacy: Programme 2 - Moon2012043020120501

Can the heroic age of Antarctic exploration show the way back to the Moon?

Scott's Legacy: Programme 3 - Mars2012043020120507

Why do we need to send people to explore Mars – and who is likely to take them there?

Scott's Legacy: Programme 3 - Mars2012043020120506

One hundred years ago, the first humans reached the South Pole of this planet. More than 40 years ago, man first walked on the moon. When will our species first set foot to explore the planet Mars? Kevin Fong seeks a likely launch date, and asks who will get us there and why we really need to explore the Red Planet.

Scott's Legacy: Programme 3 - Mars20120506

One hundred years ago, the first humans reached the South Pole of this planet. More than 40 years ago, man first walked on the moon. When will our species first set foot to explore the planet Mars? Kevin Fong seeks a likely launch date, and asks who will get us there and why we really need to explore the Red Planet.

Why do we need to send people to explore Mars – and who is likely to take them there?

Scott's Legacy: Programme 3 - Mars20120507

Why do we need to send people to explore Mars – and who is likely to take them there?

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120109

In the first of two programmes, the BBC Science reporter, Jason Palmer meets the researchers behind Seti, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence and looks at the prospects for success in the face of funding issues and the sheer size of the task.

He talks to Seti's co-founder, Frank Drake as well as its current active researchers, including Seth Shostak, Jill Tartar and Doug Vakoch.

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of Seti

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120110

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of Seti

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120114

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of Seti

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120115

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of Seti

Seti, The Past, Present And Future2012011620120117

Jason Palmer explores the past, present and future of SETI. In the second programme he looks at what sort of signal might ET send us, and how might we respond? Jason talks to Seti's co-founder Frank Drake as well as its current active researchers, including Seth Shostak, Jill Tartar and Doug Vakoch.

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of SETI

In the first of two programmes, the BBC's science reporter Jason Palmer, meets the researchers behind Seti, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence and looks at the prospects for success in the face of funding issues and the sheer size of the task.

He talks to Seti's co-founder Frank Drake as well as its current active researchers, including Seth Shostak, Jill Tartar and Doug Vakoch.

(Image: Computer artwork of our solar system. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120121

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of SETI

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120122

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of SETI

Seti, The Past, Present And Future20120123

Documentary series exploring the past, present and future of SETI

Smart Streets20120206

Angela Saini explores the revolution taking place in the streets beneath our feet as she reveals the story behind a new urban design movement called shared space. She travels to The Netherlands where shared space was born, inspired by the radical traffic planner, Hans Monderman, who envisaged a world without barriers, signs, pavement and traffic lights. But not everyone is taken with this revolution, in particular the blind and visually impaired who say that shared space is fundamentally flawed and makes their lives less safe.

Angela Saini explores the revolution taking place in the streets beneath our feet

Smart Streets20120207

Angela Saini explores the revolution taking place in the streets beneath our feet

Smart Streets20120211

Angela Saini explores the revolution taking place in the streets beneath our feet

Smart Streets2012021320120214

Angela Saini explores the revolution taking place in the streets beneath our feet

Sound Architecture20090503

Professor Trevor Cox, science broadcaster and acoustic engineer explores the idea of aural architecture – architecture for your ears.

Now, through new technology and a new way of thinking, acousticians and architects are working together to create spaces that both function better but also look good too.

Trevor Cox explores the science of sound within the spaces we inhabit.

Spooklights20111226

Folk tales are full of fleeting phenomena like will o' the wisps, faint glows that must have spooked our ancestors.

But these days, it's just about impossible to escape the omnipresent illumination of modern life, and these evocative spooklights have vanished like ghosts.

Chemist Andrea Sella explores the science of lights so dim, they can be witnessed only in complete darkness.

From the spontaneous combustion of marsh gas to the lightning sparks emitted by crushed sugar, Professor Sella finds there's more to light than ever meets the eye.

Chemist Andrea Sella investigates things that go flash in the dark.

Spooklights20111227

Chemist Andrea Sella investigates things that go flash in the dark.

Spooklights20120101

Chemist Andrea Sella investigates things that go flash in the dark.

Spooklights20120102

Folk tales are full of fleeting phenomena like will o' the wisps, faint glows that must have spooked our ancestors.

But these days, it's just about impossible to escape the omnipresent illumination of modern life, and these evocative spooklights have vanished like ghosts.

Chemist Andrea Sella explores the science of lights so dim, they can be witnessed only in complete darkness.

From the spontaneous combustion of marsh gas to the lightning sparks emitted by crushed sugar, Professor Sella finds there's more to light than ever meets the eye.

Chemist Andrea Sella investigates things that go flash in the dark.

Stem Cells (1/3)20090607

In Discovery on the BBC for the next three weeks, Sue Broom examines the remarkable world of stem cells.

Some of these special cells, found in the early embryo, make up all the cells in our developing bodies.

Others, the adult stem cells, are found in our bone marrow, skin, liver and some other organs and these play more specialised roles in regenerating these tissues throughout our lives.

As our understanding of the behaviour of these remarkable cells increases, the potential use for therapies for a whole host of diseases and disorders grow.

In the future, it is hoped that diseases such as heart disease, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, sickle cell anaemia and type one diabetes as well as injuries like spinal cord damage, could be treated using stem cells.

In the first of a series of three programmes on stem cells, Sue looks back over the research, discoveries and breakthroughs that have brought us to a new chapter in our understanding about how these cells can be used in our bodies and in the laboratory to cure diseases.

In a new 3-part series of Discovery Sue Broom examines the remarkable world of stem cells.

Stem Cells (2/3)20090610

Sue Broom continues her examination of the remarkable world of stem cells.

Some of these special cells, found in the early embryo, make up all the cells in our developing bodies.

Others, the adult stem cells, are found in our bone marrow, skin, liver and some other organs and these play more specialised roles in regenerating these tissues throughout our lives.

As our understanding of the behaviour of these remarkable cells increases, the potential use for therapies for a whole host of diseases and disorders grow.

In the future, it is hoped that diseases such as heart disease, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, sickle cell anaemia and type one diabetes, as well as injuries such as spinal cord damage, could be treated using stem cells.

Up until 3 years ago, a lot of the hope for understanding and finding cures for disease rested on the embryonic stem cells.

But these are not without ethical, compatibility and supply issues.

Although embryonic stem cells still hold great promise, 2006 saw a breakthrough that promised another source of stem cells.

Scientists in Japan and the USA managed to turn a skin cell back to its embryonic stem cell state – an Induced Pluripotent Stem cell.

In the second of a series of three programmes, Sue Broom finds out how they did this and what these cells can be used for.

Stem Cells (2/3)20090611

Sue Broom continues her examination of the remarkable world of stem cells.

Superconductivity2007091920070920

Peter Evans investigates superconductors - revolutionary materials which conduct electricity without loss at high temperatures.

Superpower: The Future Of The Internet20100314

Twenty years after the emergence of the world wide web, Rory Cellan-jones looks at the science driving its third decade.

Web 3.0 promises a world where people and objects are seamlessly connected through an all pervasive network, no longer controlled through devices such as mouse and keyboards but through speech, gestures and even our very thoughts.

It is a web that will become truly mobile and global.

But the will this vision work in reality? How will such an all pervasive network, if it does emerge, be made safe and secure against attacks and corruption?

Who will ultimately control the web – big business or the community? And will the developing world finally take centre stage in this new silicon Babylon?

Rory Cellan-jones explores the future of the world wide web and the science behind it.

Surgery20110425

Can surgery be submitted to the same rigorous clinical trials as drugs to ensure the right surgical procedures are being carried out? Or does the very nature of the craft make this impossible? Every operation is unique to each patient and the surgeon who carries it out.

No two surgeons will ever carry out the exact same operation.

How do we know therefore, which procedure is best?

The answer is not straightforward.

What if surgeon decides to alter regular surgery in some way.

How does he or she evaluate whether the new alteration is better than the old? If the same were to happen with a drug, it would take 6 or 7 years to make one ingredient change, carry out randomised clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of the alteration before coming into use.

Not so with surgery.

By its very nature, surgery, a craft, is dependent on the surgeon carrying out the operation, on the patient before him and on the manifestation of the disease he is dealing with in that patient.

No two patients are the same, and thus no two operations will be the same.

Although 30 per cent of hospital admissions require surgery, only 2 per cent of medical research funding goes into testing whether surgical procedures have a scientific grounding.

Surgeons are now trying to alter that figure and see how this problem can be addressed.

In this programme Geoff Watts looks at the problems faced by surgeons and how they may be overcome.

Geoff Watts asks the question "Is Surgery Scientific?"

Surgery20110426

Geoff Watts asks the question "Is Surgery Scientific?"

Surgery20110430

Geoff Watts asks the question "Is Surgery Scientific?"

Surgery20110502

Can surgery be submitted to the same rigorous clinical trials as drugs to ensure the right surgical procedures are being carried out? Or does the very nature of the craft make this impossible? Every operation is unique to each patient and the surgeon who carries it out.

No two surgeons will ever carry out the exact same operation.

How do we know therefore, which procedure is best?

The answer is not straightforward.

What if a surgeon decides to alter regular surgery in some way.

How does he or she evaluate whether the new alteration is better than the old? If the same were to happen with a drug, it would take six or seven years to make one ingredient change, carry out randomised clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of the alteration before coming into use.

Not so with surgery.

By its very nature, surgery, a craft, is dependent on the surgeon carrying out the operation, on the patient before him and on the manifestation of the disease he is dealing with in that patient.

No two patients are the same, and thus no two operations will be the same.

Although 30% of hospital admissions require surgery, only 2% of medical research funding goes into testing whether surgical procedures have a scientific grounding.

Surgeons are now trying to alter that figure and see how this problem can be addressed.

In this programme Geoff Watts looks at the problems faced by surgeons and how they may be overcome.

Geoff Watts asks the question "is surgery scientific?"

Plans are advancing for the biggest radio on Earth, an array of up to 3000 radio telescopes across a continent.

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will have its central core in either South Africa or Western Australia, but its spiral arms of outlying giant dishes will reach out 3000 km in every direction.

Astronomer Dr Lucie Green hears how it could search for habitable planets, intelligent life and new-born galaxies.

The ambitious €1.5 billion plan is a partnership between 70 institutions in 20 countries, with its headquarters at Jodrell Bank near Manchester.

But wide-open spaces with sparse population and few mobile phone masts are needed to build it.

So there is fierce competition between the two remaining short-listed host countries as the time to decide between them approaches.

For one proposal, the array would be centred in the ancient desert of Western Australia, with outlying dishes as far away as New Zealand.

The other comes to a focus in South Africa’s Northern Cape and reaches out to Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius.

The rewards could, quite literally, be astronomical, with 50 times the sensitivity of anything before and the ability to detect alien broadcasts from distant solar systems and even to image the gaps in dusty discs where planets may be forming.

But the astronomers also have to justify the cost at times of financial restraint and given that the array will not be complete until 2024.

And engineers have to prove that it will be possible – something they’ve already begun to do by linking together 7 existing radio telescopes in the UK with a new high-speed fibre optic network.

Producer: Martin Redfern

Lucie Green reports on plans for a radio telescope the size of a continent

Tejinder Virdee, Cern Physicist2012052820120602
20120603 (WS)
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Professor Jim al-Khalili talks to Cern physicist Tejinder Virdee, about the search for the elusive Higgs boson, also known as the "God particle".

Last December, scientists working at the Large Hadron Collider caught a tantalising glimpse of the Higgs; but they need more data to be sure of its existence.

Twenty years ago, Tejinder set about building a detector within the Large Hadron Collider that's capable of taking 40 million phenomenally detailed images every second.

Finding the Higgs will validate everything physicists think they know about the very nature of the universe: not finding it, will force them back to the drawing board.

By the end of the year, we should know one way or the other.

Physicist Tejinder Virdee on the search for the elusive Higgs boson at Cern.

The Big Ideas - 120070117

The latest ideas in science that attempt to answer questions on topics such as how the universe works and how life first appeared on earth.

The Big Ideas - 120070118
The Cool Chain20100616

How are vaccines kept at the right temperature as they travel to far-flung destinations?

Geoff Watts investigates the science, politics, and economics of the cool chain" - the procedure for keeping vaccines at the right temperature as they travel via lorry, ship, airplane and even bicycle to far flung destinations."

The Cool Chain20100617

How are vaccines kept at the right temperature as they travel to far-flung destinations?

The Dating Game - 220070801
The Dating Game - 220070802
The Dating Game - 220070805
The Dating Game - 320070808

Aubrey Manning visits four sites where science has helped archaeologists reveal the past.

The Dating Game - 320070812
The Dating Game - 4 Last20070815
The Global Body: 1. Sri Lanka20120317

Lynne Malcolm looks into how the modern world is affecting our biology in Sri Lanka.

The Global Body: 1. Sri Lanka20120319
The Human Race: Global Body - Los Angeles20120326

As part of the BBC World Service's Human Race season, ABC in Australia’s Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens have adapted to changes in their environment, economy and social structures; how health is affected by new environments and lifestyles; and what might happen to the human race in the future?

Is the 'Hollywood Dream' of a city of beautiful, fit, wealthy people anything near the truth for this huge city? It’s a city with a long history of immigrants settling from all over the world. Lynne Malcolm explores how some of these inhabitants have adapted biologically to their new environment over time, and what the impact is on their health and bodies. BBC Correspondent, Valeria Perasso, discovers however, that it's not all good news, with obesity on the rise in the city and there are also massive discrepancies in the standards of health, and quality of life amongst its inhabitants.

Lynne Malcolm discovers if the Hollywood dream is true for the million of LA immigrants.

The Human Race: Global Body - Los Angeles20120327

Lynne Malcolm discovers if the Hollywood dream is true for the million of LA immigrants.

The Human Race: Global Body - Los Angeles20120331
The Human Race: Global Body - Los Angeles20120401

As part of the BBC World Service's Human Race season, ABC in Australia's Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens have adapted to changes in their environment, economy and social structures; how health is affected by new environments and lifestyles; and what might happen to the human race in the future?

Is the 'Hollywood Dream' of a city of beautiful, fit, wealthy people anything near the truth for this huge city?

It's a city with a long history of immigrants settling from all over the world.

Lynne Malcolm explores how some of these inhabitants have adapted biologically to their new environment over time, and what the impact is on their health and bodies.

BBC Correspondent, Valeria Perasso, discovers however, that it's not all good news, with obesity on the rise in the city and there are also massive discrepancies in the standards of health, and quality of life amongst its inhabitants.

(Image: a female face surrounded by a distorted DNA autoradiogram. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Lynne Malcolm discovers if the Hollywood dream is true for the million of LA immigrants.

The Human Race: Global Body - Sydney20120402

In the last of the Global Body series, Lynne Malcolm is joined by a panel of experts to discuss the future of the health of the human body.

Lynne is joined by, Tony McMichael – Professor of Population Health at the Australian National University in Canberra; Professor Maxine Whittaker, form the Australian centre for International and Tropical Health at the University of Queensland and Professor Robyn Norton, Director of the George Institute and Professor of public health at the University of Sydney and Professor of Global Health and James Martin Professorial Fellow, University of Oxford.

Lynne Malcolm discusses what the future holds for the health of the human body.

The Human Race: Global Body - Sydney20120403

Lynne Malcolm discusses what the future holds for the health of the human body.

The Human Race: Global Body - Sydney20120409

In the last of the Global Body series, Lynne Malcolm is joined by a panel of experts to discuss the future of the health of the human body.

Lynne is joined by, Tony McMichael – Professor of Population Health at the Australian National University in Canberra; Professor Maxine Whittaker, form the Australian centre for International and Tropical Health at the University of Queensland and Professor Robyn Norton, Director of the George Institute and Professor of public health at the University of Sydney and Professor of Global Health and James Martin Professorial Fellow, University of Oxford.

(Image: Computer artwork of the blood circulation system in a human figure. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Lynne Malcolm discusses what the future holds for the health of the human body.

The Human Race: The Global Body - Manila20120319

As part of the BBC World Service's Human Race season, ABC in Australia's Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens have adapted to changes in their environment, economy and social structures; how health is affected by new environments and lifestyles; and what might happen to the human race in the future?

Lured by the bright lights, or driven from the countryside by political and economic turmoil, population pressures, and environmental vulnerability, billions of people have been migrating to the cities in the developing world.

The BBC's correspondent in Manila Kate McGeown, discovers what happens to our human bodies when we leave the fields and shorelines and head into the big city.

She reports back to Lynne, how traffic, pollution, smoking, overcrowding and lack of affordable fresh food is sparking an epidemic of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and cancers.

Often outweighing the benefits of higher wages, better access to healthcare and education.

In Global Body, Lynne Malcolm explores moving to the big city.

The Human Race: The Global Body - Manila20120320

In Global Body, Lynne Malcolm explores moving to the big city.

The Human Race: The Global Body - Manila20120324
The Human Race: The Global Body - Manila20120326
The Human Race: The Global Body - Sri Lanka20120317

As part of the Human Race season on the BBC, Discovery starts its exploration into the Global Body. Over the next 4 weeks, Lynne Malcolm finds out how the modern world is affecting our biology. The series starts in Sri Lanka, where it asks whether the predominantly rural lifestyle of fishermen and farmers is well suited to the human body.

BBC Correspondent Charles Haviland takes us to the shores of Sri Lanka to see what life is like for fishermen and to the mountains where people live off the variety of crops they grow for themselves. These populations are pretty healthy. But he also discovers that some of the rural inhabitants – the tea pickers – have a much harder time.

There’s a report on how an inherited disease, thalassaemia, that makes people debilitated, and is quite common amongst Asian people is treated in Sri Lanka. And the programme discovers that thalassaemia survives because it confers resistance to malaria.

(Image: Conceptual computer artwork of a male figure seen against autoradiograms of genetic sequences. Credit: Science Photo Library)

Lynne Malcolm looks into how the modern world is affecting our biology in Sri Lanka.

The Human Race: The Global Body - Sri Lanka20120319
The Life Scientific : Barbara Sahakian - Neuroscientist2012082720120828 (WS)
20120903 (WS)

Jim Al-Khalili talks to neuroscientist Barbara Sahakian about her Life Scientific.

Jim Al-Khalili meets Cambridge University neuroscientist Barbara Sahakian.

She talks about her Life Scientific finding drugs to slow down the memory losses that happen in Alzheimer's disease.

She worked in some of the first memory clinics that were set up in the US and the UK to help people who had problems remembering and has developed tests to find out if peoples' forgetfulness is the first sign of dementia.

More recently she has turned her attention to drugs that can improve the performance of surgeons or pilots or other professions where it is important to be alert for long times.

Barbara says that they could even be used to make us more entrepreneurial. And some students are taking them as they think they could be giving them an edge in exams.

Jim and Barbara discuss the thorny ethical issues raised by these uses of these drugs.

The Life Scientific : Lloyd Peck - Antarctic Scientist2012090420120909 (WS)
20120910 (WS)

Jim Al-Khalili meets Antarctic scientist Lloyd Peck and discovers giant sea spiders.

Jim Al-Khalili finds out about the life scientific of the British Antarctic Survey biologist Lloyd Peck.

Amongst other creatures he studies giant sea spiders. They and other small animals grow far bigger than usual in the extreme cold.

Diving is an important part of Lloyd's job and Jim hears what it's like to play football under the ice. Studies suggest that the sea temperature is rising, and Lloyd investigates whether the animals he researches will be able to adapt and survive.

And Lloyd talks about the difficulty of leaving his family behind in the UK while he spends months in the Antarctic.

Producer: Geraldine Fitzgerald

(Image: A young woman studying a sea spider in the Science Museum in London. Credit: AFP / Getty Images)

The Life Scientific: Andrea Sella - Chemist2012100120121002 (WS)
20121007 (WS)
20121008 (WS)

Andrea Sella is a science showman, whose theatrical demonstrations of chemistry are filling theatres up and down the country. He talks to Jim al-Khalili about his life scientific. Andrea is also Professor of Materials and Inorganic Chemistry at University College London and he and Jim discuss whether he would rather be known for his research into rare metals than for his whizz bang displays.

Jim Al-Khalili meets chemist and science showman Andrea Sella.

The Need For Speed - 120080716

Gareth Mitchell looks at our need for speed in different areas of modern life and asks what is stopping us from getting faster.

The New Galileos20090517

The world's largest telescope is nearing completion on a mountain top in the United States.

By combining the power of its vast mirrors, the Large Binocular Telescope will image the Universe with ten times the detail of NASA's Hubble telescope.

Presenter Andrew Luck-baker takes a tour of the 600 tonne instrument and talks to the astronomers expecting to see planets orbiting and being born around distant stars with this 'next generation' instrument.

And he visits the spinning furnace in which its monsters mirrors were made.

The Large Binocular Telescope, the world's largest telescope is nearing completion.

The Science Of Morality2012051420120521

How fixed are our moral beliefs? Can these beliefs be reduced to neurochemistry?

While we may believe that our moral principles are rigid and based on rational motives, psychological and neuroscientific research is starting to demonstrate that this might not actually be the case.

In this edition of Discovery, Dr Carinne Piekema investigates how scientific studies are starting to shed light on how our social behaviour is affected by our environment and neurochemistry.

She discusses with Carol Dweck about how people's moral opinions can be modified through behavioural techniques, and with Molly Crockett and Paul Zak about how similar effects can be brought about by directly altering brain chemistry.

While this knowledge might have future benefits, the ability to alter people's behaviour and attitudes towards others also raises potential ethical issues.

In the final part, Carinne talks with neuroethicist Neil Levy who invites us to consider the philosophical questions raised by such advances.

Carinne Piekema explores the science of moral behaviour and the ethical issues this raises

The Science Of Morality2012051420120520

Carinne Piekema explores the science of moral behaviour and the ethical issues this raises

The Science Of Morality2012051420120519

How fixed are our moral beliefs? Can these beliefs be reduced to neurochemistry?

While we may believe that our moral principles are rigid and based on rational motives, psychological and neuroscientific research is starting to demonstrate that this might not actually be the case.

In this edition of Discovery, Dr Carinne Piekema investigates how scientific studies are starting to shed light on how our social behaviour is affected by our environment and neurochemistry.

She discusses with Carol Dweck about how people's moral opinions can be modified through behavioural techniques, and with Molly Crockett and Paul Zak about how similar effects can be brought about by directly altering brain chemistry.

While this knowledge might have future benefits, the ability to alter people’s behaviour and attitudes towards others also raises potential ethical issues.

In the final part, Carinne talks with neuroethicist Neil Levy who invites us to consider the philosophical questions raised by such advances.

The Science Of Yachting20070531

A look at the science and technology behind the sport of yachting.

The Sound Of Deafness2012092420120925 (WS)
20121001 (WS)

The science of hearing; cochlear implants; the sound of deafness

Nine million people in the UK alone have significant hearing problems. The mechanisms in our ears that help us hear are incredibly sensitive and are easily damanged by environmental hazards such as loud noises and chemicals or simply the passage of time.

Despite the fact that many of us will gradually lose our ability to hear as we as a society grow older, many of us don’t actually know that much about the causes and consequences of deafness.

What does the world sound like to a deaf person? How do the brain and ears work together to make sense of sound? And how far have scientists come in helping to restore impaired hearing?

In this edition of Discovery, Dr Carinne Piekema speaks with Harry Thomas who has been deaf since birth along with experts in the field of auditory neuroscience to find out about what it is like living with hearing loss on a personal and scientific level. By recreating everyday sounds as if heard by someone like Harry wearing a hearing aid or with a cochlear implant, she will also try to give a sense of the experience of being a deaf person in our noisy environment.

The Vaccine Detectives - Part Two2010101320101014

The medical sleuths inside the world's most remarkable health surveillance unit.

Medical sleuths in West Africa make startling discoveries that could change child healthcare worldwide.

This two-part documentary takes us inside the world's most remarkable health surveillance unit in the impoverished West African country of Guinea Bissau.

Here, Danish medical sleuths are piecing together evidence that could change public healthcare forever.

Richard Phinney becomes the first journalist to visit Dr Peter Aaby in his field site at the Bandim Health Project, where a team of Danish and African scientists have toiled doggedly for more than 30 years - through civil wars, natural disasters and epidemics.

A small army of doctors, nurses, field workers and lab technicians now monitor the health of 100,000 people - or 12% of all children.

It's an extraordinary task in a country with a government so weak it collects no taxes and keeps hardly any records.

The results of this work – more than 600 scholarly articles in the world's leading medical journals – has expanded our understanding of how the most devastating childhood infections spread.

In the 1990s, data from the project was even responsible for the withdrawal of a potentially deadly measles vaccine by the World Health Organisation.

However Aaby's most explosive findings have been ignored by the WHO.

They show that vaccines and vitamin supplements have long term unintended consequences - some good and some bad - on the immune system of young children.

And in the most alarming cases, girls fare much worse than boys.

The results challenge WHO's global health advice, followed by most countries in the developing world, and could mean that thousands of young lives, in Africa and beyond, are needlessly at risk.

The Voice - 22007082920070830

Robert Sandell looks at the development of the human voice, including its versatility and individual qualities.

The Voice - 3 Last2007090520070906
20070909 (WS)
Time20120214

Science writer Zeeya Merali joins physicists discussing the nature of time.

It sometimes seems to rule our lives and yet some scientists think it is an illusion. From birth to death we seem to be swept up in a relentless and inescapable journey through time, but what is this strange place we call the present moment? Why does the past seem fixed and the future so uncertain. Was the universe born into time or did time arise with the universe? Will time continue forever or will it fade like the stars? These are some of the questions that were discussed at a recent conference in Bergen and Copenhagen and on a ship between the two. In Discovery this week, science writer Zeeya Merali joins some of the leading physicists and cosmologists discussing the nature of time and its place in our lives and the Universe.

Producer: Martin Redfern.

Time20120218

Science writer Zeeya Merali joins physicists discussing the nature of time.

Time20120220
Titanic - In Her Own Words2012040920120410
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20120415 (WS)
20120416 (WS)

To mark the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic, the BBC’s Sean Coughlan narrates one of the most authentic versions of events in existence. Using voice synthesis to re-create the strange, twitter-like, mechanical brevity of the original Morse code, this programme brings to life the tragedy through the ears of the wireless operators in the area that night.

On the night of the disaster, the network of young Marconi wireless operators on different ships and land stations frantically communicated with each other across the cold expanses of the North Atlantic in an effort to mount a rescue for the doomed vessel.

All these messages were recorded at the time in copper-plate handwriting, now scattered across the world in different collections, but together forming a unique archive.

Conceived and created by Susanne Weber.

Producer: Alex Mansfield

Extended Special re-creating the Titanic Morse code conversation 100 years later.

Transit Of Venus 20122012060520120610
20120610 (WS)

Marek Kukula explores the science behind the Transit of Venus 2012.

Astronomer Marek Kukula from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich explores the scientific implications of the forthcoming transit of Venus across the face of the Sun, a rare astronomical event that will not occur again until 2117.

Previous transits have helped establish fundamental facts about our solar system, including the distance and relative positions of all the planets that orbit our sun.

But now, the forthcoming transit in June 2012, the last this century, will help planet hunters searching for other worlds across the galaxy (exo-planets).

As Marek discovers, technology now makes it possible to pinpoint not only a planet's mass, size, and distance from its star but we can also establish whether it has an atmosphere and what that atmosphere might consist of and therefore whether it could theoretically support life.

Thanks to the next transit event, the search for another Earth has taken a bold step forward.

(Image: Venus (black dot) is silhouetted as it orbits between the Sun and the Earth during the transit of Venus seen from Bangkok on 6 June 6 2012. Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Transit Of Venus 20122012060520120611
20120611 (WS)

Marek Kukula explores the science behind the Transit of Venus 2012.

Astronomer Marek Kukula from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich explores the scientific implications of the forthcoming transit of Venus across the face of the Sun, a rare astronomical event that will not occur again until 2117.

Previous transits have helped establish fundamental facts about our solar system, including the distance and relative positions of all the planets that orbit our sun.

But now, the forthcoming transit in June 2012, the last this century, will help planet hunters searching for other worlds across the galaxy (exo-planets).

As Marek discovers, technology now makes it possible to pinpoint not only a planet's mass, size, and distance from its star but we can also establish whether it has an atmosphere and what that atmosphere might consist of and therefore whether it could theoretically support life.

Thanks to the next transit event, the search for another Earth has taken a bold step forward.

(Image: Venus (black dot) is silhouetted as it orbits between the Sun and the Earth during the transit of Venus seen from Bangkok on 6 June 6 2012. Credit: AFP/Getty Images)

Tribes Of Science 3 - Volcanologists20111024

A British magazine claimed that being a volcanologist was the second coolest job in the world after being an astronaut.

This scientific tribe also loses one member each year, on average, in a fatal accident on a volcano.

Peter Curran puts on his anthropological hard hat and asks what makes these researchers risk life and limb, clambering around active volcanoes? Are they driven by a desire to protect local people by understanding the timing of eruptions.

Or are they drawn like moths to the sulphurous flames in a purely scientific quest.

Peter talks to volcanologists based at the University of Bristol, some of whom worked on Montserrat during the heights of the Caribbean island's volcanic crisis in 1997.

He hears stories of crater-based craziness inside Mount Etna and a slide down a flow of volcanic glass.

Peter Curran talks to a tribe of volcanologists at the University of Bristol.

Tribes Of Science 3 - Volcanologists20111025

Peter Curran talks to a tribe of volcanologists at the University of Bristol.

Tribes Of Science 3 - Volcanologists20111031

Peter Curran talks to a tribe of volcanologists at the University of Bristol.

A British magazine claimed that being a volcanologist was the second coolest job in the world after being an astronaut.

This scientific tribe also loses one member each year, on average, in a fatal accident on a volcano.

Peter Curran puts on his anthropological hard hat and asks what makes these researchers risk life and limb, clambering around active volcanoes? Are they driven by a desire to protect local people by understanding the timing of eruptions.

Or are they drawn like moths to the sulphurous flames in a purely scientific quest.

Peter talks to volcanologists based at the University of Bristol, some of whom worked on Montserrat during the heights of the Caribbean island's volcanic crisis in 1997.

He hears stories of crater-based craziness inside Mount Etna and a slide down a flow of volcanic glass.

Under The Volcano20100424

In a special edition of Discovery, Geoff Watts is joined by some of the world's leading volcano experts to discuss the scientific impact of the eruption of Eyjafjallajoekull in Iceland.

He will be asking the scientists about the difficulties of predicting volcanic eruptions and the problems of assessing the dangers to aircraft.

What have vulcanologists learnt from previous eruptions in other parts of the world?

And what are the long term consequences for flight and for the climate?

A special edition of Discovery on the impact of the eruption of Eyjafjallajoekull volcano.

Yuri Gagarin2011041120110416

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian space programme was in disarray.

Starved of funding and with cosmonauts orbiting in the Mir space station having lost the nation that sent them, even the main launch site at Baikonur was no longer in the same Union.

But a legacy of solid, reliable rockets has ensured their future as a commercial launch provider.

In particular, Russian rockets have been the main vehicles for delivering both cargo and crew to the International Space Station.

With the end of Space Shuttle flights, they will, for a while at least, be the only way of getting humans to the ISS.

They have even flown fare-paying tourists.

In this Programme, Richard Hollingham reviews recent successes and asks a panel of experts what the next 50 years might hold for the Russian space programme.

Guests:

Frank de Winne (ESA astronaut who has commanded the International Space Station)

Dr Iya Whiteley (Psychologist at UCL, the European Astronaut Centre and the University of Bath.)

Dr Roald Sagdeev, (former Head of the Soviet Space Science Institute and advisor to President Gorbachev)

Yuri Karash (Moscow-based commentator on Russian space).

Experts discuss the future of the Russian Space programme.

011989 - Sport's Greatest Cover Up20090805
011989 - Sport's Greatest Cover Up20090806
011989 - Sport's Greatest Cover Up20090809

At the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City, East Germany won 25 medals.

Twenty years later in Seoul, the Soviet Union headed the medals table, but second was not the USA but a nation of just 17 million people - the German Democratic Republic.

To achieve this success, the East German state ensured that it had the best of everything - facilities and equipment, coaching and medical back-up, psychological testing and dietary supplements.

However, it was the scale of state sponsored doping - State Plan 14.25 - that set East Germany apart from any other sporting nation.

Over a twenty year period in the 1970s and 1980s, up to 10,000 athletes were chemically doped.

Each year hundreds of thousands of steroid pills were administered.

And the programme worked.

East Germany became synonymous with gold medals and world records.

At its height, the programme employed up to 1,500 scientists and doctors.

This was all backed up with the utmost secrecy - brutally enforced by the secret police, the Stazi.

Then, in November 1989, a dramatic moment in history occurred - the Berlin Wall came down.

With the fall of the wall, East Germany's sporting structure also collapsed.

One of the many legacies of a united Germany has been how it deals with the effects of State Plan 14.25.

Hundreds of athletes have been left with long term physical ailments; particularly in the case of female competitors.

Many of those affected feel they have been let down by the authorities.

They have been left to live with the often appalling health problems associated with years of drug abuse, drugs that were often administered to children as young as eleven.

On the eve of the World Athletics Championships in Berlin, BBC Science reporter Matt Mcgrath investigates the legacy of East Germany's sporting system in part one of a two part Discovery special - Sport's Greatest Cover Up.

The truth behind East Germany's sporting achievements.

Matt Mcgrath investigates.

01A Distinguished Race20100407

Professor Steve Jones examines what race has meant and what it means today, delving into both the science and the sociology.

Professor Steve Jones examines what race has meant and what it means today, delving int.

01A Distinguished Race20100408

Professor Steve Jones examines what race has meant and what it means today, delving int.

01A Distinguished Race20100410

Professor Steve Jones examines what race has meant and what it means today, delving into both the science and the sociology.

Professor Steve Jones examines what race has meant and what it means today, delving int.

01Africa's Elephants In Crisis2009081920090820

Andrew Luck-baker travels to Kenya to see how the wildlife service is fighting the illegal culling of elephants.

Andrew Luck-baker travels to Kenya to see how the wildlife service is fighting the ille.

01Age Of The Genome20100728

Richard Dawkins decodes the discoveries and mysteries of the human genome sequence.

In a new four part series, evolutionary biologist Professor Richard Dawkins decodes the discoveries and mysteries surrounding the human genome sequence.

Ten years ago this June, an international army of scientists announced that they had succeeded in completing their first draft of the genetic book of human life.

They had read most of the three billion genetic letters of the DNA instruction manual which resides in our chromosomes.

It was an achievement worthy of an international press conference with President Bill Clinton in the White House.

The Human Genome Project involved thousands of scientists in many different countries, cost hundreds of millions of pounds and took more than ten years.

It was the first big science project for biology.

But what have been the benefits and advances a decade on?

The human genome sequence has led researchers to discover hundreds of genes implicated in our risk of common ailments such as heart disease, diabetes and schizophrenia.

Before the sequence they knew of only a handful.

Other discoveries are providing clues to novel therapies to treat inherited diseases which are currently incurable.

Extraordinary advances in genome sequencing technology are accelerating the medical progress.

Your genome could now be fully sequenced in just three weeks for less than £10 000.

It will not be long before it will cost no more than a hospital scan.

A full genomic screen may become part of our routine health care within the next ten years.

In spite of the advances, there have been some surprises and deepened mysteries.

One of the greatest shocks was the finding that we have far fewer genes than scientists had assumed before they read out our genetic instructions.

It takes no more genes to make a person than it does to make a simple microscopic worm.

What makes a man different from a worm lies more in what researchers now calling the Dark Matter of the genome - 300 million letters of genetic code which work in currently mysterious ways.

01Age Of The Genome20100729

Richard Dawkins decodes the discoveries and mysteries of the human genome sequence.

01Age Of The Genome20100731

In a new four part series, evolutionary biologist Professor Richard Dawkins decodes the discoveries and mysteries surrounding the human genome sequence.

Ten years ago this June, an international army of scientists announced that they had succeeded in completing their first draft of the genetic book of human life.

They had read most of the three billion genetic letters of the DNA instruction manual which resides in our chromosomes.

It was an achievement worthy of an international press conference with President Bill Clinton in the White House.

The Human Genome Project involved thousands of scientists in many different countries, cost hundreds of millions of pounds and took more than ten years.

It was the first big science project for biology.

But what have been the benefits and advances a decade on?

The human genome sequence has led researchers to discover hundreds of genes implicated in our risk of common ailments such as heart disease, diabetes and schizophrenia.

Before the sequence they knew of only a handful.

Other discoveries are providing clues to novel therapies to treat inherited diseases which are currently incurable.

Extraordinary advances in genome sequencing technology are accelerating the medical progress.

Your genome could now be fully sequenced in just three weeks for less than £10 000.

It will not be long before it will cost no more than a hospital scan.

A full genomic screen may become part of our routine health care within the next ten years.

In spite of the advances, there have been some surprises and deepened mysteries.

One of the greatest shocks was the finding that we have far fewer genes than scientists had assumed before they read out our genetic instructions.

It takes no more genes to make a person than it does to make a simple microscopic worm.

What makes a man different from a worm lies more in what researchers now calling the Dark Matter of the genome - 300 million letters of genetic code which work in currently mysterious ways.

Richard Dawkins decodes the discoveries and mysteries of the human genome sequence.

01Beyond The Abyss, The Human Race And The Global Body20120312

Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens has adapted to changes in their environment, economy and social structures.

Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens has adapted to changes in their environment, ec.

01Beyond The Abyss, The Human Race And The Global Body20120313

Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens has adapted to changes in their environment, ec.

01Can Chemistry Save The World?20110223

Chemistry's reputation is not always good.

Andrew Luck-Baker asks if chemistry can chan.

Andrew Luck-Baker asks if chemistry can change its profile and be seen to be green.

01Can Chemistry Save The World?20110224

Chemistry's reputation is not always good.

Andrew Luck-Baker asks if chemistry can chan.

01Can Chemistry Save The World?20110226

Chemistry's reputation is not always good.

Andrew Luck-Baker asks if chemistry can chan.

01Discovery, Beyond The Abyss20120220

After more than 50 years, a new wave of explorers are racing to go back to the Mariana Trench, the deepest place on the planet.

After more than 50 years, a new wave of explorers are racing to go back to the Mariana.

01Discovery, Beyond The Abyss20120221

After more than 50 years, a new wave of explorers are racing to go back to the Mariana.

01Discovery, Bioprecipitation20091021

Can bacteria influence the weather? Richard Hollingham meets scientists who are working.

Can bacteria influence the weather? Richard Hollingham meets scientists who are working on what's been called bioprecipitation.

01Discovery, Bioprecipitation20091022

Can bacteria influence the weather? Richard Hollingham meets scientists who are working.

01Discovery, Bioprecipitation20091025

In August 1982, a group of plant pathologists published a paper in the Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service.

The paper was called “The association between bacteria and rain and possible meteorological implications”.

The wording was cautious.

But more than twenty-five years later, scientists are beginning to find the evidence to show how bacteria could play a dynamic role in our weather.

Scientists have understood for some time that airborne particles can help water to turn to ice.

Known as “ice nucleators”, they provide a catalyst for ice formation.

What has been less well understood is that bacterial particles can persuade water to freeze at relatively high temperatures, possibly as warm as -10 C.

This is significant because water has to turn to ice before rain can fall.

If bacterial particles cause water to freeze at relatively warm temperatures, the water in the clouds will turn to ice more easily.

As the ice crystals grow in size and number, they become large enough to start falling.

As they fall, they turn back to water and become raindrops.

In this week's Discovery, Richard Hollingham meets some of the scientists who are working in what has been called “bioprecipitation”.

He talks to David Sands from Montana University who coined the term “bioprecipitation”.

He also visits labs in Avignon and London where researchers are trying to understand more about the impact of bacterial particles on our weather.

Can bacteria in the atmosphere influence the weather? Richard Hollingham investigates.

01Exchanges At The Frontier20091202

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosopher Anthony Grayling and the public.

01Exchanges At The Frontier20091203

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

01Feeding The World20100317

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy in.

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy increasing as the population grows.

01Feeding The World20100318

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy in.

01Feeding The World20100321

This week the Atlantic bluefin tuna could be banned from international trade at a CITES meeting in Dohar.

Some scientists fear the tuna will become extinct because of overfishing.

Sue Broom meets researchers who are breeding the tuna from eggs in captivity and asks if this is a sustainable way to produce food and help protect the wildstock.

In this week's Discovery Sue Broom investigates the science behind tuna aquaculture.

01Give Me The Moonlite2007011020090726

In July 1969 the Americans won the race to land on the moon.

It was a political and technological triumph, but just how much was learnt scientifically? To mark the 40th anniversary of the moon landings Richard Hollingham tells the scientific story of the Apollo Program.

With the help of archive recordings he hears the experiences of some of the astronauts and looks at the science they achieved.

And he meets some of the ‘backroom boys', the geologists and lunar scientists who were eagerly awaiting the return of data and samples.

In all, 392 kilograms of moon rock were returned by the six manned Apollo landers.

But how much do we know about the geology of our companion world? And what are the big questions still to be answered about lunar science? They concern not only our Moon, but the early history of our own planet and the life upon it.

40 years after the first Moonwalk Richard Hollingham looks at the scientific legacy Apollo

Richard Hollingham looks back to the Apollo missions, hears some of the astronauts' exp.

01Give Me The Moonlite2009072220090723

Richard Hollingham looks back to the Apollo missions, hears some of the astronauts' exp.

Richard Hollingham looks back to the Apollo missions, hears some of the astronauts' experiences and looks at their achievements.

01Images That Changed The World20100526
01Images That Changed The World20100527
01In Our Own Image -20110917

Human uniqueness takes many forms - we can communicate complex ideas; we have developed technologies, such as medicine and transport; and we change our environment to suit our biology.

But how does human culture affect our biology - our genes?

Geneticist and broadcaster Adam Rutherford explores the complex and sometimes controversial world of human evolution.

He talks to geneticists, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists to try and understand and untangle the relationship between our biology – our genes and our cultural and social behaviour.

Evolved beyond evolution?

Have we, as Professor Steve Jones thinks, evolved beyond evolution by natural selection?

He thinks that in the western, developed world, the normal driving force for evolution by natural selection is tailing off.

We are all having a similar number of babies and those children are surviving and having children of their own.

The impact of this is that there's no longer an opportunity for genes which may be beneficial to be selectively passed on.

As these trends increase, he says that "if we haven't already stopped evolving, we soon will."

"Darwin's Fingerprint"

Seeing evolution in action isn't easy, by its very nature, it only occurs on a generational time-scale.

But there is evidence of very recent human evolution, some of which may still be occurring now.

Since the Human Genome was decoded, geneticists are finding regions of genetic code which are relatively stable amongst populations - the so called "Darwin's Fingerprint" - evidence that these genes have been selected for and passed on, in the past.

Examples of these include genes for lactose tolerance, which evolved in dairy herders, as recently as 3000 years ago, and is thought to still be spreading as the world switches to a dairy-rich diet.

Disease-resistance is also seen in our genomes, as is apparent increases in the length of time women are able to have babies.

Brain development

Probably the most important area of human evolution since we split from our last common ancestor with chimpanzees, is in the development of our brains.

But there is very little evidence that our brains are still evolving – biologically.

Being more intelligent does not mean that you will have more babies and pass your 'brainy' genes to more children.

Cognitive psychologist, Steven Pinker thinks that "just because our society is changing and our way of life is changing beyond recognition doesn’t mean that our genes are changing as well."

But, Kevin Laland, at St Andrews University says we're not just passive actors in our genetic destiny.

In fact it's our ability to change our environment which not only drives out cultural evolution, but has a direct effect on our genes as well.

Future evolution

Many recent examples of human evolution have happened in closed societies and are a result of pairing up within a limited gene pool.

One example is the Ashkanazi Jews, who may have evolved increased intelligence, as well as a number of heritable diseases.

With societies now starting to open up, and the increasing acceptance of interracial and cultural marriages; ease of travel; and increased connectivity through the internet etc.

Adam Rutherford asks if we're heading for a much more homogenous society?

And what will this mean for our genetic diversity and possible future evolution?

Is human culture stopping us from genetically evolving?

01In Our Own Image -20110919

Human uniqueness takes many forms - we can communicate complex ideas; we have developed technologies, such as medicine and transport; and we change our environment to suit our biology.

But how does human culture affect our biology - our genes?

Geneticist and broadcaster Adam Rutherford explores the complex and sometimes controversial world of human evolution.

He talks to geneticists, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists to try and understand and untangle the relationship between our biology – our genes and our cultural and social behaviour.

Evolved beyond evolution?

Have we, as Professor Steve Jones thinks, evolved beyond evolution by natural selection?

He thinks that in the western, developed world, the normal driving force for evolution by natural selection is tailing off.

We are all having a similar number of babies and those children are surviving and having children of their own.

The impact of this is that there's no longer an opportunity for genes which may be beneficial to be selectively passed on.

As these trends increase, he says that "if we haven't already stopped evolving, we soon will."

"Darwin's Fingerprint"

Seeing evolution in action isn't easy, by its very nature, it only occurs on a generational time-scale.

But there is evidence of very recent human evolution, some of which may still be occurring now.

Since the Human Genome was decoded, geneticists are finding regions of genetic code which are relatively stable amongst populations - the so called "Darwin's Fingerprint" - evidence that these genes have been selected for and passed on, in the past.

Examples of these include genes for lactose tolerance, which evolved in dairy herders, as recently as 3000 years ago, and is thought to still be spreading as the world switches to a dairy-rich diet.

Disease-resistance is also seen in our genomes, as is apparent increases in the length of time women are able to have babies.

Brain development

Probably the most important area of human evolution since we split from our last common ancestor with chimpanzees, is in the development of our brains.

But there is very little evidence that our brains are still evolving – biologically.

Being more intelligent does not mean that you will have more babies and pass your 'brainy' genes to more children.

Cognitive psychologist, Steven Pinker thinks that "just because our society is changing and our way of life is changing beyond recognition doesn’t mean that our genes are changing as well."

But, Kevin Laland, at St Andrews University says we're not just passive actors in our genetic destiny.

In fact it's our ability to change our environment which not only drives out cultural evolution, but has a direct effect on our genes as well.

Future evolution

Many recent examples of human evolution have happened in closed societies and are a result of pairing up within a limited gene pool.

One example is the Ashkanazi Jews, who may have evolved increased intelligence, as well as a number of heritable diseases.

With societies now starting to open up, and the increasing acceptance of interracial and cultural marriages; ease of travel; and increased connectivity through the internet etc.

Adam Rutherford asks if we're heading for a much more homogenous society?

And what will this mean for our genetic diversity and possible future evolution?

Is human culture stopping us from genetically evolving?

01Moving Feast20100203

Little known Vietnam fact.

It is the second largest coffee producer in the world.

Outside the business, it's a little known fact that Vietnam has become a giant in the global coffee industry.

In the past 15 years, Vietnam's annual exports have rocketed, making the traditionally tea-drinking nation the second largest coffee exporter in the world after Brazil.

The country's coffee farmers are responsible for a quarter of all the instant coffee drunk around the world.

This week's Discovery follows the journey of the Vietnamese coffee bean from the highland plantations to processing plants of Ho Chi Minh City, and charts Vietnam's meteoric rise in the global coffee business.

This programme is a co-production between the BBC World Service and ABC Radio National.

01Moving Feast20100204

Little known Vietnam fact.

It is the second largest coffee producer in the world.

01Moving Feast20100207

Outside the business, it's a little known fact that Vietnam has become a giant in the global coffee industry.

In the past 15 years, Vietnam's annual exports have rocketed, making the traditionally tea-drinking nation the second largest coffee exporter in the world after Brazil.

The country's coffee farmers are responsible for a quarter of all the instant coffee drunk around the world.

This week's Discovery follows the journey of the Vietnamese coffee bean from the highland plantations to processing plants of Ho Chi Minh City, and charts Vietnam's meteoric rise in the global coffee business.

This programme is a co-production between the BBC World Service and ABC Radio National.

Little known Vietnam fact.

It is the second largest coffee producer in the world.

01Numbers That Made The World20090902

Number theorist Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey that delves into the hist.

Number theorist Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey that delves into the history of numbers and numbering systems.

01Numbers That Made The World20090903

Number theorist Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey that delves into the hist.

01Save Our Sounds20090708

Discovery investigates the preservation of sounds that give a unique character to an urban environment.

01Save Our Sounds20090709

Discovery investigates the preservation of sounds that give a unique character to an ur.

01Save Our Sounds20090712

: In the first programme, acoustician Trevor Cox joins a soundwalk in central London and explores the world of acoustic ecology.

Trevor meets artists and city planners to discuss how sound influences our lives and affects our well being.

Are cities getting noisier or is it just that we're losing the quieter places we once had – the back streets and urban squares where citizens can go for a respite from the wall of noise? How has the soundscape in London changed and what sounds are in danger of being lost in the future?

Save our Sounds: Trevor Cox presents the first of two programmes on the urban soundscape.

Discovery investigates the preservation of sounds that give a unique character to an ur.

01Thin Air20070110
01Thin Air20110119

We not only live in the atmosphere, we live because of it.

It is a transformer and a pr.

It is a transformer and a protector, though ultimately also a poison.

01Thin Air20110120

We not only live in the atmosphere, we live because of it.

It is a transformer and a pr.

01Thin Air20110122

We not only live in the air, we live because of it.

And air is about much more than just breathing.

It is a transformer and a protector, though ultimately also a poison.

At ground level, photosynthesis transforms air miraculously into solid food without which every creature on Earth would starve.

It wraps our planet in a blanket of warmth.

It brings us wind and rain and fire.

It sustains our bodies and at the same time it burns them up, slowly, from the inside.

The atmosphere provides a floating mirror for intercontinental radio signals and its outer layers soak up flares of deadly radiation from the Sun.

In the first episode of this three-part series, Gabrielle Walker experiences air - and weighs it.

At ground level, the air is not as 'thin' as we might imagine.

The Royal Albert Hall, in its day one of the largest volumes of air enclosed in a single span may seem to be full of nothing, but in fact, the air inside weighs 30 tons.

On the other hand, not much further away than the next city, the air is so tenuous as to be unbreathable.

That is in the 'up' direction.

In between is a gaseous ocean in which Gabrielle takes a swim - floating on air, flying a glider and chasing the storm clouds that bring us our weather.

Gabrielle Walker explores our atmosphere; the ocean of air on which we all depend

01Trading Up20091007

'Trade not aid' is a new mantra for development but can people stay out of poverty when.

'Trade not aid' is a new mantra for development but can people stay out of poverty when they trade up? Susie Emmett finds out.

01Trading Up20091008

'Trade not aid' is a new mantra for development but can people stay out of poverty when.

01Trading Up20091011

If trade not aid is the new mantra for development how can developing countries trade up in the global market – and stay up?

In this two part Discovery series, Susie Emmett investigates how two East African countries have built billion dollar businesses based on what small-scale entrepreneurs can supply.

By following fine French beans from fields of upland Kenya and fresh chilled fillets of fish pulled from Lake Victoria - this series investigates what these billion dollar industries do to overcome some serious threats to continued success.

How farmers and fisherman in poorer countries are trading themselves out of poverty.

'Trade not aid' is a new mantra for development but can people stay out of poverty when.

01What Scientists Believe20100110

Modern science is extremely complex, and it makes huge demands on scientists.

Like people in any walk of life, scientists are infinitely varied human beings.

But all of them are expected to conform to the rules and regulations required by scientific investigation.

Stephen Webster is a Philosopher of Science at Imperial College London.

He wants to know how an individual scientist's personal, psychological and intellectual qualities map onto their chosen area of science.

How much of a scientist's personality is reflected in their work? Should subjective private beliefs be a part of objective scientific outcomes? What happens if tensions develop between a scientist's beliefs and the formal demands of science? If tensions arise, how should they best be resolved?

In this series of three programmes, Stephen talks to six scientists about themselves and about their scientific work.

In the first programme, Stephen meets medical consultant Philip Kilner.

Philip first trained as a doctor.

He then left medicine and retrained as a sculptor, concentrating on water sculptures and fluid dynamics.

He then returned to medicine.

Philip is now a Consultant and Reader in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance at the Royal Brompton Hospital.

One of Philip's water sculptures, Single Cavity Flowform, is on display at the hospital.

Philip talks to Stephen about the combination of artistic and scientific insights which help him interpret images of the heart.

Stephen Webster investigates the links between scientists' beliefs and their research.

01What's The Point Of Zoos?20100217

Can zoos make a real contribution to conserving creatures in the wild rather than being.

Can zoos make a real contribution to conserving creatures in the wild rather than being menageries for public entertainment?

01What's The Point Of Zoos?20100218

Can zoos make a real contribution to conserving creatures in the wild rather than being.

01What's The Point Of Zoos?20100221

One screaming Tasmanian Devil, two species of wallaby (one saving the other from extinction by being a surrogate mother) – and three purring cheetahs, eating cream cheese.

Just some of the creatures that Lynne Malcolm encounters close up as she seeks to answer: what is the point of zoos? Can they be truly effective agents for conservation in the global extinction crisis rather than merely being menageries for entertainment? The quest takes Lynne this week to Adelaide and Monarto Zoos in South Australia.

This two part series is a co-production by BBC World Service and ABC Radio National.

Next time, Lynne visits the Bronx Zoo in New York.

Hear how Dexter the screaming Tasmanian Devil is helping to save his species.

0220070328

Richard Hollingham visits four cities that have become areas of scientific discovery and finds out what makes them successful.

02Age Of The Genome20100804

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to under.

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to understanding the origin of disease & variety.

02Age Of The Genome20100805

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to under.

02Age Of The Genome20100807

What can we learn from the DNA of chimpanzees about what it took for humans to evolve? What do genes extracted from fossil Neanderthal bones add to the story of our origins?

These are some of the questions which evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins explores in the second part of this series, marking the 10th anniversary of the sequencing of the human genome.

In June 2000, scientists of the Human Genome Project announced that they had worked out the three billion genetic letter code of the human body.

Since then, many other animals have had their genomes decoded.

The list includes the mouse, dog, the duck-billed platypus, the chicken and the chimpanzee, to name but a few.

Comparing the As, Gs, Cs and Ts in our genome with those of other animals allows scientists to illuminate the story of our ancestors' evolution with extraordinary insights.

The techniques for processing and decoding DNA have become so advanced that it is now even possible to reconstruct the complete genetic code of creatures which died tens of thousands of years.

This has been done for our closest evolutionary cousins, the Neanderthals, by extracting shattered DNA fragments from 40,000 year old bones and piecing them together.

The leader of this project, Svante Paabo, says it still "blows his mind" when he thinks about what it's now possible to do with ancient DNA.

Richard Dawkins explores what the DNA of chimps and extinct Neanderthals says about us

02Clinical Trials20070107

2/3.

In March 2006, six men given new drug TGN 1412 to test became violently ill.

In this series, Vivienne Parry looks at the past and future of clinical testing.

Clinical Trials.

02Exchanges At The Frontier20091209

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosopher Anthony Grayling and the public.

02Exchanges At The Frontier20091210

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

02Exchanges At The Frontier20101103

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World Service with the Wellcome Collection.

02Exchanges At The Frontier20101104

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

02Exchanges At The Frontier20101106

There are an estimated 800,000 malaria fatalities every year, nearly 90% of which are the deaths of children under 5 in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Kevin Marsh is director of the Kenyan Medical Research Institute in Kilifi, Kenya, where he leads a research team of 100 scientists almost entirely recruited from East Africa.

He has been looking at the transmission and control of malaria for over 20 years.

Much of his research focuses on how the disease manifests itself in children and how immunity is developed.

He is also testing a vaccine which could have 50% effectiveness within five years.

Is there cause for optimism? Why is it that children in Africa are so vulnerable? A live audience at Wellcome Collection Auditorium join A.C.Grayling to test him on the social and medical aspects of the fight against the disease.

Malaria expert Kevin Marsh on how to beat the disease.

02Exchanges At The Frontier, - Lawrence Krauss20091213

What was there before the universe began? Is the ‘big bang' theory down to our love of a good story and the need for somewhere to start? Do the finely balanced numbers necessary for life imply a divine hand in the creation of the universe? These questions and many more are explored in front of a live audience at Wellcome Collection in London, as the philosopher A.C.Grayling and the U.S.

cosmologist Lawrence Krauss discuss the Origins of the Universe.

Exchanges At the Frontier is a unique series of events from BBC World Service with Wellcome Collection in which the world's leading scientists are tested over the impact of their work by the philosopher and public intellectual A.C.

Grayling.

The role of science and of the scientist, as well as some of the outstanding questions of our time are put into sharp focus by the world's leading scientists.

Last week A.C.Grayling discussed climate change with the United Nation's leading environmental scientist, Rajendra Pachauri - and it is still possible to hear the programme including an extended recording of the event on the website.

Over the rest of the series on Exchanges At The Frontier, the Canadian neurophilosopher Patricia Churchland discusses free will, the American astronomer Seth Shostak discusses the search for extra terrestrials and the Ghanaian nuclear physicist Tejinder Virdee, discusses the Large Hadron Collider and the most ambitious and expensive science project the Earth has ever known.

Lawrence Krauss discusses the Origins of the Universe with philosopher A.C.Grayling.

02Feeding The World20100324

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy in.

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy increasing as the population grows.

02Feeding The World20100325

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy in.

02Feeding The World20100328

Maize is a staple food in sub saharan Africa, eaten once or twice a day by many people, but lack of rain is an ever present threat.

Last year the drought in Kenya meant the amount of maize produced fell dramatically and millions of people faced starvation.

A drought resistant maize is needed urgently.

Sue Broom travels to Kenya and Mozambique to investigate a new research project that is combining conventional crop breeding with genetically modified crops.

Could new types of maize solve food shortages in Africa? Sue Broom investigates.

02Numbers That Made The World20090909

In the second part of Numbers that Made the World, designer and engineer, Cecil Balmond, explores numbers as patterns.

He unravels the human instinct to find numerical nuances in the universe, beginning with a visit to Boston in the US to talk to Dr Mario Livio, author of ‘Is God a Mathematician?'.

He meets Professor Mandelbrot, the man who discovered the psychedelic beauty of fractals in the 1970s, and former-hostage, John Mccarthy, reveals how he turned to calculations in desperate moments during his captivity.

Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey into the history of numbers.

Patterns.

02Numbers That Made The World20090910

Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey into the history of numbers.

Patterns.

02Numbers That Made The World20090913

In the second part of Numbers that Made the World, designer and engineer, Cecil Balmond, explores numbers as patterns.

He unravels the human instinct to find numerical nuances in the universe, beginning with a visit to Boston in the US to talk to Dr Mario Livio, author of ‘Is God a Mathematician?'.

He meets Professor Mandelbrot, the man who discovered the psychedelic beauty of fractals in the 1970s, and former-hostage, John Mccarthy, reveals how he turned to calculations in desperate moments during his captivity.

Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey into the history of numbers.

Patterns.

02Oceans - What Lies Beneath20090408

The deep ocean remains one of the least explored parts of our planet, but wherever scientists have been, in these dark, cold, inhospitable environments, they have found breathtaking and varied life.

Gabrielle Walker meets the scientists who have ventured where so few have been before, and finds out why NASA have taken such an interest in life in the ocean abyss.

Gabrielle Walker meets those who have ventured where few have gone before: the deep ocean.

02Oceans - What Lies Beneath20090409

The deep ocean remains one of the least explored parts of our planet, but wherever scientists have been, in these dark, cold, inhospitable environments, they have found breathtaking and varied life.

Gabrielle Walker meets the scientists who have ventured where so few have been before, and finds out why NASA have taken such an interest in life in the ocean abyss.

Gabrielle Walker meets those who have ventured where few have gone before: the deep ocean.

02Oceans - What Lies Beneath20090412

The deep ocean remains one of the least explored parts of our planet, but wherever scientists have been, in these dark, cold, inhospitable environments, they have found breathtaking and varied life.

Gabrielle Walker meets the scientists who have ventured where so few have been before, and finds out why NASA have taken such an interest in life in the ocean abyss.

Gabrielle Walker meets those who have ventured where few have gone before: the deep ocean.

02Thin Air20110126
02Thin Air20110127
02Thin Air20110129

We not only live in the air, we live because of it.

Air is about much more than breathing.

It is a transformer and a protector, though ultimately also a poison.

It wraps our planet in a blanket of warmth.

It brings us wind and rain and fire.

It sustains our bodies and at the same time it burns them up, slowly, from the inside.

In this episode, Gabrielle Walker investigates the good side - and the bad - of two components of air: carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Carbon Dioxide makes up a tiny fraction of one percent of air, yet it at once protects, transforms and threatens life on Earth.

CO2 is infamous for its contribution to the greenhouse effect that is causing global warming.

But without it we would both freeze and starve.

It is also the basis of everything we eat.

The mass of all plants and hence the creatures that feed on them comes from carbon dioxide.

Billions of years ago, as the young Sun began to warm, bacteria and primitive algae began their insulating blanket, fossilising the air as limestone, coal and chalk.

Now we are releasing that carbon to the air again, double-glazing the global greenhouse.

The greatest transformer in air is oxygen.

It is the giver and taker of life.

Without it living things cannot be vigorous - or larger than a pinhead.

Yet it is also the bringer of death.

When bacteria started releasing it as a waste gas, a billion or more years ago, it was the worst pollution incident in the history of the planet.

Life was forced to hide or evolve.

Even though we have adapted to depend on oxygen, we are playing with fire.

In a slow and mostly controlled way, oxygen burns up the food we eat.

It also chars the genes, molecules and cells within us, bringing about ageing and, ultimately death.

Gabrielle Walker explores how our atmosphere both protects and destroys us

02What Scientists Believe20100113

Stephen Webster speaks to six scientists about the links between scientists' beliefs an.

Stephen Webster speaks to six scientists about the links between scientists' beliefs and their scientific research.

02What Scientists Believe20100114

Stephen Webster speaks to six scientists about the links between scientists' beliefs an.

02 LAST1989 - Sport's Greatest Cover Up20090812
02 LAST1989 - Sport's Greatest Cover Up20090813
02 LAST1989 - Sport's Greatest Cover Up20090816

In the 1970s and 1980s, the East German state spent up to 30% of its GDP on sport.

The programme - State Plan 14.25 - worked.

Whether at the Olympics or the numerous World Championships, the GDR teams were spectacularly successful.

Gold medals were accumulated and world records were set.

But the results came at a cost for many of the sportsmen and women in the programme.

At the heart of State Plan 14.25 was a systematic, state controlled, doping programme that involved thousands of athletes.

For some, the results have been life changing.

It is estimated that hundreds of former athletes have suffered long term physical damage to their health as a result of the drugs they were given.

The question of who was responsible for the doping programmes has dogged German sport since the fall of the Berlin Wall almost 20 years ago.

Many blame the coaches.

Others look to the scientists and to the doctors who actually administered the drugs.

After years of litigation, 184 former East German athletes were paid approximately 10,000 Euros each to settle their class action, but a group of 40 remain unhappy with the terms of this settlement.

In their eyes, justice has not yet beeen served.

Another body of opinion feels that the time for recrimination has passed, but for those athletes whose lives have been severely affected, talk of reconciliation feels premature.

They argue that that they should be treated with more human decency and respect.

Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the once mighty East German sporting machine, many questions still remain unanswered.

What did the coaches really know? Where are the members of the medical profession who were so intimately involved in the programme? And where are the scientists who prepared the drugs?

With the Berlin World Athletics Championships due to start on August 15th, BBC Science reporter Matt Mcgrath investigates the consequences of East Germany's sporting system in this concluding episode of a 2-part Discovery special - Sport's Greatest Cover Up.

The truth behind East Germany's sporting achievements.

Matt Mcgrath investigates.

02 LASTA Distinguished Race20100414

Professor Jones casts his judgment on the pots of genetic diversity that all of us have.

Professor Jones casts his judgment on the pots of genetic diversity that all of us have carried with us across the globe.

02 LASTA Distinguished Race20100415

Professor Jones casts his judgment on the pots of genetic diversity that all of us have.

02 LASTA Distinguished Race, - Skin Deep20100417

Professor Steve Jones steps boldly into the racial ring to discover whether the concept of race is relevant at all.

Our own faces give us hints of past lives who have shaped our early family tree.

Steve Jones goes on a trail to discover what genetics has to say about the common traits that allow racial groupings.

He talks to Professor Nina Jablonski of Penn State University, an expert on skin - particularly its colour; Professor Rick Sturm of Queensland University about eye colour; and he discovers how genetics determined the different hair types found around the world.

Professor Steve Jones investigates if the concept of race is relevant at all.

02 LASTAfrica's Elephants In Crisis2009082620090827

Andrew Luck-baker travels to Kenya to see how the wildlife service is fighting the illegal culling of elephants.

02 LASTBeyond The Abyss20120303

Located in the western pacific, the Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean, plunging down 11km.

Down there it's pitch black, icy cold and the pressure is immense.

Now explorers with funding from the private sector are planning to return to the bottom of the Trench, for the first time for over 50 years.

Rebecca Morelle meets Jim Gardner, who works for the US Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, and has just completed the most detailed survey ever of the Mariana Trench, using sonar.

Alan Jamieson, an ecologist at Oceanlab at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, uses remote controlled submersibles to study the animals and plants that live at extreme pressure in the deepest parts of the oceans.

He tells Rebecca why he believes it is preferable to deploy robots rather than humans to do this research.

Legendary marine biologist and underwater explorer, Sylvia Earle, argues that it is essential for us to visit the depths of the ocean and see the extraordinary environment with our own eyes.

As the former science chief for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA - the ocean's equivalent of NASA - Sylvia Earle says that the seas have always been the poor relation to space.

Rebecca finds out from Bill Raggio of precision glass company Rayotek in San Diego, how to build a glass sphere for Triton submarines which will stop the three-man crew from being crushed by the pressure a the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

And Sandra Brook from the Marine Conservation Biology Society talks about how research scientists may work with the commercial teams, like Triton, in the future as resources dry up for purely research submersibles.

Rebecca Morelle reports on scientists' discoveries in the deepest parts of the oceans.

02 LASTBeyond The Abyss20120305

Rebecca Morelle reports on scientists' discoveries in the deepest parts of the oceans.

A Discovery special looking at Fukushima one year after the earthquake and tsunami.

02 LASTBeyond The Abyss, The Human Race And The Global Body20120319

Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens has adapted to changes in their environment, economy and social structures.

Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens has adapted to changes in their environment, ec.

02 LASTBeyond The Abyss, The Human Race And The Global Body20120320

Lynne Malcolm explores how Homo sapiens has adapted to changes in their environment, ec.

02 LASTCan Chemistry Save The World?20110302

Roland Pease looks into the new discipline of Green Chemistry

Roland Pease looks into the new discipline of Green Chemistry, which seeks to improve our world, without doing harm at the same time.

02 LASTCan Chemistry Save The World?20110303

Roland Pease looks into the new discipline of Green Chemistry

02 LASTCan Chemistry Save The World?20110305

Roland Pease looks into the new discipline of Green Chemistry

02 LASTGive Me The Moonlite2009072920090730

Richard Hollingham looks at UK plans for a Moon mission, 40 years after Apollo.

The Moonlite project will send probes into the Moon's surface and reveal details that h.

Forty years ago, as the first humans stepped onto the Moon, there was talk of frequent missions, permanent Moon bases and even lunar factories.

But still only 12 people have walked on the Moon and there have been no soft landings since the 1970s.

But all that could soon change.

already, The USA, Europe, China, Japan and India have sent orbiters and there seems to be a rush if not a race back to the Moon.

Leading it, with the first instruments at the lunar poles and far side, could be the UK's MoonLITE mission.

In this programme, Richard Hollingham discovers how, by using small, low cost components, British space scientists hope to set up a network of instruments to monitor moonquakes and probe the lunar interior and one or more orbiting satellites that could establish communications and navigation systems for other human and robotic missions.

Professor Sir Martin Sweeting of MoonLITE's prime contractor, SSTL, hopes it will be commercial likens it to the hoteliers and ironmongers who were the ones to profit from the Californian gold rush.

It will also, he says, give the UK a seat at the table when it comes to selecting international astronauts who might return to the Moon.

02 LASTGive Me The Moonlite20090802

Forty years ago, as the first humans stepped onto the Moon, there was talk of frequent missions, permanent Moon bases and even lunar factories.

But still only 12 people have walked on the Moon and there have been no soft landings since the 1970s.

But all that could soon change.

already, The USA, Europe, China, Japan and India have sent orbiters and there seems to be a rush if not a race back to the Moon.

Leading it, with the first instruments at the lunar poles and far side, could be the UK's MoonLITE mission.

In this programme, Richard Hollingham discovers how, by using small, low cost components, British space scientists hope to set up a network of instruments to monitor moonquakes and probe the lunar interior and one or more orbiting satellites that could establish communications and navigation systems for other human and robotic missions.

Professor Sir Martin Sweeting of MoonLITE's prime contractor, SSTL, hopes it will be commercial likens it to the hoteliers and ironmongers who were the ones to profit from the Californian gold rush.

It will also, he says, give the UK a seat at the table when it comes to selecting international astronauts who might return to the Moon.

Richard Hollingham looks at UK plans for a Moon mission, 40 years after Apollo.

02 LASTImages That Changed The World20100602
02 LASTImages That Changed The World20100603
02 LASTMoments Of Genius20100714

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? Geoff Watts.

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? Geoff Watts asks what makes a science genius.

02 LASTMoments Of Genius20100715

Do scientists really have moments of genius or is it just a useful fiction? Geoff Watts

02 LASTMoving Feast20100210

How Thailand exports half a million tonnes of shrimp each year.

Every year Thailand exports a weight of shrimp equal to one thousand jumbo jets – making it the world's leading exporter of prawns.

Almost of all of this shrimp is farmed in ponds.

In Thailand as elsewhere, such intensive production has caused a range of environmental problems.

‘Discovery' looks at how the Thai authorities have tackled the issues and some of the challenges that remain.

02 LASTMoving Feast20100211

How Thailand exports half a million tonnes of shrimp each year.

02 LASTMoving Feast20100214

Every year Thailand exports a weight of shrimp equal to one thousand jumbo jets – making it the world's leading exporter of prawns.

Almost of all of this shrimp is farmed in ponds.

In Thailand as elsewhere, such intensive production has caused a range of environmental problems.

‘Discovery' looks at how the Thai authorities have tackled the issues and some of the challenges that remain.

How Thailand exports half a million tonnes of shrimp each year.

02 LASTNatural Disasters20090701

A two part investigation into how well meaning conservation policies are actually causi.

A two part investigation into how well meaning conservation policies are actually causing natual disasters.

02 LASTNatural Disasters20090702

A two part investigation into how well meaning conservation policies are actually causi.

02 LASTSave Our Sounds20090715

Trevor Cox continues his exploration of the urban soundscape as part of the BBC's Save our Sounds project.

Today, Trevor meets scientists from the Positive Soundscape Project attempting to influence the future sounds of our cities; and he travels to Hong Kong to meet artists campaigning to save the acoustic heritage of old neighbourhoods, under threat from for commercial redevelopment.

Save our Sounds 2: Trevor Cox explores the urban soundscape of Hong Kong.

02 LASTSave Our Sounds20090716

2: Trevor Cox explores the urban soundscape of Hong Kong.

02 LASTSave Our Sounds20090719

Trevor Cox continues his exploration of the urban soundscape as part of the BBC's Save our Sounds project.

Today, Trevor meets scientists from the Positive Soundscape Project attempting to influence the future sounds of our cities; and he travels to Hong Kong to meet artists campaigning to save the acoustic heritage of old neighbourhoods, under threat from for commercial redevelopment.

Save our Sounds 2: Trevor Cox explores the urban soundscape of Hong Kong.

2: Trevor Cox explores the urban soundscape of Hong Kong.

02 LASTTrading Up20091014

'Trade not aid' is a new mantra for development but can people stay out of poverty when.

'Trade not aid' is a new mantra for development but can people stay out of poverty when they trade up? Susie Emmett finds out.

02 LASTTrading Up20091015
02 LASTTrading Up20091018
02 LASTWhat's The Point Of Zoos?20100224
02 LASTWhat's The Point Of Zoos?20100225
02 LASTWhat's The Point Of Zoos?20100228

Designer conservation - Madagascar's forests recreated in New York's concrete jungle.

03Age Of The Genome20100811

Richard Dawkins looks at the revolution in medical research after the human genome project

Ten years after scientists decoded and sequenced the human genome, Professor Richard Dawkins looks at the transformation in research on diseases such as cancer, diabetes and malaria.

When an international army of scientists announced that they had succeeded in reading out the entire genetic instruction manual for the human body, commentators declared the dawn of a new age in medicine.

A decade on, the revolution has not yet affected the health care for most of us.

So what has been happening behind the scenes in medical research labs, and how are we going to benefit?

The discovery of genes that play roles in conditions such as cancers, diabetes and heart disease has accelerated at a rapid rate since medical researchers gained access to the sequence of three billion molecular letters in the genetic book of life.

The technology for analysing the genomes is becoming fast and relatively cheap.

It took more than ten years and about one billion dollars to read the first human genome sequence.

Now it takes a couple of weeks and a few thousand pounds.

Before long it will cost just a few hundred pounds.

Within a few years, it may be quick and cheap enough to offer us complete DNA scans as part of our routine health care.

But what would they be able to tell us?

03Age Of The Genome20100812

Richard Dawkins looks at the revolution in medical research after the human genome project

03Age Of The Genome20100814

Richard Dawkins looks at the revolution in medical research after the human genome project

03Exchanges At The Frontier20101110

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World Service with the Wellcome Collection.

03Exchanges At The Frontier20101111

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

03Exchanges At The Frontier20101113

There is an enigma which haunts modern physics: Einstein described how gravity works on the scale of stars, galaxies, and the universe itself and Schroedinger gave us the equation that explains the mechanics of the tiny quantum realm.

Both theories work to wonderful effect in their own worlds…BUT if they are laws of nature why is it that planets behave nothing like particles and that gravity is so strangely absent from the quantum realm? In order to make sense of reality the great purpose of twenty first century physics is to find a way to unite them with a Theory of Everything.

The leading contender in what has become the holy grail of modern physics is String Theory.

Once an eccentric pursuit by an artful and impassioned minority it has become the leading contender to unite the forces of nature into one elegant, imaginative and multidimensional suggestion.

It is now absorbing some of the greatest minds of this generation.

What are its claims? When will it be finished and how – if ever – can it be proved correct?

The most famous of String Theory’s proponents is the best-selling author and Co-Director of Columbia University’s Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Professor Brian Greene.

He talks to A.

C.

Grayling and an audience at the Wellcome Collection.

A.

Grayling discusses String Theory with physicist Brian Greene.

03Exchanges At The Frontier, - Patricia Churchland20091216

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosopher Anthony Grayling and the public.

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

03Exchanges At The Frontier, - Patricia Churchland20091217

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

03Japan - Earthquake And Tsunami -20110725

The magnitude 9 earthquake that hit the coast of Japan in March was the most powerful in the country’s recorded history.

Over 25,000 died, most because of the vast tsunami stirred up in the Pacific.

But Japan is a country with long experience of devastating quakes.

In 1923, 100,000 died in Tokyo following an earthquake and the capital city was hit again eight decades before that.

The whole island of Honshu has been seismically 'turned on' by the stresses generated in March, one expert has told the BBC.

Does that mean more major devastating quakes will follow?

Or is the whole attempt to forecast earthquakes doomed to failure?

Roland Pease reports.

The quake that hit Japan in March was the strongest in its history - could worse follow?

03Oceans - What Lies Beneath20090415

Gabrielle Walker meets scientists who are trawling the oceans for untapped resources.

It is an often quoted fact that we know more about the surface of the moon than we do about life beneath the ocean waves.

Oceans make up more than 70% of the Earth's surface and remain the last great frontier of discovery on this planet.

Could the cure for cancer or Parkinson's disease lie hidden in the depths of the oceans?

Scientists are now trawling the ocean, and its flora and fauna, for new compounds, chemicals and novel gene sequences that could provide biotech companies with a wealth of raw material from which to create new medicines.

Gold and other precious minerals are also being discovered on the ocean floor.

But with new and previously unexploited resources comes issues of rights, and over-plundering of our already damaged oceans.

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists making extraordinary discoveries.

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists.

03Oceans - What Lies Beneath20090416

Gabrielle Walker meets scientists who are trawling the oceans for untapped resources.

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists making extraordinary discoveries.

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists.

03Oceans - What Lies Beneath20090419

Gabrielle Walker meets scientists who are trawling the oceans for untapped resources.

03 LAST2007011020070111

Conclusion of the three-part series in which Vivienne Parry examines the future of drug testing.

03 LASTFeeding The World20100331

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy in...

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy increasing as the population grows.

03 LASTFeeding The World20100401

Sue Broom asks if science can feed the world with pressure on land, water and energy in.

03 LASTFeeding The World20100403

How do we continue to feed people living in cities, with climate change threatening crops, a looming energy crisis and increasing numbers of people moving away from the countryside?

In Discovery this week, Sue Broom looks at growing food in urban spaces - the high tech futuristic solutions as well as more pragmatic ideas that are happening now.

Sue Broom looks at the future of farming in the worlds' cities.

03 LASTNumbers That Made The World20090916

Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey into the history of numbers.

Designs.

In the last of his series, world-renowned building designer and engineer, Cecil Balmond, draws on his breadth of professional expertise to focus on numbers in creation and design.

He takes a walk to St Paul's Cathedral in London to speculate on the forces which hold the famous dome in place; unpicks the numerical harmonies first discovered by the Greeks, and the rhythms that drive the Argentinean Tango; and Keith Devlin from Stanford on the west coast of America – the birthplace of Google – discusses the future of numbers for this century and beyond.

03 LASTNumbers That Made The World20090917

Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey into the history of numbers.

Designs.

03 LASTNumbers That Made The World20090920

In the last of his series, world-renowned building designer and engineer, Cecil Balmond, draws on his breadth of professional expertise to focus on numbers in creation and design.

He takes a walk to St Paul's Cathedral in London to speculate on the forces which hold the famous dome in place; unpicks the numerical harmonies first discovered by the Greeks, and the rhythms that drive the Argentinean Tango; and Keith Devlin from Stanford on the west coast of America – the birthplace of Google – discusses the future of numbers for this century and beyond.

Cecil Balmond takes the listener on a journey into the history of numbers.

Designs.

03 LASTThin Air20110202

Gabrielle Walker explores Earth's protecting veil, the upper atmosphere

On August 16th 1960 at 7am, Joe Kittinger was hanging in the sky twenty miles above New Mexico.

He was so high that the sky seemed black and he could see the luminous glow of the atmosphere, curving away around the planet beneath him.

Had his pressure suit failed, he would have died.

As it was, he moved to the edge of the gondola beneath his helium-filled balloon and jumped.

For four minutes and 37 seconds, he fell free; at first with little sensation of motion, from near-vacuum to the coldest air around.

Then, as the rushing air began to slow him, he entered the troposphere, where all the clouds, weather and life resides.

His parachute opened, bringing him home to a desert that, after where he'd been, seemed like the Garden of Eden.

On the way down, he crossed the ozone layer, where a story of serendipity and surprise was later to unfold; an example of the fragility of the air, our blindness to our actions and our resourcefulness in recognising and then fixing a problem.

By the time British scientists spotted that there was a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica so big that space scientists hadn't noticed it, it was almost too late.

Gabrielle Walker follows Kittinger's short journey through the upper atmosphere and discovers how it protects us from the radiation of space and reflects our radio messages around the planet.

She travels to the Arctic to witness the ultimate high-altitude aerial battleground between space and atmosphere: the Northern Lights.

03 LASTThin Air20110203

Gabrielle Walker explores Earth's protecting veil, the upper atmosphere

03 LASTThin Air20110205
03 LASTWhat Scientists Believe20100120
03 LASTWhat Scientists Believe20100121
03 LASTWhat Scientists Believe20100124

Modern science is extremely complex, and it makes huge demands on scientists.

Like people in any walk of life, scientists are infinitely varied human beings.

But all of them are expected to conform to the rules and regulations required by scientific investigation.

Stephen Webster is a Philosopher of Science at Imperial College London.

He wants to know how an individual scientist's personal, psychological and intellectual qualities map onto their chosen area of science.

How much of a scientist's personality is reflected in their work? Should subjective private beliefs be a part of objective scientific outcomes? What happens if tensions develop between a scientist's beliefs and the formal demands of science? If tensions arise, how should they best be resolved?

In this series of three programmes, Stephen talks to six scientists about themselves and about their scientific work.

In the final programme, Stephen meets zoologist Andrew Gosler.

For more than twenty-five years, Andrew has been studying the Great Tit population in Wytham Wood near Oxford in southern England.

Andrew greatly respects the animals he studies and the environment they inhabit.

He finds inspiration working so closely with nature, and that inspiration motivates his scientific enquiries.

But Andrew also knows that scientific description can only ever provide a partial description of reality.

Science will never encapsulate Andrew's own, private and unique relationship with the world he studies.

Stephen Webster investigates the links between scientists' beliefs and their research.

04Exchanges At The Frontier20101117

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World Service with the Wellcome Collection.

04Exchanges At The Frontier20101118

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

04Exchanges At The Frontier20101120

It is a hospital to which the patients are sentenced, and though enormous effort is made to cure them it is somewhere from which many people hope the patients will never be discharged.

In this edition of Exchanges At The Frontier A.C.Grayling and an audience of the public go to Broadmoor High Security Psychiatric Hospital to speak to the Clinical Psychiatrist and Forensic Psychotherapist Dr Gwen Adshead.

Where do you belong when everyone and everything has rejected you? How should we treat the people who are beyond the pale? When does a duty to protect the public interfere with the medical imperative to help your patient.

Gwen Adshead gives a vivid picture of the complex issues at play in the highly specialised world of Broadmoor Hospital.

A.C.Grayling discusses mental illness and violence with Psychotherapist Gwen Adshead

04Exchanges At The Frontier, - Jim Virdee20091223

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosopher Anthony Grayling and the public.

04Exchanges At The Frontier, - Jim Virdee20091224

Leading scientists are tested over the social impact of their discoveries by philosophe.

04Exchanges At The Frontier, - Jim Virdee20091227

A.C.

Grayling questions a man at the heart of the most audacious and inspiring science project in the world.

As chief architect and project leader of the CMS experiment at Cern's new Large Hadron Collider, Tejinder Virdee and his team are reckoned to be the most likely to revolutionise physics by discovering the Higgs Boson.

It is a scientific prospect which could be every bit as earth shattering as the discovery of relativity a century ago.

Tejinder Virdee is leader of the CMS experiment, an enormous magnet one metres underground which engineers crashes of particles at close to speed of light and measures the results.

What did it take to build such a machine? Why is the Higgs Boson so significant? And will the multi-billion pound particle accelerator actually work this time?

A.C.Grayling talks to leading physicist Tejinder Virdee about the Large Hadron Collider.

04 LASTAge Of The Genome20100818

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to under.

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to understanding the origin of disease & variety.

04 LASTAge Of The Genome20100819

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to under.

04 LASTAge Of The Genome20100821

Ten years after mapping the human genome, Richard Dawkins asks if we're closer to under.

04 LASTOceans - What Lies Beneath20090422

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists.

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists making extraordinary discoveries.

04 LASTOceans - What Lies Beneath20090423

In the last programme in this series Gabrielle investigates the complex interaction between oceans and climate.

Could the oceans hold the key to protecting us from the effects of global warming?

Gabrielle Walker looks at the intricate relationship between the oceans and the atmosphere

Gabrielle Walker looks at how little we understand the oceans, and talks to scientists.

04 LASTOceans - What Lies Beneath20090426

Gabrielle Walker looks at the intricate relationship between the oceans and the atmosphere

05 LASTExchanges At The Frontier20091230

A.C.Grayling discusses the search for extra terrestrials with SETI astronomer Seth Shostak

A.C.Grayling discusses the science behind the search for extra terrestrials with Seth Shostak, Chief Astronomer at SETI Institute in the USA.

It is a scientific endeavour which is 50 years old this year and, in a public event at the Wellcome Collection in London, they explore the science of radio waves as well as the likelihood and implications of contacting the little green men.

In 1959 a letter to Nature magazine called for some serious science on trying to find life forms on other planets, and an experiment began to search nearby solar systems for radio wave activity.

Far from being an esoteric backwater for cosmologists, SETI as it has become known, has attracted the financial support of NASA, the public backing of a phalanx of Nobel Prize Winners over the years, and Universities and Scientific Institutions are ready to lend the expertise and provide funding for a search which now involves almost every country on earth.

With a trillion planets in our own galaxy, so the thinking goes, and water now found on Mars, the moon and several other places in our solar system, there is a strong probability that life – intelligent life – exists elsewhere … out in the deep dark blue.

05 LASTExchanges At The Frontier20091231

A.C.Grayling discusses the search for extra terrestrials with SETI astronomer Seth Shostak

05 LASTExchanges At The Frontier20101124

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World Service with the Wellcome Collection.

05 LASTExchanges At The Frontier20101125

A second series of public events on the role of science in society, from the BBC World.

05 LASTExchanges At The Frontier20101127

Morten L.

Kringelbach is Professor of neuroscience at Aarhus University in Denmark and a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford, specialising in the neuroscience of pleasure.

Pleasure he believes, is central to our lives and intimately linked to emotional, cognitive and reward processing in the brain.

It is crucial in making us human and keeping us healthy.

Understanding exactly how pleasure leads to happiness could revolutionise the experience of life for all of us.

He is leading research into the fundamental neural mechanisms underlying human sensory and social pleasures in order to develop new ways to treat affective disorders.

His collaborations with neurosurgeons and explorations of the underlying brain mechanisms involved in pleasure have lead to his involvement in complex interventions such as Deep Brain Stimulation and he believes his research can help us treat the serious problems of mood disorders such as depression and personality disorder.

A.C.Grayling discusses the neuroscience of pleasure with psychologist Morten Kringelbach