Bebop

It's a rather silly word for a crucial chapter in jazz history.

It didn't just come out of nowhere but evolved, fizzed and bubbled into existence in the USA in the early 1940s, as a result of a gloriously rich and complex musical chemistry involving different combinations of musicians, styles and places.

All week, Donald Macleod and his special guest, the writer and broadcaster Geoffrey Smith, have some serious fun investigating this amazing musical phenomenon.

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012010021520111114

It's a rather silly word for a crucial chapter in jazz history.

It didn't just come out of nowhere but evolved, fizzed and bubbled into existence in the USA in the early 1940s, as a result of a gloriously rich and complex musical chemistry involving different combinations of musicians, styles and places.

All week, Donald Macleod and his special guest, the writer and broadcaster Geoffrey Smith, have some serious fun investigating this amazing musical phenomenon.In Monday's programme they start by exploring the roots of Bebop in the work of a varied cast of pioneers: pianist Art Tatum, guitarist Charlie Christian, tenor sax players Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins and trumpeter Roy Eldridge.

Then it's off to Minton's Playhouse, the after-hours Harlem club and all-purpose Bebop laboratory, where some of the most innovative jazz musicians of the day let their hair down and jammed together into the small hours, gradually forging the new style through their collective experimentation.

Finally, the two central figures of the Bebop revolution emerge from the crowd - alto sax player Charlie 'Yardbird' Parker and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie - first separately, in earlier, pre-Bop incarnations, then playing together, explosively, in two early Bebop classics, 'Groovin' High' and 'Salt Peanuts'.

Bebop! It's a rather silly word for a crucial chapter in jazz history.

All week, Donald Macleod and his special guest, the writer and broadcaster Geoffrey Smith, have some serious fun investigating this amazing musical phenomenon.

Donald Macleod explores bebop's roots in the work of pioneers such as Tatum and Hawkins.

In Monday's programme they start by exploring the roots of Bebop in the work of a varied cast of pioneers: pianist Art Tatum, guitarist Charlie Christian, tenor sax players Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins and trumpeter Roy Eldridge.

'Bebop' [rec.

9 Jan 1945, NYC] - edited version [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie and his All Stars: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt, vox), Don Byas (t sax), Clyde Hart (pno),

Oscar Pettiford (bas), Shelley Manne (drums) [Proper Records Properbox 30, CD 1 track 13]

'Tea for Two' [rec.

12 Apr 1939, Los Angeles] [Vincent Youmans/Irving Caesar]

Art Tatum (pno) [Proper Records Properbox 60, CD 1 track 25]

24 Sep 1939, Harlem Breakfast Club, Minneapolis] [Youmans/Caesar]

Charlie Christian (gtr), Jerry Jerome (t sax), Frankie Hines (pno), Oscar Pettiford (bas) [JSP Records JSP909A,

CD 1 track 6]

'Lady Be Good' [rec.

9 Oct 1936, Chicago] [George and Ira Gershwin]

'Jones-Smith Incorporated' - a.k.a.

Count Basie Quintet: Count Basie (pno, ldr), Carl Smith (tpt),

Lester Young (t sax), Walter Page (bas), Jo Jones (drums) [Columbia CK 40608, track 1]

'Body and Soul' [rec.

11 Oct 1939] [Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton and Johnny Green]

Coleman Hawkins (t sax) and his Orchestra [Affinity CD AFS 1026-6, CD 5 track 17]

'After You've Gone' [rec.

5 Jun 1941, NYC] [Turner Layton/Henry Creamer]

Gene Krupa and his Orchestra, feat.

Roy Eldridge (tpt) [CBS 466310 2, track 4]

'Kerouac' [rec.

May 1941, Minton's Playhouse, NYC] [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), DonByas (t sax), Kenny Kersey (pno), Nick Fenton (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'Sepian Bounce' [rec.

2 Jul 1942, NYC] [A Hall/J McShann]

Jay McShann and his Orchestra [w/Charlie Parker solos at 1:47 and 2:09]

'Little John Special' [rec.

29 Jul 1942, NYC] [Lucky Millinder]

Lucky Millinder and his Orchestra [with solos from Tab Smith (a sax), Stafford Simon (t sax),

Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Ernie Purce (bar sax)] [Proper Records Properbox 30, CD 1 track 7]

'Red Cross' [rec.

15 Sep 1944, NYC] [Parker]

Tiny Grimes Quintette: Charlie Parker (a sax), Clyde Hart (pno), Tiny Grimes (gtr), Jimmy Butts (bas),

Harold 'Doc' West (drums) [Savoy ZD70737, tracks 1, 2]

'Whispering', arr.

Fletcher Henderson [rec.

15 Dec 1938, NYC] [John Schonberger]

Benny Goodman (cl, ldr) and his Orchestra [HEP CD 1059, track 10]

Dizzy Gillespie: 'Groovin' High' [rec.

28 Feb 1945, NYC] [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie Sextet: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Clyde Hart (pno), Remo Palmieri (gtr),

Slam Stewart (bas), Cozy Cole (drums) [Verve 314 549 086-2, track 7]

'Salt Peanuts' [rec.

11 May 1945, NYC] [Gillespie/K Clarke]

Dizzy Gillespie and his All Stars: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt, vox), Charlie Parker (a sax), Al Haig (pno),

Curly Russell (bas), Sidney Catlett (drums) [Definitive Records DRCD 11382, track 5].

012010021520111114

It's a rather silly word for a crucial chapter in jazz history.

It didn't just come out of nowhere but evolved, fizzed and bubbled into existence in the USA in the early 1940s, as a result of a gloriously rich and complex musical chemistry involving different combinations of musicians, styles and places.

All week, Donald Macleod and his special guest, the writer and broadcaster Geoffrey Smith, have some serious fun investigating this amazing musical phenomenon.In Monday's programme they start by exploring the roots of Bebop in the work of a varied cast of pioneers: pianist Art Tatum, guitarist Charlie Christian, tenor sax players Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins and trumpeter Roy Eldridge.

Then it's off to Minton's Playhouse, the after-hours Harlem club and all-purpose Bebop laboratory, where some of the most innovative jazz musicians of the day let their hair down and jammed together into the small hours, gradually forging the new style through their collective experimentation.

Finally, the two central figures of the Bebop revolution emerge from the crowd - alto sax player Charlie 'Yardbird' Parker and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie - first separately, in earlier, pre-Bop incarnations, then playing together, explosively, in two early Bebop classics, 'Groovin' High' and 'Salt Peanuts'.

Bebop! It's a rather silly word for a crucial chapter in jazz history.

All week, Donald Macleod and his special guest, the writer and broadcaster Geoffrey Smith, have some serious fun investigating this amazing musical phenomenon.

Donald Macleod explores bebop's roots in the work of pioneers such as Tatum and Hawkins.

In Monday's programme they start by exploring the roots of Bebop in the work of a varied cast of pioneers: pianist Art Tatum, guitarist Charlie Christian, tenor sax players Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins and trumpeter Roy Eldridge.

'Bebop' [rec.

9 Jan 1945, NYC] - edited version [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie and his All Stars: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt, vox), Don Byas (t sax), Clyde Hart (pno),

Oscar Pettiford (bas), Shelley Manne (drums) [Proper Records Properbox 30, CD 1 track 13]

'Tea for Two' [rec.

12 Apr 1939, Los Angeles] [Vincent Youmans/Irving Caesar]

Art Tatum (pno) [Proper Records Properbox 60, CD 1 track 25]

24 Sep 1939, Harlem Breakfast Club, Minneapolis] [Youmans/Caesar]

Charlie Christian (gtr), Jerry Jerome (t sax), Frankie Hines (pno), Oscar Pettiford (bas) [JSP Records JSP909A,

CD 1 track 6]

'Lady Be Good' [rec.

9 Oct 1936, Chicago] [George and Ira Gershwin]

'Jones-Smith Incorporated' - a.k.a.

Count Basie Quintet: Count Basie (pno, ldr), Carl Smith (tpt),

Lester Young (t sax), Walter Page (bas), Jo Jones (drums) [Columbia CK 40608, track 1]

'Body and Soul' [rec.

11 Oct 1939] [Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton and Johnny Green]

Coleman Hawkins (t sax) and his Orchestra [Affinity CD AFS 1026-6, CD 5 track 17]

'After You've Gone' [rec.

5 Jun 1941, NYC] [Turner Layton/Henry Creamer]

Gene Krupa and his Orchestra, feat.

Roy Eldridge (tpt) [CBS 466310 2, track 4]

'Kerouac' [rec.

May 1941, Minton's Playhouse, NYC] [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), DonByas (t sax), Kenny Kersey (pno), Nick Fenton (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'Sepian Bounce' [rec.

2 Jul 1942, NYC] [A Hall/J McShann]

Jay McShann and his Orchestra [w/Charlie Parker solos at 1:47 and 2:09]

'Little John Special' [rec.

29 Jul 1942, NYC] [Lucky Millinder]

Lucky Millinder and his Orchestra [with solos from Tab Smith (a sax), Stafford Simon (t sax),

Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Ernie Purce (bar sax)] [Proper Records Properbox 30, CD 1 track 7]

'Red Cross' [rec.

15 Sep 1944, NYC] [Parker]

Tiny Grimes Quintette: Charlie Parker (a sax), Clyde Hart (pno), Tiny Grimes (gtr), Jimmy Butts (bas),

Harold 'Doc' West (drums) [Savoy ZD70737, tracks 1, 2]

'Whispering', arr.

Fletcher Henderson [rec.

15 Dec 1938, NYC] [John Schonberger]

Benny Goodman (cl, ldr) and his Orchestra [HEP CD 1059, track 10]

Dizzy Gillespie: 'Groovin' High' [rec.

28 Feb 1945, NYC] [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie Sextet: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Clyde Hart (pno), Remo Palmieri (gtr),

Slam Stewart (bas), Cozy Cole (drums) [Verve 314 549 086-2, track 7]

'Salt Peanuts' [rec.

11 May 1945, NYC] [Gillespie/K Clarke]

Dizzy Gillespie and his All Stars: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt, vox), Charlie Parker (a sax), Al Haig (pno),

Curly Russell (bas), Sidney Catlett (drums) [Definitive Records DRCD 11382, track 5].

022010021620111115

In Tuesday's programme, they focus on the 'yin and yang' of Bebop, Charlie Parker and the man he once referred to as 'the other half of my heartbeat', Dizzy Gillespie, starting with three studio recordings - 'Dizzy Atmosphere', 'Now's the Time' and 'Koko' - that galvanized the jazz world, both with the freshness and inventiveness of the musical language and the sheer virtuosity of the playing.

Next we follow Parker and Gillespie on a trip to Los Angeles - an occasion notable both for the thrilling live concert they played there and for Parker's ensuing breakdown and stay in Camarillo State Hospital, where, after years of drug abuse, he underwent six months' psychiatric treatment; it would be several years before the two men collaborated again.

In the meantime, Gillespie formed a big band and made a string of dazzlingly extrovert recordings; Parker's more reflective, introspective work from this time stands in stark contrast.

Finally, we hear them together again in their last studio outing, from June 1950.

Parker, always sailing close to the wind, would be dead within five years; Gillespie carried on playing Bebop for another 40, even becoming a cultural ambassador for the US State Department along the way.

'Leap Frog' (incomplete take) [rec.

6 Jun 1950, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker (a sax), Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Thelonious Monk (pno), Curly Russell (bas), Buddy Rich (drums)

'Dizzy Atmosphere' [rec.

28 Feb 1945, NYC] [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie Sextet: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Clyde Hart (pno), Remo Palmieri (gtr),

Slam Stewart (bas), Cozy Cole (drums) [Definitive Records DRCD 11382, track 5]

'Now's the Time' [rec.

26 Nov 1945, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Reboppers: Miles Davis (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Dizzy Gillespie (pno), Curly Russell (bas),

Max Roach (drums) [Savoy ZD70737, track 5]

'Koko' [rec.

Charlie Parker Reboppers: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt and pno), Charlie Parker (a sax), Sadik Hakim (pno -

opening and closing passages only), Curly Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Savoy ZD70737, track 7]

'Sweet Georgia Brown' [rec.

28 Jan 1946, Philharmonic Auditorium, LA] [Ben Bernie, Maceo Pinkard, Kenneth Casey]

Dizzy Gillespie, Al Killian (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Lester Young (t sax), Mel Powell (pno),

Billy Hadnott (bas), Lee Young (drums) [Verve 837 142-2, CD 1 track 1]

'Lover Man' [rec.

29 Jul 1946] [R Ramirez/J Davis/J Sherman]

Charlie Parker Quintet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Howard McGhee (tpt), Jimmy Bunn (pno), Bob Kesterson (bas),

Roy Porter (drums) [Verve 314 549 084-2, track 9]

'Things to Come'[rec.

9 Jul 1946] [Gil Fuller/Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra [Verve 314 549 086-2, track 8]

'Katy (Dizzier and Dizzier)' [rec.

6 May 1949, NYC] [Wilson/Basie]

Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra [Proper Records Properbox 30, CD 4 track 5]

'Manteca' [rec.

30 Dec 1947] [Gillespie/ Gil Fuller/Pozo]

Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra [with Kenny Clark on drums]

'Parker's Mood' [rec.

18 Sep 1948, NYC] [Parker]

Miles Davis (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), John Lewis (pno), Curly Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums)

'Embraceable You' [rec.

28 Oct 1947, NYC] [George and Ira Gershwin]

Charlie Parker Quintet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Miles Davis (tpt), Duke Jordan (pno), Tommy Potter (bas),

Max Roach (drums) [Verve 314 549 084-2, track 11]

'Confirmation' [30 Jul 1953, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Quartet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Al Haig (pno), Percy Heath (bas), Max Roach (drums)

'Bloomdido' [rec.

6 June 1950, NYC] [Parker]

'Leap Frog' (take 9) [ditto] [Parker]

022010021620111115

In Tuesday's programme, they focus on the 'yin and yang' of Bebop, Charlie Parker and the man he once referred to as 'the other half of my heartbeat', Dizzy Gillespie, starting with three studio recordings - 'Dizzy Atmosphere', 'Now's the Time' and 'Koko' - that galvanized the jazz world, both with the freshness and inventiveness of the musical language and the sheer virtuosity of the playing.

Next we follow Parker and Gillespie on a trip to Los Angeles - an occasion notable both for the thrilling live concert they played there and for Parker's ensuing breakdown and stay in Camarillo State Hospital, where, after years of drug abuse, he underwent six months' psychiatric treatment; it would be several years before the two men collaborated again.

In the meantime, Gillespie formed a big band and made a string of dazzlingly extrovert recordings; Parker's more reflective, introspective work from this time stands in stark contrast.

Finally, we hear them together again in their last studio outing, from June 1950.

Parker, always sailing close to the wind, would be dead within five years; Gillespie carried on playing Bebop for another 40, even becoming a cultural ambassador for the US State Department along the way.

'Leap Frog' (incomplete take) [rec.

6 Jun 1950, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker (a sax), Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Thelonious Monk (pno), Curly Russell (bas), Buddy Rich (drums)

'Dizzy Atmosphere' [rec.

28 Feb 1945, NYC] [Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie Sextet: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Clyde Hart (pno), Remo Palmieri (gtr),

Slam Stewart (bas), Cozy Cole (drums) [Definitive Records DRCD 11382, track 5]

'Now's the Time' [rec.

26 Nov 1945, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Reboppers: Miles Davis (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Dizzy Gillespie (pno), Curly Russell (bas),

Max Roach (drums) [Savoy ZD70737, track 5]

'Koko' [rec.

Charlie Parker Reboppers: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt and pno), Charlie Parker (a sax), Sadik Hakim (pno -

opening and closing passages only), Curly Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Savoy ZD70737, track 7]

'Sweet Georgia Brown' [rec.

28 Jan 1946, Philharmonic Auditorium, LA] [Ben Bernie, Maceo Pinkard, Kenneth Casey]

Dizzy Gillespie, Al Killian (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Lester Young (t sax), Mel Powell (pno),

Billy Hadnott (bas), Lee Young (drums) [Verve 837 142-2, CD 1 track 1]

'Lover Man' [rec.

29 Jul 1946] [R Ramirez/J Davis/J Sherman]

Charlie Parker Quintet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Howard McGhee (tpt), Jimmy Bunn (pno), Bob Kesterson (bas),

Roy Porter (drums) [Verve 314 549 084-2, track 9]

'Things to Come'[rec.

9 Jul 1946] [Gil Fuller/Gillespie]

Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra [Verve 314 549 086-2, track 8]

'Katy (Dizzier and Dizzier)' [rec.

6 May 1949, NYC] [Wilson/Basie]

Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra [Proper Records Properbox 30, CD 4 track 5]

'Manteca' [rec.

30 Dec 1947] [Gillespie/ Gil Fuller/Pozo]

Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra [with Kenny Clark on drums]

'Parker's Mood' [rec.

18 Sep 1948, NYC] [Parker]

Miles Davis (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), John Lewis (pno), Curly Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums)

'Embraceable You' [rec.

28 Oct 1947, NYC] [George and Ira Gershwin]

Charlie Parker Quintet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Miles Davis (tpt), Duke Jordan (pno), Tommy Potter (bas),

Max Roach (drums) [Verve 314 549 084-2, track 11]

'Confirmation' [30 Jul 1953, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Quartet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Al Haig (pno), Percy Heath (bas), Max Roach (drums)

'Bloomdido' [rec.

6 June 1950, NYC] [Parker]

'Leap Frog' (take 9) [ditto] [Parker]

032010021720111116

In Wednesday's programme, they visit the engine-room of jazz - the rhythm section - and in particular, Bebop's two key drummers, Kenny 'Klook-Mop' Clarke and Max Roach.

Clarke's innovation was to shift the drummer's time-keeping function to the ride cymbal, leaving the snare and bass drum free to 'drop bombs' - unexpected offbeat accents - that perfectly complemented the way that the most innovative jazz musicians were beginning to play.

In the event, Clarke was shipped off to Europe as part of the US contribution to the war effort, and he missed Bebop's explosion onto the scene in 1945.

His shoes were filled by Max Roach, a percussion virtuoso who absorbed and extended Clarke's innovations.

Donald Macleod and Geoffrey Smith explore the contributions of both men to a stellar sequence of recordings, with Charlie Christian, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Fats Navarro, Bud Powell, Thelonius Monk, Miles Davis, the Modern Jazz Quartet and Clifford Brown.

extract [drum solo] from 'The Blues Walk'

'Topsy' - extract [rec.

live, 21 May 1941, Minton's Playhouse, Harlem, NYC] [Durham/Battle]

Charlie Christian (gtr), Kenny Kersey (pno), Nick Fenton (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'Billie's Bounce' [rec.

26 November 1945, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Reboppers: Charlie Parker (a sax), Miles Davis (tpt), Argonne Thornton (aka Sadik Hakim) (pno), Curly Russell (b) Max Roach (drums) [Savoy 92911-2, CD 1 track 21]

'Oop-Bop-Sh'bam' [rec.

15 May 1946, NYC] [Gillespie/Gil Fuller]

Dizzy Gillespie Sextet: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt, vox), Gil Fuller (vox), Sonny Stitt (a sax), Milt Jackson (vib),

Al Haig (pno), Ray Brown (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums) [Definitive Records DRCD 11382, track 5]

'Epistrophy' [rec.

5 Sep 1946, NYC] [Thelonious Monk, K Clarke]

Kenny Clarke and his 52nd Street Boys: Fats Navarro, Kenny Dorham (tpt); Sonny Stitt (a sax); Ray Abrams

(t sax); Eddie De Verteuil (bar sax); Bud Powell (pno); John Collins (gtr); Al Hall (bas); Kenny Clarke (drums)

'The Tadd Walk' [rec.

4 Sep 1948, NYC] [Tadd Dameron]

Tadd Dameron and his Orchestra: Fats Navarro (tpt), Rudy Willliams (a sax), Allen Eager (t sax), Tadd

Dameron (pno), Curley Russell (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'Move' [rec.

21 Jan 1949, NYC] [Denzil Best]

Miles Davis (tpt, ldr), J.J.

Johnson (trb), Sandy Siegelstein (hn), John Barber (tub), Lee Konitz (a sax), Gerry

Mulligan (bar sax), Al Haig (pno), Joe Shulman (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Capitol Jazz CDP 7 92862 2, track 1]

'Rouge' [rec.

22 Apr 1949, NYC] [John Lewis]

Miles Davis (tpt, ldr), Kai Winding (trb), Junior Collins (hn), John Barber (tub), Lee Konitz (a sax), Gerry Mulligan

(bar sax), Joh Lewis (pno), Nelson Boyd (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums) [Capitol Jazz CDP 7 92862 2, track 11]

'Un Poco Loco' [rec.

1 May 1951, NYC] [Bud Powell]

Bud Powell (pno), Curly Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32136 2 6, track 12]

'Carolina Moon' [rec.

30 May 1952, NYC] [B Davis/J Burke]

Thelonious Monk Sextet: Kenny Dorham (tpt), Lou Donaldson (a sax), Lucky Thompson (t sax),

Thelonious Monk (pno), Nelson Boyd (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32139 2 3, track 13]

'Kim' [rec.

30 Dec 1952, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Quartet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Hank Jones (pno), Teddy Kotick (bas), Max Roach (drums)

'La Ronde Suite' - parts 3 and 4 [rec.

9 Jan 1955, NYC] [John Lewis]

Modern Jazz Quartet: Milt Jackson (vib), John Lewis (pno), Percy Heath (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'The Blues Walk' [rec.

24 Feb 1955, NYC] [Chris Woods]

Clifford Brown (tpt), Harold Land (t sax), Richie Powell (pno), George Morrow (bas), Max Roach (drums).

!

032010021720111116

In Wednesday's programme, they visit the engine-room of jazz - the rhythm section - and in particular, Bebop's two key drummers, Kenny 'Klook-Mop' Clarke and Max Roach.

Clarke's innovation was to shift the drummer's time-keeping function to the ride cymbal, leaving the snare and bass drum free to 'drop bombs' - unexpected offbeat accents - that perfectly complemented the way that the most innovative jazz musicians were beginning to play.

In the event, Clarke was shipped off to Europe as part of the US contribution to the war effort, and he missed Bebop's explosion onto the scene in 1945.

His shoes were filled by Max Roach, a percussion virtuoso who absorbed and extended Clarke's innovations.

Donald Macleod and Geoffrey Smith explore the contributions of both men to a stellar sequence of recordings, with Charlie Christian, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Fats Navarro, Bud Powell, Thelonius Monk, Miles Davis, the Modern Jazz Quartet and Clifford Brown.

extract [drum solo] from 'The Blues Walk'

'Topsy' - extract [rec.

live, 21 May 1941, Minton's Playhouse, Harlem, NYC] [Durham/Battle]

Charlie Christian (gtr), Kenny Kersey (pno), Nick Fenton (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'Billie's Bounce' [rec.

26 November 1945, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Reboppers: Charlie Parker (a sax), Miles Davis (tpt), Argonne Thornton (aka Sadik Hakim) (pno), Curly Russell (b) Max Roach (drums) [Savoy 92911-2, CD 1 track 21]

'Oop-Bop-Sh'bam' [rec.

15 May 1946, NYC] [Gillespie/Gil Fuller]

Dizzy Gillespie Sextet: Dizzy Gillespie (tpt, vox), Gil Fuller (vox), Sonny Stitt (a sax), Milt Jackson (vib),

Al Haig (pno), Ray Brown (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums) [Definitive Records DRCD 11382, track 5]

'Epistrophy' [rec.

5 Sep 1946, NYC] [Thelonious Monk, K Clarke]

Kenny Clarke and his 52nd Street Boys: Fats Navarro, Kenny Dorham (tpt); Sonny Stitt (a sax); Ray Abrams

(t sax); Eddie De Verteuil (bar sax); Bud Powell (pno); John Collins (gtr); Al Hall (bas); Kenny Clarke (drums)

'The Tadd Walk' [rec.

4 Sep 1948, NYC] [Tadd Dameron]

Tadd Dameron and his Orchestra: Fats Navarro (tpt), Rudy Willliams (a sax), Allen Eager (t sax), Tadd

Dameron (pno), Curley Russell (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'Move' [rec.

21 Jan 1949, NYC] [Denzil Best]

Miles Davis (tpt, ldr), J.J.

Johnson (trb), Sandy Siegelstein (hn), John Barber (tub), Lee Konitz (a sax), Gerry

Mulligan (bar sax), Al Haig (pno), Joe Shulman (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Capitol Jazz CDP 7 92862 2, track 1]

'Rouge' [rec.

22 Apr 1949, NYC] [John Lewis]

Miles Davis (tpt, ldr), Kai Winding (trb), Junior Collins (hn), John Barber (tub), Lee Konitz (a sax), Gerry Mulligan

(bar sax), Joh Lewis (pno), Nelson Boyd (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums) [Capitol Jazz CDP 7 92862 2, track 11]

'Un Poco Loco' [rec.

1 May 1951, NYC] [Bud Powell]

Bud Powell (pno), Curly Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32136 2 6, track 12]

'Carolina Moon' [rec.

30 May 1952, NYC] [B Davis/J Burke]

Thelonious Monk Sextet: Kenny Dorham (tpt), Lou Donaldson (a sax), Lucky Thompson (t sax),

Thelonious Monk (pno), Nelson Boyd (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32139 2 3, track 13]

'Kim' [rec.

30 Dec 1952, NYC] [Parker]

Charlie Parker Quartet: Charlie Parker (a sax), Hank Jones (pno), Teddy Kotick (bas), Max Roach (drums)

'La Ronde Suite' - parts 3 and 4 [rec.

9 Jan 1955, NYC] [John Lewis]

Modern Jazz Quartet: Milt Jackson (vib), John Lewis (pno), Percy Heath (bas), Kenny Clarke (drums)

'The Blues Walk' [rec.

24 Feb 1955, NYC] [Chris Woods]

Clifford Brown (tpt), Harold Land (t sax), Richie Powell (pno), George Morrow (bas), Max Roach (drums).

!

042010021820111117

Thursday's programme homes in on the 88 keys of the piano, under the phenomenal fingers of Bebop's two most influential pianists: Bud Powell and Thelonius Monk.

The classically-trained Powell had a ferociously virtuosic style of playing.

His personality, though, was shy and introverted, and there was something almost helpless about him.

He had a tendency to drink to excess, and a formidable knack for getting into trouble.

In 1945 he was beaten senseless by the Philadelphia police, an attack whose savagery left him with mental problems that dogged him for the rest of his all-too-brief life; he died in 1966, a couple of months short of his 42nd birthday.

Powell and Monk met at Minton's Playhouse in Harlem, where Monk was house pianist in the early '40s, and they remained firm friends.

We hear Monk's tribute to Powell, 'In Walked Bud', and Powell's reading of a Monk composition, 'Off Minor'.

We also hear their very different readings of 'Tea for Two' - Powell's a wildly inventive hectic dash, like something from the Mad Hatter's Tea Party, Monk's much more spacious and angular.

And to finish: 'Wee' from a celebrated live concert recording in which Powell played with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Charles Mingus and Max Roach; and a Monk tune, 'Little Rootie Tootie', in a magnificent arrangement for big band.

'52nd Street Theme' [rec.

8 Aug 1949, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Bud Powell's Modernists: Fats Navarro (tpt), Sonny Rollins (t sax), Bud Powell (pno), Tommy Potter (bas),

Roy Haynes (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32136 2 6, track 4]

'Floogie Boo' [rec.

4 Jan 1944, NYC] [Williams, Vinson]

Cootie Williams Sextet: Cootie Williams (tpt), Eddie 'Cleanhead' Vinson (a sax), Eddie Lockjaw" Davis (t sax),

Bud Powell (pno), Norman Keenan (bas), Sylvester 'Vess' Payne (drums) [Proper Records Properbox 22, CD 1 track 2]

'On the Bean' [rec.

19 Oct 1944] [Coleman Hawkins]

Thelonious Monk (pno) with the Coleman Hawkins Quartet [Topaz TPZ 1028, track 17]

'Off Minor' [rec.

10 Jan 1947, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Bud Powell Trio: Bud Powell (pno), Curley Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Proper Records Properbox 22,

CD 2 track 23]

'In Walked Bud' [rec.

21 Nov 1947, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Thelonious Monk Quintet: Thelonious Monk (pno), George Taitt (tpt), Sahib Shihab (a sax), Bob Paige (bas),

Art Blakey (drums) [Blue Note CDP 7 81510 2, track 17]

'Evidence' [rec.

2 Jul 1948, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Thelonious Monk Quartet: Milt Jackson (vib), Thelonious Monk (pno), John Simmons (bas), Shadow Wilson

(drums) [Blue Note 7243 8 30363 2 5, CD 2 track 4]

'Bouncing with Bud' [rec.

8 Aug 1949, NYC]

Roy Haynes (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32136 2 6, track 1]

'Tea for Two' [rec.

1 Jul 1950, NYC] [Youmans/Caesar]

Bud Powell Trio: Bud Powell (pno), Ray Brown (bas), Buddy Rich (drums) [Verve 314 521 669-2, CD 1 track 17]

3 Apr 1956, Hackensack, NJ] [Youmans/Caesar]

Thelonious Monk (pno), Oscar Pettiford (bas), Art Blakey (drums) [Riverside RCD 022-2, CD 1 track 13]

'Wee' [live concert rec.

15 May 1953, Massey Hall, Toronto] [D Best]

'The Quintet': Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Bud Powell (pno), Charles Mingus (bas),

Max Roach (drums) [Jazz Factory JFCD 22856, track 12]

'Little Rootie Tootie' [live concert rec.

28 Feb 1959, NYC Town Hall] [Thelonious Monk]

Donald Byrd (tpt), Eddie Bert (trb), Robert Northern (hrn), Phil Woods (a sax), Charlie Rouse (t sax),

Pepper Adams (bar sax), Jay McAlister (tub), Sam Jones (bas), Art Taylor (drums) [Riverside RCD 022-2,

CD 10 track 4]"

042010021820111117

Thursday's programme homes in on the 88 keys of the piano, under the phenomenal fingers of Bebop's two most influential pianists: Bud Powell and Thelonius Monk.

The classically-trained Powell had a ferociously virtuosic style of playing.

His personality, though, was shy and introverted, and there was something almost helpless about him.

He had a tendency to drink to excess, and a formidable knack for getting into trouble.

In 1945 he was beaten senseless by the Philadelphia police, an attack whose savagery left him with mental problems that dogged him for the rest of his all-too-brief life; he died in 1966, a couple of months short of his 42nd birthday.

Powell and Monk met at Minton's Playhouse in Harlem, where Monk was house pianist in the early '40s, and they remained firm friends.

We hear Monk's tribute to Powell, 'In Walked Bud', and Powell's reading of a Monk composition, 'Off Minor'.

We also hear their very different readings of 'Tea for Two' - Powell's a wildly inventive hectic dash, like something from the Mad Hatter's Tea Party, Monk's much more spacious and angular.

And to finish: 'Wee' from a celebrated live concert recording in which Powell played with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Charles Mingus and Max Roach; and a Monk tune, 'Little Rootie Tootie', in a magnificent arrangement for big band.

'52nd Street Theme' [rec.

8 Aug 1949, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Bud Powell's Modernists: Fats Navarro (tpt), Sonny Rollins (t sax), Bud Powell (pno), Tommy Potter (bas),

Roy Haynes (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32136 2 6, track 4]

'Floogie Boo' [rec.

4 Jan 1944, NYC] [Williams, Vinson]

Cootie Williams Sextet: Cootie Williams (tpt), Eddie 'Cleanhead' Vinson (a sax), Eddie Lockjaw" Davis (t sax),

Bud Powell (pno), Norman Keenan (bas), Sylvester 'Vess' Payne (drums) [Proper Records Properbox 22, CD 1 track 2]

'On the Bean' [rec.

19 Oct 1944] [Coleman Hawkins]

Thelonious Monk (pno) with the Coleman Hawkins Quartet [Topaz TPZ 1028, track 17]

'Off Minor' [rec.

10 Jan 1947, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Bud Powell Trio: Bud Powell (pno), Curley Russell (bas), Max Roach (drums) [Proper Records Properbox 22,

CD 2 track 23]

'In Walked Bud' [rec.

21 Nov 1947, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Thelonious Monk Quintet: Thelonious Monk (pno), George Taitt (tpt), Sahib Shihab (a sax), Bob Paige (bas),

Art Blakey (drums) [Blue Note CDP 7 81510 2, track 17]

'Evidence' [rec.

2 Jul 1948, NYC] [Thelonious Monk]

Thelonious Monk Quartet: Milt Jackson (vib), Thelonious Monk (pno), John Simmons (bas), Shadow Wilson

(drums) [Blue Note 7243 8 30363 2 5, CD 2 track 4]

'Bouncing with Bud' [rec.

8 Aug 1949, NYC]

Roy Haynes (drums) [Blue Note 7243 5 32136 2 6, track 1]

'Tea for Two' [rec.

1 Jul 1950, NYC] [Youmans/Caesar]

Bud Powell Trio: Bud Powell (pno), Ray Brown (bas), Buddy Rich (drums) [Verve 314 521 669-2, CD 1 track 17]

3 Apr 1956, Hackensack, NJ] [Youmans/Caesar]

Thelonious Monk (pno), Oscar Pettiford (bas), Art Blakey (drums) [Riverside RCD 022-2, CD 1 track 13]

'Wee' [live concert rec.

15 May 1953, Massey Hall, Toronto] [D Best]

'The Quintet': Dizzy Gillespie (tpt), Charlie Parker (a sax), Bud Powell (pno), Charles Mingus (bas),

Max Roach (drums) [Jazz Factory JFCD 22856, track 12]

'Little Rootie Tootie' [live concert rec.

28 Feb 1959, NYC Town Hall] [Thelonious Monk]

Donald Byrd (tpt), Eddie Bert (trb), Robert Northern (hrn), Phil Woods (a sax), Charlie Rouse (t sax),

Pepper Adams (bar sax), Jay McAlister (tub), Sam Jones (bas), Art Taylor (drums) [Riverside RCD 022-2,

CD 10 track 4]"

05 LAST2010021920111118

To conclude the week they take a look beyond Bebop and explore the various shoots that have sprouted from the original stem, in the hands of such musicians as John Coltrane, Cecil Taylor, Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, Eric Dolphy, Wynton Marsalis and finally Sonny Rollins, who brings us into the 21st century with his take on the Jerome Kern standard, 'Why Was I Born' - a live concert recording made in the immediate aftermath of 9/11.

#

Sun Ra - 'Along Came Ra' [live concert rec.

12 Nov 1983, Utrecht]

Performer: Sun Ra and his Arkestra

Leo LR-154, 1

John Coltrane John Coltrane - 'Giant Steps' [rec.

5 May 1959, NYC]

Performer: John Coltrane (t sax) Performer: Tommy Flanagan (pno) Performer: Paul Chambers (bas), Art Taylor (drums)

Rhino R2 75203, 1

Cole Porter Cole Porter - 'I Love Paris' [15 Apr 1959, NYC]

Performer: Cecil Taylor (pno) Performer: Buell Neidlinger (bas) Performer: Rudy Collins (drums)

Blue Note CDP 94107, 2

Miles Davis Miles Davis - 'Blue in Green' [rec.

2 Mar 1959, NYC]

Performer: Miles Davis (tpt) Performer: John Coltrane (t sax) Performer: Bill Evans (pno) Performer: Paul Chambers (bas) Performer: Jimmy Cobb (drums)

Columbia CK 64935, 3

Ornette Coleman Ornette Coleman - 'Ramblin'' [rec.

8 Oct 1959, NYC]

Performer: Ornette Coleman (a sax) Performer: Donald Cherry (pocket trumpet) Performer: Charlie Haden (bas) Performer: Billy Higgins (drums)

Atlantic 81227 3608-2, 1

Eric Dolphy Eric Dolphy - 'Miss Ann' [rec.

21 Dec 1960, Englewood Cliffs, NJ]

Performer: Eric Dolphy-Booker Little Quintet: Performer: Eric Dolphy (a sax) Performer: Booker Little (tpt) Performer: Jaki Byard (pno) Performer: Ron Carter (bas) Performer: Roy Haynes (drums)

Prestige PR 7747, 5

Wynton Marsalis Wynton Marsalis - Bebop

Performer: Wynton Marsalis (tpt) Performer: Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra

Sony 074646299821, 15

Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II - 'Why Was I Born?' [live concert rec.

15 Sep 2001, Boston]

Performer: Sonny Rollins (t sax) Performer: Clifton Anderson (trb) Performer: Stephen Scott (pno) Performer: Bob Cranshaw (e bas) Performer: Perry Wilson (drums) Performer: Kimati Dinizulu (perc)

Milestone MCD-9342-2, 5

05 LAST2010021920111118

To conclude the week they take a look beyond Bebop and explore the various shoots that have sprouted from the original stem, in the hands of such musicians as John Coltrane, Cecil Taylor, Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, Eric Dolphy, Wynton Marsalis and finally Sonny Rollins, who brings us into the 21st century with his take on the Jerome Kern standard, 'Why Was I Born' - a live concert recording made in the immediate aftermath of 9/11.

#

Sun Ra - 'Along Came Ra' [live concert rec.

12 Nov 1983, Utrecht]

Performer: Sun Ra and his Arkestra

Leo LR-154, 1

John Coltrane John Coltrane - 'Giant Steps' [rec.

5 May 1959, NYC]

Performer: John Coltrane (t sax) Performer: Tommy Flanagan (pno) Performer: Paul Chambers (bas), Art Taylor (drums)

Rhino R2 75203, 1

Cole Porter Cole Porter - 'I Love Paris' [15 Apr 1959, NYC]

Performer: Cecil Taylor (pno) Performer: Buell Neidlinger (bas) Performer: Rudy Collins (drums)

Blue Note CDP 94107, 2

Miles Davis Miles Davis - 'Blue in Green' [rec.

2 Mar 1959, NYC]

Performer: Miles Davis (tpt) Performer: John Coltrane (t sax) Performer: Bill Evans (pno) Performer: Paul Chambers (bas) Performer: Jimmy Cobb (drums)

Columbia CK 64935, 3

Ornette Coleman Ornette Coleman - 'Ramblin'' [rec.

8 Oct 1959, NYC]

Performer: Ornette Coleman (a sax) Performer: Donald Cherry (pocket trumpet) Performer: Charlie Haden (bas) Performer: Billy Higgins (drums)

Atlantic 81227 3608-2, 1

Eric Dolphy Eric Dolphy - 'Miss Ann' [rec.

21 Dec 1960, Englewood Cliffs, NJ]

Performer: Eric Dolphy-Booker Little Quintet: Performer: Eric Dolphy (a sax) Performer: Booker Little (tpt) Performer: Jaki Byard (pno) Performer: Ron Carter (bas) Performer: Roy Haynes (drums)

Prestige PR 7747, 5

Wynton Marsalis Wynton Marsalis - Bebop

Performer: Wynton Marsalis (tpt) Performer: Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra

Sony 074646299821, 15

Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II - 'Why Was I Born?' [live concert rec.

15 Sep 2001, Boston]

Performer: Sonny Rollins (t sax) Performer: Clifton Anderson (trb) Performer: Stephen Scott (pno) Performer: Bob Cranshaw (e bas) Performer: Perry Wilson (drums) Performer: Kimati Dinizulu (perc)

Milestone MCD-9342-2, 5