Analysis

Analysis is broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on Thursdays at 2030 GMT and repeated on Sundays at 2130 GMT.

For more than 30 years, Analysis has been examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad.

The subjects the programme covers range from the principles guiding foreign policy to the influence of Darwinism on present-day ideas about human nature; from arguments about whether the better-off will be more willing to pay higher tax to the reasons behind the rise of the populist Right in Europe.

Our presenters are distinguished writers, journalists and academics; our contributors are policy-makers or leading authorities in their fields.

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Episodes

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2004120920041212

President Bush says he wants to work anew with formerly close old allies.

So is a new American love affair with Europe set to blossom?

Quentin Peel examines whether, in the light of the Euro and closer European defence co-operation, the United States will want to work with the Europeans or will pick its friends as it chooses.

2006030920060312

The growth in China's economic potential has been spectacular, and the West is rushing to adjust.

But is it inevitable that China's growth will continue at such a rate? Diane Coyle asks whether it's just as likely that the Chinese mix of communism and capitalism will prove increasingly volatile.

2007110120071104

David Kilcullen, an Australian anthropologist and key adviser to the Pentagon, talks to Frank Gardner about the future of the war on terror.

He believes that the key to a successful campaign is knowledge rather than weaponry.

2008041020080413

Mukul Devichand meets China's eco-warrriors in Beijing and asks how the rest of the world should understand the significance of their activism.

Polluted China is increasingly seen as a threat to the planet, but many Chinese blame the West for its outsourcing of dirty industries.

They feel the developed countries should stop preaching to China about reducing carbon emissions and start helping to clear up the mess.

2011031420110320

The prime minister has proposed a new 'muscular liberalism', aimed at better integrating Britain's Muslims.

It aims to counter the alienation that has led to a few young British Muslim men being prepared to mount terrorist attacks.

David Walker asks what the new policy will mean on the ground, and how easily it can be reconciled with government plans for more local diversity and faith schools.

1707: Bravehearts And Bankers2007040520070408

The Act of Union between England and Scotland in 1707 provided opportunities for Scots to become key players in the nascent British Empire, which brought wealth to Scotland and power to many Scots.

Is there a link between the end of Empire and the resurgence of Scottish nationalism? Dr Richard Weight examines the relationship between patriotism and economics.

A Dictatorship Of Relativism2010062820100704

The idea that no one has a monopoly on the truth seems to be fixed in the modern Western psyche.

But it's an idea that is under attack.

Pope Benedict claims that we are now living in "a dictatorship of relativism" - a place where nothing is certain and we are all slaves to our own desires.

Meanwhile, fundamentalist Islam is on the rise and the philosophy of objectivism has become something of a cult among City traders.

Edward Stourton examines claims that the tolerance which moral relativism is supposed to foster has in fact morphed into a new form of extremism.

Have we replaced one set of moral absolutes with another which are threatening religious freedom? Could moral relativism go out of style in secular Western societies? Or does the mere fact that its opponents have such different versions of the truth mean its long-term acceptance is guaranteed?

Producer: Helen Grady.

Edward Stourton asks if relativism has bred a new form of extremism.

But his critics say he is just confusing relativism with liberalism.

He speaks to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, and to the former Tory minister Ann Widdecombe - hotly-tipped to become the UK's next ambassador to the Holy See.

We also hear from the Italian politician and philosopher, Marcello Pera, philosophers Simon Blackburn, Leslie Green and Stephen Wang and the Sunni Islamic scholar Ruzwan Mohammed.

Edward Stourton asks if we are living in a dictatorship of relativism.

A Human Politics2006031620060319

Kenan Malik asks whether humanism still has any meaning - and what politics might look like without a humanist impulse.

A Is For Anonymous2014021720140223

The wish to be anonymous in our dealings with private companies or governments, in commenting on the news or in daily life seems to be increasing.

For some, anonymity is an ironic response to the cult of celebrity that usually preoccupies us. For others, being anonymous enables us to reject the endless celebration of the individual that characterises our times and instead to find comfort and ease in the unidentifiable mass.

Frances Stonor Saunders examines if the desire for being unknown - whether by the NHS or your search engine - is set to be the new trend of our times.

She explores with those who use the cloak of anonymity - including whistleblowers, authors and medical practitioners - the benefits which concealing your identity can confer. But she also considers the dangers of not being identifiable and how these pitfalls may affect the rest of society.

Producer Simon Coates.

A Nation Of Billy Elliots?2008041720080420

The government is promoting the arts, including a proposed five hours of culture per week in schools.

Yet recent Arts Council cuts have caused uproar, and the arts in the UK now receive more money from private donors than from the public purse.

Camilla Cavendish asks why our cultural industries are now so attractive to the government and whether the agenda is to encourage creativity or simply to entertain.

A New Black Politics?2011103120111106

The 2010 general election saw the largest influx of black and minority ethnic MPs to the Commons that Britain has ever seen.

There are currently 27 sitting on the Conservative and Labour benches - up from 14 in the last Parliament.

But are we starting to see a 'new black politics'? Some suggest that the radical left-wing politics of the 1980s is no longer relevant in twenty-first century Britain, where there is a growing black middle class, a multitude of different black communities, and where black people are represented at the highest levels.

David Goodhart meets the black politicians adopting a more socially conservative standpoint to their predecessors and also talks to their critics: those who say that some of the country's most vulnerable people have been forgotten by the establishment; that institutionalised racism still exists; and that many of today's politicians do not represent the people they are meant to serve.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

How the ideologies of British black politics in Britain have changed since the 1980s.

Interviewees include:

David Lammy, Labour MP for Tottenham

Shaun Bailey, former Conservative parliamentary candidate

Linda Bellos OBE, leader of Lambeth Council 1986-1988

Bill Bush, chief of staff to GLC leader Ken Livingstone until 1986

Trevor Phillips OBE, Chair of the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC)

Kwasi Kwarteng, Conservative MP for Spelthorne

Stafford Scott, race equality consultant in Tottenham

David Goodhart is editor at large of Prospect magazine and was recently appointed as director of the think tank Demos.

A New Iraq?2009061520090621

As British forces complete their withdrawal from Iraq and the government declares the mission a success, Bronwen Maddox considers the prospects of lasting peace for the Iraqi people.

Have lessons been learnt that will change the way in which similar missions are tackled in the future?

A Price Worth Paying?2010020120100207

Investment banks warn that if British taxpayers cease to guarantee to bail them out, they will leave the UK.

That, according to a senior Bank of England official, might be 'a price worth paying'.

Edward Stourton talks to the growing band of experts who believe that risk-taking investment banks should be forced to face the consequences of their losses and finds out why the government remains unconvinced.

The experts who say investment banks should face the consequences of their losses.

Should the taxpayer bail out so-called casino banking? Edward Stourton explores the arguments for and against the return of Glass-Steagall, a 1930s American law which split the banks into high street and investment banks.

President Obama's recent declaration of willingness to fight the banks has pushed the issue of whether taxpayers should bail out so-called casino banking to centre stage in America and across the world.

There are growing calls for a British version of an American post-Depression law called the Glass-Steagall Act.

In this new banking world there would be retail banks which would look after the needs of ordinary customers and there would be separate investment banks which could play the stock markets without putting depositors' savings at risk.

Edward speaks to Professor Niall Ferguson of Harvard University, a specialist in financial history and author of The Ascent of Money, about how banking activities in the UK used to be separate.

He talks to the former Chancellor Nigel Lawson about the events that led to the creation of 'universal' banks in the UK, banks that take ordinary people's money, lend and invest.

He admits that at the time he did not think twice about the consequences.

Lord Lawson is now one of the most prominent people calling for a British-style Glass-Steagall.

As is Liam Halligan, the chief economist at the investment fund Prosperity Capital Management, who outlines the case for a new separation of banking activities.

Another surprising person calling for Glass-Steagall to be resurrected is former Wall Street banker John S Reed.

Back in the 1980s and 90s he was one of the people calling for the original law to be repealed.

Now he's convinced that some kind of separation is crucial to protect taxpayers from future bank bail-outs.

But critics like Brandon Davies, a former head of retail risk at Barclays Retail, fear that splitting the banks would severely damage the economy.

Angela Knight, chief executive of the British Bankers' Association warns that Britain could not take this kind of action alone.

Professor John Kay, formerly of Oxford University, the London Business School and the Institute for Fiscal Studies - probably the most prominent academic economist making the Glass-Steagall case - tells the programme why he thinks there is not more political support for the idea of splitting the banks.

A Scottish Pound?2013012820130203

The cash question facing an independent Scotland. Chris Bowlby discovers the key role of currency in debate ahead of the Scottish referendum next year. With the SNP proposing to keep using sterling if Scotland becomes independent, what will this mean in the world of eurozone crises and financial panics? We discover the mysterious story of Scottish money - how its banknotes are guaranteed by so called giants and titans at the Bank of England. And we ask whether sterling can continue to work smoothly and keep popular confidence if the UK splits. What's the thinking behind the scenes as politicians and officials worry about a British version of the eurozone drama? With Scotland preparing to vote next year, and London wondering what could happen, Analysis reveals the key role of currency in the UK's political future.

Producer Mark Savage

Editor Innes Bowen.

Africa's Chance2007121320071216

Many African nations may be experiencing the opportunity to lift themselves out of poverty.

Thanks to the boom in prices for raw materials, coupled with major Chinese investment, countries such as Kenya and Mozambique are now among the world's fastest-growing economies.

Richard Dowden asks whether this windfall can be channelled into a long-term path to development.

Agenda For The Next Pope20031228

As Pope John Paul becomes increasingly frail, Vatican-watchers are speculating about the identity of the next Pontiff and the challenges he will face.

In the West, the Roman Catholic Church has been weakened by falling numbers of priests, scandals and galloping secularisation.

Andrew Brown asks whether the next Pope can reassert the Church's political and moral authority, and whether Roman Catholicism can survive as a truly global faith.

Aid Or Immigration?2011100320111009

The government is committed to protecting the aid budget.

Frances Cairncross asks whether a more relaxed policy on economic migration might help the developing world more.

Could a more relaxed policy on immigration help the developing world more than aid?

Despite a general policy of austerity and cut backs, the budget for development aid has been ring fenced by the coalition government.

Frances Cairncross asks whether a more relaxed immigration policy might be a better way for the UK to help the developing world.

The official aid budget is dwarfed by a private form of help for the developing world: remittances sent home by immigrants working in richer countries.

So should governments keen to help the developing world encourage migration and remittances as a replacement for state-funded aid? "They have the key advantage that the people who send them know the people who are supposed to be receiving them...

There's less opportunity for corruption and for waste...

and they might have lower overhead costs," argues Owen Barder of the Center for Global Development.

Frances Cairncross, rector of Exeter College, Oxford and former managing editor of The Economist, explores the limits of this free market alternative to state-funded development aid.

Contributors include:

Steve Baker

Conservative MP for Wycombe

Dilip Ratha

Migration and remittances expert from the World Bank and the University of Sussex

Owen Barder

Senior fellow of Washington DC think-tank, the Center for Global Development

Hetty Kovach

Senior policy adviser to Oxfam

Devesh Kapur

Director of the Centre for the Advanced Study of India at the University of Pennsylvania

Onyekachi Wambu

From the African Foundation for Development, or AFFORD

Alex Oprunenco

Head of international programmes with Moldovan think-tank, Expert Grup

Professor Paul Collier

Author of The Bottom Billion and director at the Oxford University Centre for the study of African Economies

Producers: Helen Grady and Daniel Tetlow.

Could a more relaxed policy on immigration help the developing world more than state aid?

Al Qaeda's Enemy Within * *2008080720080810

Could Osama bin Laden's erstwhile comrades be responsible for bringing about the collapse of Al Qaeda? As criticism of the terrorist leader from within the ranks of the Islamist movement itself grows, BBC Security Correspondent Frank Gardner talks to former allies of Osama bin Laden who are now engaged in countering the terrorist leader's agenda.

All Quiet On The Western Front19890525

Analysis is broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on Thursdays at 2030 GMT and repeated on Sundays at 2130 GMT.

For more than 30 years, Analysis has been examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad.

The subjects the programme covers range from the principles guiding foreign policy to the influence of Darwinism on present-day ideas about human nature; from arguments about whether the better-off will be more willing to pay higher tax to the reasons behind the rise of the populist Right in Europe.

Our presenters are distinguished writers, journalists and academics; our contributors are policy-makers or leading authorities in their fields.

Alternative Economic Cultures2012101520121021

Prof Manuel Castells on the rise of new economic cultures since the financial crisis.

Paul Mason interviews renowned sociologist Prof Manuel Castells about the rise of alternative economic cultures since the financial crisis. Recorded in front of an audience at the London School of Economics on Monday 8th October.

The financial crisis which has unfolded since 2008 marks more than an economic downturn, according to Prof Castells. The problems which caused the crisis are so deep rooted that they have provoked a profound reassessment of our economic beliefs and institutions. They have also given rise to social movements such as Occupy and alternative economic cultures opposed to financial capitalism. These ideas are explored in "Aftermath: The Cultures of the Economic Crisis", a book edited by Prof Castells.

Manuel Castells is Professor of Sociology, and Director of the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), in Barcelona. He is also University Professor and the Wallis Annenberg Chair Professor of Communication Technology and Society at the Annenberg School of Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Paul Mason is the Economics Editor of BBC 2's Newsnight programme. His books include Meltdown: The End of the Age of Greed; and Why It's Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions.

The hashtag for this event is #LSECastells.

America: The Right Way2012022720120304

Justin Webb explores what the primaries reveal about the state of the right in the US. Is the Republican party really split? Has a radical wing taken over? What does the American right offer in the post financial crisis world -that might enthuse Americans and perhaps the rest of us too. And is the party ready to lead again.

Justin Webb explores what the primaries tell us about the state of the right in the US.

Justin Webb explores what the primaries reveal about the state of the right in the US. Is the Republican party really split? We explore how the party has shifted to the right, and the reasons for it. The role of the Tea party within the conservative movement, and the effect it's having on the primary race. language. We look at what ideas the American right offers in the post financial crisis world -that might enthuse Americans and perhaps the rest of us too. And ask is the party ready to lead again.

Contributors:

Henry Olsen, Vice President, American Enterprise Institute

Professor Francis Fukuyama, Stanford University

Michael Lind, New America Foundation and Author of "Land of Promise:an Economic History of the United States"

Michael Kibbe, President Freedom Works

Thomas Frank, Author, "Pity the Billionaire"

Jay Cost, Columnist, Weekly Standard.

Anchor Aweigh?2007031520070318

The US remains the world's pre-eminent power, but its ability to shape the international order has been much diminished by Iraq and divisions with allies.

Meanwhile, the fast-growing countries of Asia and the South shun responsibility.

Philip Stephens asks what elements of the Pax Americana should survive and what interdependence might emerge in a new political order.

Anti Social Housing2009022620090301

Richard Reeves, director of the independent think tank Demos, argues that social housing has failed everyone - those who cannot get housing, those in social housing and the taxpayers who pay for it.

The government is committed to a new wave of affordable housing, but have we learnt the lessons of the past?

Richard Reeves, director of the think tank Demos, argues that social housing has failed.

Are Environmentalists Bad For The Planet?2010012520100131

Is it time the green movement ditched some of its ideological baggage?

The BBC's 'Ethical Man' Justin Rowlatt asks if the environmental movement is bad for the planet. He explores the philosophical roots of a way of thinking that developed decades before global warming was an issue. He also examines some of the ideological baggage that environmentalists have brought to the climate change debate, from anti-consumerism and anti-capitalism to a suspicion about technology and a preference for natural solutions. Could these extraneous aspects of green politics be undermining the environmental cause, and are some environmentalists being distracted from the urgent task of stopping global warming by a more radical agenda for social change?

Justin speaks to green capitalists including the Conservative MP John Gummer, who thinks that technology and reinvented markets hold the answer to tackling global warming. He talks to Greenpeace chairman John Sauven about green attitudes to so-called techno fixes, including nuclear power, and discusses green conversion tactics such as so-called identity campaigning with Tom Crompton from the conservation charity WWF and Solitaire Townsend, co-founder of the green public relations company Futerra.

The programme also hears from the leading green thinkers Jonathon Porritt and Professor Mike Hulme, founding director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, and from the theologian and United Nations advisor on climate change and world religions Martin Palmer. Martin sees parallels between some parts of the green movement and millenarian cults who have claimed that 'the end of the world is nigh'. Justin also interviews Andrew Simms from the New Economics Foundation, who believes we can only tackle climate change if we are weaned off our addiction to consumption and economic growth.

The BBC's 'Ethical Man' Justin Rowlatt asks if the environmental movement is bad for the planet.

He explores the philosophical roots of a way of thinking that developed decades before global warming was an issue.

He also examines some of the ideological baggage that environmentalists have brought to the climate change debate, from anti-consumerism and anti-capitalism to a suspicion about technology and a preference for natural solutions.

Could these extraneous aspects of green politics be undermining the environmental cause, and are some environmentalists being distracted from the urgent task of stopping global warming by a more radical agenda for social change?

Justin speaks to green capitalists including the Conservative MP John Gummer, who thinks that technology and reinvented markets hold the answer to tackling global warming.

He talks to Greenpeace chairman John Sauven about green attitudes to so-called techno fixes, including nuclear power, and discusses green conversion tactics such as so-called identity campaigning with Tom Crompton from the conservation charity WWF and Solitaire Townsend, co-founder of the green public relations company Futerra.

The programme also hears from the leading green thinkers Jonathon Porritt and Professor Mike Hulme, founding director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, and from the theologian and United Nations advisor on climate change and world religions Martin Palmer.

Martin sees parallels between some parts of the green movement and millenarian cults who have claimed that 'the end of the world is nigh'.

Justin also interviews Andrew Simms from the New Economics Foundation, who believes we can only tackle climate change if we are weaned off our addiction to consumption and economic growth.

Artificial Intelligence2015022320150301 (R4)

Should we beware the machines? Professor Stephen Hawking has warned the rise of Artificial Intelligence could mean the end of the human race. He's joined other renowned scientists urging computer programmers to focus not just on making machines smarter, but also ensuring they promote the good and not the bad. How seriously should we take the warnings that super-intelligent machines could turn on us? And what does AI teach us about what it means to be human? Helena Merriman examines the risks, the opportunities and how we might avoid being turned into paperclips.

Producer: Sally Abrahams.

Atomic Ayatollahs2006042020060423

Iran's Islamist regime is widely perceived as aiming to become a nuclear power which would dominate the Middle East.

Are Western governments right to feel threatened, and if so what can they do about it?

Zareer Masani considers how far the US and its allies, having learned from the mistakes of the Iraq intervention, have succeeded in building a strong international consensus against Iran's nuclear ambitions, bringing on side, not merely the Europeans, but Russia, China and India.

The programme asks whether the multilateral approach via the IAEA and the UN will last, whether the West can come up with strong enough economic sanctions, and if so, whether the latter would prove more damaging to Iran or to Western economies vulnerable to oil prices.

Analysis also challenges the assumption that most Iranians want to go nuclear, regardless of the political and economic price.

Zareer Mansani asks whether the nuclear bluster of Iranian hard-liners is part of an attempt to shore up their dwindling political base in an increasingly modern society, which is growing tired of clerical obscurantism and international isolation.

Ayatollogy2009101920091025

It is Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's belief in a radical strand of Shia Islam that, according to some critics, makes him a danger to the world.

He is said to be intent on a confrontation with the West, believing that any resulting chaos will only hasten the return of Islam's prophesied saviour, the Mahdi.

Edward Stourton explores the extent to which millenarian populism motivates Iran's leader, at tensions between Ahmadinejad and Grand Ayatollah Khamenei, and at the prospects for the more traditional ayatollahs' vision of a society that is less totalitarian, more secular but nonetheless Islamic.

Ed Stourton explores Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's apparent desire for confrontation with the West

Edward Stourton asks if a battle over theology could help bring about the end of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The demonstrations have been suppressed and the president is still in power, so has the storm that blew up in Iran after this summer's elections been stilled? Far from it, and now the opposition is coming from where you'd least expect.

Some of the country's top theologians and clergymen think that President Ahmadinejad is doing grave damage to the standing of Islam and they want him out.

The programme contains an exclusive email interview with one of Shia Islam's most senior and respected clerics, Grand Ayatollah Hoseyn Ali Montazeri, who calls on Iran's clerics to work with political activists to bring about reform and 'be in step with the people'.

Other interviewees include Professor Ali Ansari from the Institute for Iranian Studies, journalists Amir Taheri, Baqer Moin and Nazenin Moshiri, theologian Mehdi Khalaji and human rights campaigner Roya Kashefi.

Ed Stourton asks if a battle over theology could bring an end to Iran's Islamic Republic.

Babies And Biscuits2010030820100314

Do party leaders need to hug babies and advertise their favourite biscuits in pursuit of the female vote? Are women more likely to vote for female MPs and do they care more than men about politicians' personalities? Alison Wolf examines gender gaps in the polling booth and asks why men and women vote differently.

Alison Wolf examines gender gaps in the polling booth.

The 2010 election campaign has started and politicians seem to be pitching harder than ever for the female vote.

Party leaders are falling over each other to webchat with women on Mumsnet: David Cameron has already made three appearances and Gordon Brown recently went on, too.

Brown's Mumsnet webchat resulted in headlines like: 'Biscuitgate: After 24 Hours of Dithering Gordon Brown finally confesses his favourite dunk'.

But does it really influence women's votes whether top politicians know about the most environmentally-friendly nappies or whether they can name their favourite biscuits? Women make up more than half of the electorate in the UK.

But just like men, they're not a homogenous group.

Women are just as affected by their class, locality, individual beliefs, age, ethnicity, jobs, social and marital status etc..

as men are when it comes to their voting behaviour.

Yet there is a difference in how women and men vote.

This difference seems to be more pronounced in the US and other European countries like Sweden.

But the UK is not immune to it, either.

So there is a gender gap which manifests itself when women or men enter the polling booth.

Professor Alison Wolf, of King's College, London, explores the reasons for this gender gap.

She asks whether there are particular women's issues that politicians need to hit in order to attract the female vote.

Are women MPs more likely to attract women voters? And is true that women respond to the touchy-feely side of politicians more than men or is that just a cliche?

Contributors:

Justine Roberts, Co-Founder and Managing Director of Mumsnet

Dr Ruth Fox, Director of the Parliament and Government Programme at the Hansard Society

Annika Strom Melin, Columnist on Dagens Nyheter, one of the largest circulation papers in Sweden and former Director of the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies

Philippa Roberts, founder of the consultancy Pretty Little Head which helps organisations (including the Conservative Party) to connect better with women

Dr Rosie Campbell, Senior Lecturer in Politics, Birkbeck College, University of London

Dr Roger Mortimore, Head of Political Research, Ipsos- Mori

Paul Whiteley, Professor of Government at the University of Essex and Co- Director of the British Election Study

Dr Scott Blinder, Political Scientist, University of Oxford.

Baby Boomers On Trial2010062120100627

Should the seemingly privileged generation born after the Second World War bear the brunt of cuts in government spending? Conservative Minister David Willetts, one of the Conservative Party's leading thinkers, believes that baby boomers, aged between 45-65, have led a privileged life at the expense of their children's future.

He wants them to give it back.

Michael Blastland questions whether we are in danger of focusing on the wrong target.

Written and presented by Michael Blastland

In his new book "The Pinch", the Conservative thinker and Minister of State for Universities, David Willetts, argues that the Baby Boomers are the most spoilt generation in British history.

According to him, they have squandered the inheritance their prudent parents left them and seem intent on leaving little behind for their own children.

The charge is that those now aged between 45 and 65 have fashioned the world around them to suit their own economic interests: they will enjoy comfortable pensions in retirement, having built up wealth from housing booms that they are cashing in rather than handing on, even as their children struggle, and will command disproportionate health resources in old age, taking out some 118%, apparently, of what they had put in during their lifetimes.

Their children, by contrast, struggle to climb even onto the first rung of the housing ladder; they leave university with an average debt of £22,000 around their necks, they're finding it tough to get a job and can't even think about building up a pension.

David Willetts thinks this is unfair and wants the Boomers to pay their children back.

But should they?

Michael Blastland asks whether we are in danger of focusing on the wrong target.

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Should the seemingly privileged Baby Boomers bear the brunt of Government spending cuts?

Bad Elections2008072420080727

Recent months have seen several allegedly flawed elections in various countries.

Are they evidence of a dangerous trend for autocratic regimes to seek legitimacy through the ballot box, or are even bad elections better than none at all? Zareer Masani considers the relationship between voting and other democratic rights and asks if we are too obsessed with elections as the key to democracy.

Beyond Binary2016052320160529 (R4)

In communities around the globe, genderqueer, gender-variant and gender-fluid people are rejecting the categories of male and female, and attempting to re-define gender identity. Linda Pressly asks if being non-binary breaks the last identity taboo, and explores the challenges it creates for the law, society and conventional concepts about the very nature of gender.

Producer: Lucy Proctor

(Photo: Pips Bunce, the global head of Fixed Income and Derivatives IT engineering at Credit Suisse, who identifies as gender-fluid, or gender-variant).

Beyond Binary20160523

In communities around the globe, genderqueer, gender-variant and gender-fluid people are rejecting the categories of male and female, and attempting to re-define gender identity. Linda Pressly asks if being non-binary breaks the last identity taboo, and explores the challenges it creates for the law, society and conventional concepts about the very nature of gender.

Producer: Lucy Proctor

(Photo: Pips Bunce, the global head of Fixed Income and Derivatives IT engineering at Credit Suisse, who identifies as gender-fluid, or gender-variant).

Bill Of Frights?2005030320050306

Opponents of the European Union's constitution argue that its terms imperil Britain's hallowed and unique political traditions.

Felipe Fernández-Armesto asks if this is just a difference of perception or if there is a fundamental incompatibility between European and British conceptions of politics.

Blow-back From Edinburgh? *2008120420081207

David Runciman asks if political forces are pushing Edinburgh and London onto increasingly divergent paths, with radical implications for how the next Westminster general election will be fought and British government formed.

Blue Labour2011032120110327

Labour's traditional working class supporters are abandoning the party in their droves.

But can Labour win them back without alienating the middle-class voters it needs to win the next election? David Goodhart explores the tensions between two traditions in the Labour movement - a liberal wing focused on equality and diversity and a conservative strand that is more concerned with issues of solidarity and community.

And he examines the new Blue Labour school of thought, which believes that the best way to unite the two traditions is to rethink the Big State approach that became a defining element of the post-war Labour Party's identity.

The programme includes interviews with...

Daniel Finkelstein - executive editor for The Times and former Conservative party advisor

Maurice Glasman - Labour peer and senior lecturer in political theory at London Metropolitan University

Roy Hattersley - Labour peer

Sara Hobolt - Lecturer in Comparative European Politics at Oxford University

Paul Jones - Labour councillor for Heanor West and leader of the Labour group at Amber Valley Borough Council James Purnell - former Labour minister

Marc Stears - lecturer in political theory at Oxford University and head of an Institute for Public Policy Research project on Labour's response to The Big Society

Producer: Helen Grady.

David Goodhart examines a radical plan to win back Labour's working-class supporters.

Brexit: The Irish Question20160208

If the UK leaves the EU, what happens on the island of Ireland? Its people would be living on either side of an EU border. In this edition of Analysis, Edward Stourton explores an aspect of the Brexit debate that few elsewhere in the UK may have thought about, but which raises urgent questions. Would there be a new opportunities, with a new version of the old Anglo-Irish special relationship? Or could a divisive border and economic harm revive dangerous tensions?

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Britishness2010061420100620

As an historian raised in Northern Ireland, John Bew has both a personal and professional fascination with the origins of Britishness.

The most widely accepted historical account of how British identity was forged describes a top down exercise in nation building.

In this programme, Bew explores a competing theory which suggests that patriotism was the language of excluded minorities - those on the geographical, cultural and economic extremes of the state who wanted the rights and liberties of those at the centre.

Today, citizens are more likely to believe that rights are endowed by international treaties or globalised religion.

So can Britishness ever again be a force for social cohesion?

Dr John Bew is lecturer in War Studies and deputy director of the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence at King's College London.

John Bew questions the received wisdom about the origins of Britishness.

Gordon Brown's government attempted to create a shared British identity based on values.

The project was dismissed as too top down by the Conservatives.

But now they too are advocating state-directed measures to inspire patriotism: Education Secretary Michael Gove has called on schools to teach traditional British history as a means of reinforcing a sense of British identity, with British Empire expert Niall Ferguson to guide them.

Historian John Bew asks whether such a strategy can really be a force for social cohesion.

Producer: Helen Grady

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Dr John Bew asks what the state can do to promote national identity.

Cameron's Swede Dreams2012061820120624

Why are Tories and the left obsessed with the 'Swedish model'? Jo Fidgen investigates.

What's so great about Sweden? The British left has long been obsessed with Sweden. Now the Conservatives are too. Little wonder: the country always tops the global charts for happiness and social cohesion; its economy is dynamic and its deficit is low.

In this week's Analysis, Jo Fidgen investigates the "Swedish model" and the British obsession with it. She finds the country is more conservative than people think, with its centre-right government's generous welfare state depending on very traditional notions of trust and social cohesion. At the root of Swedish conservativism is what the experts call a "Swedish theory of love" - in which the state is seen as the defender of the individual. Could this idea ever work for Britain? Sweden has provided a blue-print for David Cameron's Conservatives and their "Big Society" reforms, but many in Sweden argue that they are being misunderstood by Britain's Tories. Jo also looks at how, as Sweden struggles to become more multicultural, the "Swedish model" itself may in fact be unravelling.

Producer: Mukul Devichand

Can We Learn To Live With Nuclear Power?2015092820151004 (R4)

The Fukushima disaster made many people oppose nuclear power. Michael Blastland asks what it would take to change their minds. In 2011, following a devastating tsunami, Japan's Fukushima nuclear power station went into meltdown, leaking radiation. It was the most serious nuclear accident since Chernobyl. It appeared to send the nuclear power industry into retreat - and not just in Japan. Other nations had second thoughts too. Germany decided to phase out its nuclear reactors altogether. But now Japan has resumed nuclear power generation. At the heart of the 'nuclear wobble' of 2011 is the question of risk. Attitudes to, and understanding of, risk vary surprisingly between nations and cultures. But after one of the most shocking incidents in nuclear power's history, will we be able to cope with our fears? In other words, can we learn to live with nuclear power?

Producers: Ruth Alexander and Smita Patel.

Capitalists Against The Super Rich2012012320120129

Are the champions of capitalist system now turning against the super-rich? And if they are, what will they now do about it? In this week's Analysis, we meet leading figures of the centre right who suddenly seem to have something in common with the political left: a moral aversion to the an era of high finance that saw huge payouts to a few, and bailouts funded by the rest. Prime Minster David Cameron opened 2011 with a speech criticising a system where "a few at the top get rewards that seem to have nothing to do with the risks they take or the effort they put in." He promises change, but how can that be achieved without undermining the logic of capitalism? Edward Stourton meets influential defenders of market forces who say they can keep the best of free trade but exclude the undeserving rich.

Producer: Mukul Devichand.

Edward Stourton meets the defenders of capitalism turning against the undeserving rich.

Caring In The New Old Age2015031620150322 (R4)

Is it time to rethink how we care for older people, to enable them to have fulfilling lives?

In recent years the media has highlighted terrible cases of paid carers abusing and neglecting vulnerable, older people. Is it now time for a more fundamental re-examination of how society should care for older people? Much is made of the poor status, low wages and lack of training of workers in the care system. Why are older people entrusted to them in a way which we would never allow for children? Should we tackle the view that old age is simply a period of decline that has to be managed rather than an opportunity for a fulfilling final chapter of life? Sonia Sodha examines new thinking from Japan, the US and closer to home about how care might be done differently. And she considers whether we need to change our approach to how we look after the elders in our society.

Producer: Ian Muir-Cochrane.

Changing Charity2007070520070708

Political leaders are promising a much greater role for charities in delivering public services.

But what kind of difference can they make, and will voluntary organisations change fundamentally as they move closer to the state? Alison Wolf investigates.

Character Factories2008071020080713

Lord Baden-Powell called the scout movement he founded a 'character factory', designed to impart his own public school and military values to the masses.

Richard Reeves, commentator and part-time scout master, asks whether it is time for the chattering classes to unashamedly promote their own virtues.

China's Battle Of Ideas2012070920120715

As China changes leadership, Mukul Devichand probes Beijing's hidden battle of ideas. Unlike the messy democracy of elections in the US or Europe, the Communist Party's "changing of the guard" this autumn is set to be a sombre, orderly and very Chinese affair. But the dramatic sacking of a top Party boss over the alleged murder of an Englishman earlier this year was about more than just a personal power struggle. These events provide a window into a deeper, more ideological battle for the future of the world's new superpower.

This week, Mukul Devichand travels to the People's Republic of China for a unique look at the social and ideological faultlines in the country. Radio 4's Analysis programme has a 40-year history of looking at the deeper ideas and trends shaping politics -- and this week's programme takes that approach on the road to a rising superpower whose policy debates are largely misunderstood in the West, despite the profound implications of China's future direction for our own.

Recent years have seen large-scale social experiments in China and the emergence of a "New Left" school of thought to rival the pro-market "New Right" in Chinese intellectual life. Mukul Devichand looks at what these scholars and officials are reading, and the ideas that shape their vision of the world. He looks at how these schools of ideas have created their own showcase provinces and cities -- Chongqing vs Guangdong -- and looks at recent events for clues about where China will go next.

Contributors:

Mark Leonard

Director, European Council on Foreign Relations

Author, What Does China Think?

John Garnaut

China correspondent, Sydney Morning Herald and Melbourne Age

Zhang Jian

Professor of Political Science, Peking University

Daniel Bell

Professor of Political Theory, Tsinghua University and Jiaotong University

Pan Wei

Director, Center for Chinese and Global Affairs. Peking University

Producer: Lucy Proctor.

Clever.com2009031220090315

Kenan explores the reality behind the stereotype of the 'Google generation', the young people who have become so hooked on the web and computer games that they are unable to think, study and concentrate.

This characterisation is motivated by genuine concerns that heavy use of the internet and computer games are actually rewiring the brains of young people.

They are learning and thinking differently to their forebears in a massive technological and social experiment.

Kenan investigates these concerns and asks Stephen Fry, among others, whether the rise of the digital generation should be a cause for celebration or concern.

The reality behind the stereotype of teenagers apparent over-reliance on the internet.

Climate Change: The Quick Fix?2008073120080803

Frances Cairncross investigates geo-engineering, the idea that technology can be developed to cool the world if global warming accelerates.

The theory is highly controversial and raises many questions which governments would prefer not to think about.

Contributors include US legal expert David Victor of Stanford University, Prof Brian Launder of the University of Manchester and Julian Morris of the International Policy Network.

Clipping Our Wings?2007030120070304

Ever greater mobility for people and goods has been vital for global development.

But will we keep moving as before? Zareer Masani asks whether environmental angst can persuade us to stay closer to home.

Conservative Muslims, Liberal Britain2014111020141116 (R4)

The recent so called Trojan Horse dispute in some Birmingham schools shone a light on how separately from the liberal British mainstream a significant conservative bloc of British Muslims wants to live. Although some Muslim parents objected, most seemed happy to go along with rigorous gender segregation, the rejection of sex education and ban on music and arts lessons.

Why is it that so many British Muslims - especially from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds - seem to be converging much more slowly, if at all, on liberal British norms? Is this a problem in a liberal society and what are the future trends likely to be?

David Goodhart, of the think tank Demos, visits Leicester in search of some answers. He listens to many different Muslim voices from a mufti who advises Muslims on how to navigate everyday life in a non-Muslim society to a liberal reformer who is dismayed at seeing more women wearing the niqab.

East is East (extract with Jane Horrocks and Ayub Khan) is playing at the Trafalgar Studios, London until 3rd January, and then on tour.

Contributors:

Mustafa Malik, Director of the Pakistan Youth and Community Centre, Leicester

Saj Khan, Leicestershire businessman

Mufti Muhammed Ibn Adam, Islamic scholar, Leicester

Riaz Ravat, Deputy Director, St Philip's Centre, Leicester

Dilwar and Rabiha Hussain, New Horizons organisation, Leicester

Gina Khan, human rights campaigner

Myriam Francois-Cerrah, journalist and PhD researcher

Jytte Klausen, affiliate professor at the Center for European Studies at Harvard University

Producer Katy Hickman.

Corporate Amnesia20160321

Phil Tinline finds out what happens when institutions lose their memory and how they can best capture and share the lessons of the past.

Courting Trouble2014061620140622

When does flirting go too far? In a changing world, can we agree on what is acceptable behaviour? Sexual harassment is much in the news, new laws and codes are in place. Legal definitions are one thing, but real life situations can be a lot messier and more uncertain. Mixing expert analysis of the issues with discussion of everyday scenarios, Jo Fidgen asks: what are the new rules of relationships?

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

A clumsy pass or harassment? Jo Fidgen asks: what are the new rules of relationships.

Crying Treason2010021520100221

There have been calls for the treason laws to be used against an Islamic group protesting about British troops in Afghanistan.

Such laws are widely regarded as out of date, so can any citizen now challenge the state with impunity? Chris Bowlby asks if treason still matters in modern Britain.

Cultural Diplomacy2011102420111030

The British Council offices in Kabul are bombed; the BBC is accused by Iran of spying.

How have our cultural institutions become mired in foreign policy?

Frances Stonor Saunders looks at the tasks undertaken by the British Council in Iran and elsewhere.

It presents itself as an independent eco system of creative exchange.

The Taliban views it differently - as a tool for British Government influence and a legitimate target violent attack.

In Iran, the British Council was the subject of suspicion and harassment from the Islamic regime.

Was it paranoia on the part of the Iranian regime to depict the British Council as a front for the government when nearly a third of its operating costs are paid for directly by the Foreign Office?

The BBC World Service's Persian TV is an exemplar of cultural diplomacy, say some.

Its broadcasts are powerfully attractive to viewing audiences and it does an excellent job of transmitting Britain's democratic values.

The Iranian authorities consider it an instrument of British cultural imperialism, scramble its signals and even threaten the families of the network's UK based staff.

Six independent filmmakers who had their work broadcast on BBC Persian were accused of spying though the BBC disclaims any formal association with them.

To what extent do the structure, funding and behaviour of BBC World Service fuel the flames of suspicion?

Both the British Council and BBC World Service strenuously deny that they are, in any way, doing the work of the British government.

Each says that they are independent to core, at arm's length from government and its international policies.

Yet the questions remain.

Contributors include Grayson Perry, Timothy Garton Ash and Sherard Cowper Coles.

How effective is cultural diplomacy as a weapon of soft power?

Frances Stonor Saunders looks at the role of cultural diplomacy in spreading liberal British values around the world.

The British Council and the BBC World Service, both part-funded by the Foreign Office, are the two most important institutions of British cultural diplomacy.

The British Council organises exhibitions and events at its offices around the world with artists such as Grayson Perry.

He feels that the fact his work deals with controversial themes is part of his attraction for the cultural diplomats keen to convey the values of liberalism by saying, "Look what we put up with in our country: a cross-dressing potter who's talking about the evils of advertising."

The BBC World Service is editorially independent but is funded by the Foreign Office.

Frances Stonor Saunders explores the tension between the fact that cultural diplomacy has an official purpose yet the endeavours it seeks to promote need to maintain freedom and independence as a mark of a liberal society.

Contributors include Grayson Perry, Timothy Garton Ash and Sir Sherard Cowper Coles.

Dead Cert2008110620081109

Michael Blastland examines the damage done by the demand for certainty in politics and asks why our leaders seem unable to say 'I don't know'.

He hears calls from former education secretary Estelle Morris that it is time for politicians to admit that the people in charge do not have all the answers.

Death To The Deficit!2009110920091115

Frances Cairncross explores the UK's options in the face of a growing deficit, and asks if the coming cuts in public service spending might afford us an opportunity rather than represent an unmitigated disaster.

Frances Cairncross explores the UK's options in the face of a growing deficit.

Deirdre Mccloskey2014052620140601

Evan Davis interviews economic historian Deirdre McCloskey in front of an audience at the London School of Economics, where she argues that poverty matters more than inequality. She describes how at the beginning of the 19th century most people who had ever lived had survived on $3 a day. Today, on average, people in Western Europe and North America live on over $100 a day. Although Professor McCloskey is an economic historian, she says we can't explain this 'Great Enrichment' using economics alone. She also argues that capitalism is an inherently ethical system, and that it would be a mistake to prioritise equality over innovation. Prof McCloskey talks about the role of ideas and attitudes in creating modern prosperity and discusses what her study of history tells us about where our priorities should lie today.

Producer: Luke Mulhall.

Development On The Front Line2003112720031130

Is the 'War on Terror' boosting development policy or undermining it? Kirsty Hughes investigates.

Divorcing Europe2009111620091122

What would happen in reality if Britain opted to leave the European Union? This is a scenario little talked about in mainstream politics but highly relevant to popular debate.

And, as Chris Bowlby discovers, it poses challenging questions for both pro and anti-Europeans.

What would happen in reality if Britain opted to leave the European Union?

What would happen if Britain chose to leave the European Union? The new Lisbon Treaty contains a clause whch sets out the exit process for the first time.

But, as Chris Bowlby reports, the final deal between Britain and its former EU partners would depend a lot on the mood of their 'divorce' - amicable or acrimonious.

What would happen if Britain chose to leave the European Union? Chris Bowlby reports.

Do Leaders Make A Difference?2011110720111113

We talk much of personal leadership being the key to change in, say, politics or business.

But how much can such figures really influence events? Do we overattribute power to individuals such as a prime minister or a media mogul? Have we lost sight of the overall importance of collective action and attitudes, or the trends and events that no individual can resist? Michael Blastland investigates.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Michael Blastland explores how far individuals really change what happens in the world.

Contributors:

Nick Chater

Professor of Behavioural Science at Warwick Business School

Professor Pat Thane

Historian at King's College London

Chris Dillow

Writer on economics and psychology

Angela Knight

Chief Executive of the British Bankers' Association

Tristram Hunt

Historian and Labour MP

Jerker Denrell

Professor of strategy and decision making at Oxford University's Saïd Business School

Lord Baker

Former Conservative Home Secretary

Andrew Roberts

Historical and biographical writer.

Do Public Inquiries Work? *2008103020081102

Ann Alexander, a lawyer who represented some of the families of relatives killed by Dr Harold Shipman, examines the public inquiries system.

She talks to the insiders who have run and worked in major public inquiries and asks if the system now needs reform so that recommendations for the future are fully implemented.

Do Schools Make A Difference?2012013020120205

The government's brought in new style league tables to help parents choose schools. But do we really know what makes a good school? And how far can schools really transform lives? Researchers have long believed in a so-called 'school effect' that counters, at least in part, factors such as social and family background. But how easy is it to measure this kind of effect, and can parents really be given a clear guide as to which school is best for their child? Or has too much emphasis on factors such as social background made schools complacent about what they can achieve?

Fran Abrams talks to head teachers, educational experts, the schools minister and the new head of Ofsted as she investigates what difference schools can really make.

Are good schools anything more than schools with a good intake? Fran Abrams investigates.

Doesn't Everyone?20090622

Michael Blastland asks if 'group-think' is distancing policy from the public and asks if our political elite have forgotten how most voters live.

People measure their behaviour and beliefs by those around them, so MPs might have thought that the expenses system was reasonable.

Might it also mean they have lost touch with what Britain is really like?

Doesn't Everyone? *20090705

Michael Blastland asks if 'group-think' is distancing policy from the public and asks if our political elite have forgotten how most voters live.

People measure their behaviour and beliefs by those around them, so MPs might have thought that the expenses system was reasonable.

Might it also mean they have lost touch with what Britain is really like?

Michael Blastland asks if 'group-think' is distancing policy from the public.

Doing Our Duty2008030620080309

Both major parties have promised to create legal responsibilities to balance our rights, but what should our responsibilities be? Is it the state's business to tell us about our duties and enforce them by law? David Walker investigates.

Dollars, Debt And Dependence19900222

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 01 March 1990

Previous in series: 15 February 1990

Description

SBH:The effect of the U.S.A.

status as the world's largest debtor nation on the postwar international economic order.

References to budget deficit, relationship with Japanese and European economies, President George Bush's tax policies.

Presenter: Roland Dallas.

Broadcast history

22 Feb 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Roland Dallas (int)

Lee Hamilton (Speaker)

Enrique Iglesias (Speaker)

Mike Moran (Speaker)

John Williamson (Speaker)

Jacob Frenkel (Speaker)

Alice Rivlin (Speaker)

Michael Boskin (Speaker)

Herbert Stein (Speaker)

Rozanne Ridgway (Speaker)

Horst Schulmann (Speaker)

William Niskanen (Speaker)

Bob Brackfeld (Speaker)

Val Mccomie (Speaker)

Notes: CAIRS 368902.

Doomed By Democracy?2010052420100530

Governments might legitimately exercise emergency powers in wartime so, argues Prof James Lovelock, they should have similar powers to deal with the threat of global warming - even if that means abandoning democracy.

The BBC's Ethical Man" Justin Rowlatt looks at whether Prof Lovelock is right to be so pessimistic about democratic societies' ability to act in the interests of future generations."

Downward Social Mobility2015021620150222 (R4)

Social mobility is a good thing - right? Politicians worry that not enough people from less-privileged backgrounds get the opportunity to move up in life. But are we prepared to accept that others lose out - and move in the opposite direction? Jo Fidgen explores the implications of downward social mobility.

Producer: Charlotte McDonald.

Economistocracy2010060720100613

Reducing the budget deficit is seen as the key challenge facing the new government.

But alongside the politicians there will be a new body charged with advising on the process.

An independent Office for Budget Responsibility is being created, to make its own forecasts of growth and borrowing ready for the emergency budget expected in June.

This new institution may sound obscure, but it could have big implications.

It aims to bring key information on which government economic policy is based much more into the open, and free it from political spin.

The man who will head it, Sir Alan Budd, has said he wants to use his influence to keep the Chancellor's feet to the fire" in ensuring that the deficit is tackled.

The aim is also to make budgets take more account of long term priorities, and future generations, rather than focus only on short term political demands.

So will the deficit crisis mean politicians lose some of their historic power over spending and taxing? Is there public demand for watchdogs like this to "keep the politicians honest" - or is it a threat to democracy? And how does the British plan compare with other countries' attempts to police government spending?

The programme is presented by Frances Cairncross, and interviewees include Rachel Lomax, former top civil servant and Deputy Governor of the Bank of England.

Frances Cairncross asks if economic management is too important to be left to politicians."

Economy On The Edge2009060820090614

In 2008 one of the world's most respected economic observers, Martin Wolf, the chief economic commentator of the Financial Times, forecast that the global downturn could be even worse than most experts realised.

A year on, he returns to examine the current state of the global financial markets and talks to a range of financial experts to analyse what the future may hold.

Educating Cinderella2009100520091011

With youth unemployment in Britain at its highest level for decades, new evidence shows that only a tiny proportion of school leavers who go on to basic vocational courses find jobs at the end of them.

Fran Abrams asks whether further education in this country has got the balance right between a choice-led system and a more paternalistic one.

Should we be encouraging young people to follow their dreams or giving them vocational training more closely tied to the job market?

Fran Abrams explores the balance between choice and paternalism in further education.

Edward Snowden: Leaker, Saviour, Traitor, Spy?2013100720131013

Are state secrets doomed by an emerging alliance of the anti-state right and liberal left?

Last June, Edward Snowden, a man still in his twenties with, as he put it, "a home in paradise", went on the run. He took with him vast amounts of secret information belonging to the US government's security services.

Snowden holds libertarian - or anti-statist - views. He believes the American government's pervasive surveillance activities which he revealed break the law but are also morally wrong.

In Britain, "The Guardian" newspaper published the classified information Snowden had obtained. This seemed odd. Editorially, it was not sympathetic to Snowden's anti-state nostrums. But, on privacy grounds, it agreed with him that it was inherently wrong for democratic governments to spy on their citizens online. Furthermore, it argued that governments should not decide for themselves when and how they would do their surveillance.

It is this political alliance between the libertarian right and the liberal left - which are normally opposed to one another - which David Aaronovitch investigates in this programme.

He explores, in a detailed interview with the editor of "The Guardian", Alan Rusbridger, why the newspaper published the secret information. Are states threatening citizens' privacy in the cyber age? Or is it in fact governments which are more vulnerable than ever before to the unauthorised disclosure of their secrets?

What secrets is the state itself entitled to keep from its citizens and from potential enemies? And who decides that question?the security services, Parliament or the government? Or the press and the whistle-blowers? Alan Rusbridger claims his newspaper can properly adjudicate what should and should not be published about state secrets. But how does he justify that apparently self-serving argument?

Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood: Why Did They Fail?2013093020131006

Barely a year after Egypt's post-revolution elections were held, millions of protestors took to the streets to demand the resignation of President Mohammed Morsi. After a short stand-off with army leaders, he was removed from power in what many describe as a coup d'etat.

The subsequent clashes between Mr Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood supporters and security forces have proved violent and bloody and the country is once again being governed by the military - but what were the events which closed this short chapter in the fledgling Egyptian democracy?

Christopher de Bellaigue speaks to insiders from across Egypt's political spectrum to reveal the mistakes and power-plays which led to the downfall of the country's first democratically elected president.

Contributors:

Dr Abdul Mawgoud Dardery, former Freedom and Justice Party MP for Luxor.

Dr Hisham Hellyer, associate fellow at the Royal United Services Institute (London) and the Brookings Institution (Washington).

Dr Omar Ashour, senior lecturer in Middle East Politics and Security Studies, University of Exeter.

Angy Ghannam, Head of BBC Monitoring, Cairo.

Dr Wael Haddara, former communications adviser to President Mohammed Morsi.

Dr Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh, founder of the Strong Egypt party.

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith

Editor: Innes Bowen

Egypt's New Islamists2011061320110619

Edward Stourton asks if the Egyptian revolution spells the end of old-style Islamism.

As groups like the Muslim Brotherhood embrace democracy, how will they - and Egypt - change?

The overthrow of Hosni Mubarak has been described as the Middle East's first "post-Islamic" revolution: there were no religious slogans or chanting in Tahrir Square and the protestors we saw on television were largely young, seemingly secular liberals.

But Islam is likely to play a major role in the development of post-revolution Egypt, with the Muslim Brotherhood the biggest and best organised political force in the country.

Edward Stourton asks what kind of society Egypt's Islamists want to create and explores how they are changing as they form political parties and prepare to contest their first fully democratic elections.

Eldar Shafir: Scarcity2014031720140323

An interview with psychologist Eldar Shafir about the concept of scarcity.

(Image credit: Jerry Nelson)

Jo Fidgen interviews Eldar Shafir, professor of psychology and public affairs at Princeton University, and co-author of Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much in front of an audience at the Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University. Jo will explore the book's key idea: that not having enough money or time, shapes all of our reactions, and ultimately our lives and society.

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

Empire Strikes Back2005040720050410

For more than half a century, empire has been a dirty word, associated with exploitation, racism and war.

But now amid a welter of failed nation-states, imperial ideas seem to be back in fashion unofficially at least - in the USA, RUSSIA and CHINA.

Zareer Masani asks whether its possible to free empire from its unequal past and reinvent it as a benevolent, pluralistic and cosmopolitan form of government.

Euro Defence Cuts1990020819900209

First broadcast on 1990-02-08

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 15 February 1990

Previous in series: MORALS MADE TO MEASURE

Broadcast history

08 Feb 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

09 Feb 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Eurogeddon Ii2012062520120701

Where is the eurozone heading? Disintegration or super-state? Chris Bowlby investigates.

As the crisis in the Eurozone continues, Chris Bowlby examines what might eventually emerge and what that could mean for us.

When Analysis looked at the possibility of a Greek exit from the Euro back in February, the topic was regarded as "thinking the unthinkable". Not so now.

In this programme Chris Bowlby looks forward and asks if the Eurozone is headed for disintegration or, conversely, even closer political and economic union. What do either of those scenarios mean in practice and can the Eurozone survive? What are the implications for borders, cash movements and who controls the levers of power?

Interviewees include: Lord Peter Mandelson, David Marsh, Ulrike Guerot, Dani Rodrik, Paul Donovan, Brian Lucey and Aristotle Kallis.

Producer: John Murphy.

Europe's Slow Lane2003111320031116

The Eurozone is now the slowest growing of the major advanced economies and its largest member states are in trouble: Italy and Germany are in recession, and the French economy is almost at stagnation point.

Some Germans are even asking themselves if they need their own Margaret Thatcher.

Frances Cairncross investigates the causes of Europe's poor economic health and asks whether the Euro is part of the problem or part of the solution.

Europe's Tarnished Golden Door2006033020060402

Migration is often claimed to be essential to the EU's prosperity as populations age and global competition intensifies.

But can economic migrants be absorbed across Europe without causing a backlash in either their richer new homes or their poorer old ones? Quentin Peel asks how economic migration can be managed so that some countries don't get all the benefits and others all the pain.

Euroscepticism Uncovered2011101720111023

As opinion polls reveal that half the British population would vote in favour of withdrawal from the European Union, it seems the political class is catching up with public opinion when it comes to the EU.

While perhaps just dozens of MPs are publicly calling for a referendum on the UK's EU membership, behind closed doors there are many more closet secessionists: at least 40 per cent of Conservative MPs according to one party insider.

"In public I call for renegotiation of the Lisbon treaty.

In private I argue for complete withdrawal from the European Union.

And there are plenty of others like me," says one anonymous sceptic.

Edward Stourton asks whether the crisis in the eurozone has emboldened more politicians to speak frankly on their attitudes towards EU membership and talks to supporters of withdrawal from both the left and right wings of British politics.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

Edward Stourton asks if the political class is catching up with public opinion on the EU.

Eurotest2002121220021215

How close are Britain and the Eurozone to meeting the conditions set out in Gordon Brown's five economic tests to be passed before the UK joins the euro?

Eyes Wide Shut?2004111820041121

Europe - once the world's most important continent - seems to be becoming peripheral to world events.

Asia is overtaking it economically; while divisions over Iraq call into question whether the European Union can ever be a major player in global affairs.

Martin Jacques asks whether Europe's in danger of becoming introverted and provincial, and what that could mean for the continent's future.

Failing Better2010022220100228

Mistakes often provide the best lessons in life, so why are they so undervalued? Michael Blastland explores our attitude to failure and the impact it has on politics.

We may accept, in our personal lives, that 'to err is human'.

But, when it comes to politicians, we enjoy pouring scorn on those who make mistakes: we relish the cock-up, the blunder and the humiliating U-turn.

But what effect does this bloodthirsty approach have on policy-making?

Michael talks to former cabinet minister Estelle Morris about her experience of dealing with mistakes in government.

We also hear from former civil servant Paul Johnson and from David Halpern - a former prime-ministerial advisor who helped create The Institute for Government.

Michael goes in search of inspiration from two professions which, far from seeking to bury mistakes, see them as opportunities to learn.

He speaks to surgeon and writer Atul Gawande and he visits RAF Cranwell, where mistakes made by airman are seen as 'clues'.

He also talks to philosopher Susan Wolf about blame and 'moral luck' and he interviews the editor of The Spectator magazine, Fraser Nelson.

Michael Blastland explores how different professions deal with failures and mistakes.

Fair Play? * *2008081420080817

Historian Richard Weight asks why many nations with far fewer resources than Britain frequently perform much better at sports.

Does the country that invented so many sports take them too seriously or not seriously enough, and does it really matter?

Faith In The State2007030820070311

The row over gay adoption has raised questions about the relationship between faith and the state.

Under Labour, faith-based voluntary organisations have been given increased public funding and praise from politicians, and now the government has given protection against discrimination to both religious believers and gay people.

David Walker asks whether the state, by enshrining the rights of mutually antagonistic groups, has created more problems than it can solve.

Family Footsteps2007080220070805

Children following parents into careers might be thought a thing of the past.

But dynasties seem to be thriving everywhere from politics to business to crime.

Frances Cairncross examines why family networks still matter.

Feeling Whose Collars?2006030220060305

David Walker asks what the limits of police action in tackling criminality are, and whether greater efficiency comes cost free.

Foreigner Policy2010020820100214

In the past decade, Britain has experienced mass immigration on an unprecedented scale.

A former government aide recently suggested this was a deliberate policy, motivated in part by a desire to increase racial diversity.

David Goodhart investigates the ideological forces behind one of the most significant social changes to have affected the UK.

David Goodhart investigates the ideological forces behind mass immigration.

Andrew Neather, a former Number 10 speechwriter, recently wrote a much-discussed article in the Evening Standard in praise of multicultural London, but suggesting that those who have influenced immigration policy under Labour were politically-programmed to be relaxed about such numbers.

His article was immediately seized upon by anti-immigration campaigners as evidence of a conspiracy to make Britain a more racially diverse society.

In this programme, David Goodhart investigates the truth about reasons for recent increases in migration to Britain.

Political insiders, including former home secretary David Blunkett, talk candidly about the real influences behind the scenes.

None of them give credence to the accusation that there was a plan to create a more multicultural Britain.

An unexpected increase in asylum applications and the demand for cheap labour from employers were the main motivators, according to those who influenced policy.

But, admits former Home Office special adviser Ed Owen, a nervousness about discussing immigration policy meant that New Labour was, in its first years in office, poorly prepared to deal with the issue.

We may not have witnessed a grand act of social engineering, concludes David Goodhart, but New Labour's combination of economic liberalism and cultural liberalism led it to regard mass immigration as a trend which would bring great social benefits and few disadvantages.

Interviewees include:

Rt Hon David Blunkett MP, former home secretary

Tim Finch, head of migration, equalities and citizenship, and director of strategic communications at the Institute for Public Policy Research

Andrew Neather, Comment editor at The Evening Standard and former Number 10 speechwriter.

Sir Andrew Green, Migrationwatch

Sarah Spencer, deputy director, Centre on Migration Policy and Society

John Tincey, Immigration Services Union

Ed Owen, former Home Office special adviser

Claude Moraes MEP.

France: Sinking Slowly?2013111120131117

The French are far more attached to the idea of a centralised, big state than their Anglo-Saxon counterparts. The philosophy behind it, Colbertism, holds that the economy of France should serve the state and that the state should direct the economy.

But as France's big state looks less affordable, some French intellectuals are arguing that it is time that French identity became less tied to the dirigiste idea. Former BBC Paris Correspondent Emma Jane Kirby travels to France to meet those questioning their country's traditional resistance to economic reform.

Producer: Fiona Leach.

Can France afford its attachment to the big state? Emma Jane Kirby presents.

Free Movement: Britain's Burning Eu Debate2015072020150726 (R4)

Sonia Sodha discovers why freedom of movement is such a key issue in Britain's EU debate.

Freedom of movement will be a key battleground in Britain's crucial EU debate. It gives EU citizens the right to live and work anywhere in the union and is praised by supporters as boosting prosperity. But critics say it has created unsustainable waves of mass migration and must be restricted. So where does this policy actually come from, and what does it mean in practice? Sonia Sodha discovers why it has become such a crucial issue, and what's at stake as Britain decides its European future.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson

(Photo credit: Getty Images)

Generation Hexed2005121520051218

The generation that is now under 35 is the first that will pay for a welfare state from which it will derive comparatively little benefit.

People born after 1970 will have to be more self-reliant than their parents.

Will they also be more selfish?

Journalist Camilla Cavendish asks whether the concept of mutual obligation, which has underpinned the welfare state, can possibly survive in a culture where workers are burdened with debt, rising taxation and the need to save for their own welfare.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700410]

The War for

Jenkins' Ear

On the eve of the Budget, an examination of Britain's longer-term economic prospects. Those taking part include: JOHN BIFFEN , MP

F. H. R. CATHERWOOD , Director-General Of NEDC

PROFESSOR RICHARD E. CAVES Of Harvard University

GILBERT de BOTTON, Managing Director of Rothschild's. Zurich VICTOR FEATHER, General Secretary of tuc

THE RT HON RICHARD MARSH , MP

PETER OPPENHEIMER , Student Of Christ Church, Oxford

PIERRE-PAUL SCHWEITZER, Managing Director of IMF

Presented by IAN MCINTYRE

Produced by George FISCHER

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: John Biffen

Unknown: F. H. R. Catherwood

Unknown: Professor Richard E.

Unknown: Richard Marsh

Unknown: Peter Oppenheimer

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700501]

A programme cf discussion andanatysisofthemainsocial, economic, and potiticatprob)ems of the day.

Each week experts wiU discuss a topic of major importance behind the days news both at home and abroad,

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700619]

The Government We Deserve

As the dust settles,

Analysis tests some theories on why the Election went the way it did

Taking part:

PAUL foot, political journalist

T. E. UTLEY , leader writer to the Daily Telegraph

BRIAN WALDEN, Member (Labour) for Birmingham All Saints in the last Parliament

ESMOND WRIGHT, Member (Conservative) for Glasgow Pollok in the last Parliament Chairman IAN MCINTYRE

Produced by GEORGE FISCHER

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Leader: T. E. Utley

Unknown: Ian McIntyre

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700710]

Do comprehensive schools work?

An investigation by ROBERT SKIDELSKY

Are they effective in creating equality of opportunity? Do they provide a good education for the more able pupil? Can a school be truly comprehensive if there is selection inside it? ROBERT SKIDELSKY has visited comprehensive schools and has talked to educationists, sociologists, and local education authority members, including PROFESSOR BRIAN SIMON , and CAROLINE BENN Of ILEA, joint authors of Half Way There. Produced by Richard KEEN

Contributors

Unknown: Robert Skidelsky

Unknown: Robert Skidelsky

Unknown: Professor Brian Simon

Unknown: Caroline Benn

Produced By: Richard Keen

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700717]

Golda Meir

Israel's Prime Minister in conversation with IAN MCINTYRE

Produced by GEORGE FISCHER

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Ian McIntyre

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700731]

Egypt and the Middle East Written and narrated by JOSEPH HONE

Joseph Hone has recently returned from Egypt. He reports on the political and social mood in Egypt today, the chances of a negotiated settlement with Israel, the Soviet presence and missile build-up. He also enquires what future there is for the Palestinian refugees and their Liberation organisations. Produced by ALAN BURGESS

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Joseph Hone

Produced By: Alan Burgess

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700925]

Times Present

The Times is not what it was. There are people inside and outside Printing House Square who regard that as no bad thing. There are others who think that one more national institution is well down the slippery slope.

With change in the air once more, Analysis takes a critical look at Britain's greatest newspaper.

Introduced by IAN MCINTYRE Produced by GEORGE Fischer

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Introduced By: Ian McIntyre

Produced By: George Fischer

Genome: [r4 Bd=19701120]

Defending Europe

Herr Helmut Schmidt, West German Defence Minister, talks in his Bonn office to LAURENCE MARTIN , Professor of War Studies, King's College, London. Herr Schmidt, Social Democrat Party leader, is not only one of West Germany's most prominent politicians but also author of a book on strategy. He assesses possible future threats from Eastern Europe. gives his views on NATO'S future, and discusses the logic behind Bonn's defence strategy.

Produced by DAVID WILLEY

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Laurence Martin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19701211]

Lord Carnngton

Secretary of State for Defence, in conversation with LAURENCE W. MARTIN ,

Professor of War Studies, King's College, London about British defence policy and issues arising from it.

Produced by GEORGE FISCHER

S.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Laurence W. Martin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19701218]

Does Parliament Work? Its critics feel that Parliament has been reduced from a powerful workshop, constantly challenging and checking a powerful Executive, to a mere talk-shop.

The new Administration has complemented changes in government machinery - designed to improve its own efficiency -by a redesigned system of Select Committees which, it is claimed, will increase MPs' ability to scrutinise the Executive's intentions and actions.

Is this enough? Or should Parliament redefine its role? Presented by NORMAN HUNT

Produced by BERNARD TATE

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Presented By: Norman Hunt

Genome: [r4 Bd=19880128]

The Need to Know

The current tussle in the courts between the Government and the press.

(Details tomorrow at 11. 00am L W)

Genome: [r4 Bd=19880129]

The Need to Know

The current tussle in the courts between the Government and the press may have implications far beyond the relationship between politicians and the media.

There are arguments about the public's right to know what government is doing in its name, and about the essential ingredients of an open society. Where should the line be drawn between freedom of expression and the security of the state? Who should draw it: the Government, Parliament or the courts?

Presented by Peter Hennessy Producer MARK LAITY

Genome: [r4 Bd=19880129]

Presented By: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900125]

Unknown: David Walker

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900201]

Unknown: Michael Heseltine

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900208]

Unknown: Laurence Martin

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900215]

Presenter: David Walker.

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900222]

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900301]

Unknown: Stephen Games

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900308]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900315]

Unknown: John Eidinow

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900322]

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900329]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900405]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900503]

Jeu sans Frontières For all the member states, EEC integration is the biggest game in town, and France is one of the biggest players. But with uncertain prospects in Germany, and the Eastern

Europeans hovering round the table, how will France place her bets? Presenter Richard Mayne.

Producer Fraser Steel Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900503]

Presenter: Richard Mayne.

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900504]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900510]

The Rewriting on the Wall

Have the intellectuals been busy rewriting history to suit contemporary political needs? Peter Hennessy chairs a discussion with Peter Clarke ,

Professor Ernest Gellner and Lord Rees-Mogg. Producer Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900510]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Unknown: Peter Clarke

Unknown: Professor Ernest Gellner

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900511]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900517]

The label says 'Made in the UK', but should add 'thanks to foreign ownership'. David Walker asks who benefits when the investment balance sheet has been turned inside-out.

Producer Julian Brown Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900517]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900518]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900524]

An Exhibition of Ourselves

David Walker chairs a discussion on the purpose of museums and galleries.

Producer Fraser Steel Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900524]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900525]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900531]

Whitehall Unbound?

More and more parts of the Civil Service are becoming commercial agencies, with greater independence from Government.

Peter Hennessy asks if this process heralds freedom for the bureaucrats or merely disguises

'business as usual'. Producer Simon Coates Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900531]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900607]

Presenter: David Walker

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900614]

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900621]

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900628]

Unknown: Dr Mick Kelly

Producer: Julian Brown

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900705]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900712]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901011]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901014]

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901018]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901021]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901025]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901028]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901101]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901104]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901108]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901111]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901115]

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901122]

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901125]

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901129]

Presented By: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901206]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901213]

Unknown: Mrs Thatcher

Presented By: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901216]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910131]

Up the Ladder

An upwardly mobile new Prime Minister and renewed educational anxieties are raising an old British question about social origins and destinations. In the first of a new series, David Walker asks: who goes to the top of the classes, and do they stay there? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910131]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910203]

Up the Ladder

An upwardly mobile new Prime Minister and renewed educational anxieties are raising an old British question about social origins and destinations.

David Walker asks: who go to the top of the classes, and do they stay there?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910203]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910207]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs. Presented by Peter Hennessy.

Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Presented By: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910207]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910210]

with Peter Hennessy

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910210]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910214]

Trading Partners

The old world order of trade is crumbling.

Even if an international agreement can be rescued, the emergence of new regional trading blocs is increasing protectionist pressures. Roland Dallas asks: can future trade wars be averted?

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910214]

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910217]

Trading Partners

The old world order of trade is crumbling.

Even if an international agreement can be rescued, the emergence of new regional trading blocs is increasing protectionist pressures. Roland Dallas asks: can future trade wars be averted?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910221]

Centre Point

One way out of its Poll Tax dilemma is for the Government to centralise things yet further. David Walker asks: What would schools, the police and other services look like if the man from Whitehall took complete charge? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910221]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910224]

Centre Point

David Walker asks what would schools, the police and other services look like if the Government were to centralise things yet further?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910224]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910228]

with Peter Hennessy Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910228]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910303]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910303]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910307]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs.

Presented by David Walker.

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910307]

Presented By: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910310]

with David Walker

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910310]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910314]

As Europeans submit blueprints for their common future, will their Constitution turn out to be like the British one - a set of unwritten conventions, nudges, winks and historical precedents - rather than a formal document?

Presented by David Walker.

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910314]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910317]

Shaping Up

As Europeans submit blueprints for their common future, how will their Constitution turn out? Presented by David Walker.

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910317]

Presented By: David Walker.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910321]

From Clogs to Clogs? The politics of relative economic decline have featured in virtually every British election since

1906 and will undoubtedly do so again. In the first of a three-part series, Peter Hennessy examines the deeper, historical causes of Britain's economic under-performance. Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910321]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910324]

From Clogs to Clogs?

In the first of a three-part series, Peter Hennessy examines the deeper, historical causes of Britain's economic under-performance.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910324]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910328]

From Clogs to Clogs In the second of his

three-part series on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy examines the price paid for victory in 1945 and asks why the UK missed out on Western

Europe's post-war economic miracle.

Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910328]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910331]

From Clogs to Clogs? In the second of his

three-part series on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy examines the price we paid for victory in 1945 and asks why the UK missed out on Western Europe's postwar economic miracle.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910331]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910404]

From Clogs to Clogs? In the last of three programmes on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy asks: after a century of political debate about industrial regeneration, are we a nation that really wants to be modernised? Or is it simply lack of business as usual?

Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910404]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910407]

From Clogs to Clogs? In the last of his three programmes on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy asks: after a century of political debate about industrial regeneration, is Britain a nation that really wants to be modernised? Or is it simply lack of business as usual?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910407]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910502]

MEUt Markets a la

NEW Mode

The return of the series.

Tory leaders are now trumpeting the 'social market' and sedulously courting their German counterparts.

David Walker asks: is a new Conservatism being unveiled or old-style Toryism done up in different garb?

Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910502]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910505]

NEW Markets

A la Mode In the first of a new series, David Walker asks: is a new Conservatism being unveiled or old-style Toryism done up in different garb?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910505]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910509]

Over the Rainbow

Latin America's economic prosperity looks more assured now than it has for years, but the region's poor are getting poorer. Roland Dallas asks: will better economic management under democracy ever deliver improved living conditions? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910509]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910512]

Over the Rainbow

Latin America's economic prosperity looks more assured now than it has for years, but the region's poor are getting poorer. Roland Dallas asks: will better economic management under democracy ever deliver improved living conditions?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910516]

Merchants of the Apocalypse

The Gulf War highlighted the dangers of international arms sales to dubious regimes. Peter Hennessy examines the case for new controls on the trade in lethal weaponry by western arms producers.

Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910516]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910519]

Merchants of the Apocalypse

The Gulf War highlighted the dangers of international arms sales to dubious regimes. Peter Hennessy examines the case for new controls on the trade in lethal weaponry by western arms producers.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910519]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910523]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs.

With David Walker.

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910523]

Unknown: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910526]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs. Presented by David Walker.

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910526]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910530]

Fuelling Problems? Britain's energy industries are now largely in private hands, shadowed by small domestic regulators.

But, with international price pressures, Brussels activism and environmental concerns all growing,

Dieter Helm asks: are we equipped to meet the needs of the 1990s?

Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910530]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910602]

Fuelling Problems?

Britain's energy industries are now largely in private hands, shadowed by small domestic regulators. But, Dieter Helm asks: are we equipped to meet the needs of the 1990s?

Contributors

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910602]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910606]

To Have and to

Have Not

Where has the ending of east-west conflict left the former Third World?

Peter Hennessy discusses the changing shape of north-south relations, and the role of foreign aid in developing countries. Producer Zareer Masam

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masam

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910606]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masam

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910609]

To Have and to Have Not

Where has the ending of East-West conflict left the former Third World?

Peter Hennessy discusses the changing shape of North-South relations, including the role of foreign aid in developing countries.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910609]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910613]

Not in My Backyard

With housing needs set to grow in the 90s, David Walker asks why the government has not applied market principles to land use and development. Will it soon have to insist on building in somebody's backyard? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910613]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910616]

Not in My Backyard Where is the housing needed for the 1990s to be built? David Walker asks why the government has not applied market principles to land use and development. Will it soon have to insist on building in somebody's backyard?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910616]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910620]

The Back of the Envelope

Both Conservative and Labour politicians voice public confidence about winning overall majorities at the approaching

General Election. But

Peter Hennessy asks what will happen if the voters dash their hopes? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910620]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910623]

The Back of the Envelope

Both Conservative and Labour politicians voice public confidence about winning overall majorities at the approaching

General Election. But

Peter Hennessy asks what will happen if the voters dash their hopes?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910623]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910627]

Balkan Backwaters

Can the turbulent region, which once sparked a world war, overcome its history of neglect, poverty and strife? Chris Cviic considers how south-eastern Europe is filling the vacuum left by the collapse of communism. Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: Chris Cviic

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910627]

Unknown: Chris Cviic

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910630]

Balkan Backwaters

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910704]

Good Money After Bad?

The Germans are the most enthusiastic advocates of supplying the Soviet Union with new capital. But the German economy has plunged into the red. As the top industrialised nations prepare to meet at the G7 summit, David Walker asks: how special will the German-Soviet 'special relationship' turn out to be? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910704]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910707]

Good Money after Bad? As the top industrialised nations prepare to meet at the G7 summit, David Walker asks: how special will the German-Soviet

'special relationship' turn out to be?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910707]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910711]

Little Grey Cells

The 1980s transatlantic boom in ideologically committed private research institutes coincided with the demise of official think tanks.

But, Peter Hennessy asks, how influential were the putative policy-makers and what legacy have they left?

Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910711]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910714]

The last in the present series.

Little Grey Cells

The 1980s transatlantic boom in ideologically committed private research institutes coincided with the demise of official think tanks.

But, Peter Hennessy asks, how influential were the putative policy-makers and what legacy have they left?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910714]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910919]

Slow-Slow-Quick-Quick- Slow

At the end of the year,

Europe is meant to move forward as member states agree new treaties. But are we all in step? In the first two programmes of a new series, David Walker asks how much convergence has there really been in Europe?

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910919]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910922]

NEW Slow-Slow-Quick-

Quick-Slow At the end of the year,

Europe is meant to move forward as member states agree new treaties on political, economic and monetary union. In the first of two programmes, David Walker asks how much convergence has there really been?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910922]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910926]

Slow-Slow-Quick-Quick-Slow

In the second part of his examination of European convergence,

David Walker looks at the extent to which there is already a two-speed Europe: one moving quickly to integration, the other sticking to the slow lane. And he asks: if there is to be real convergence, how much are the rich members prepared to pay in increased funds for social and regional supports for the poorer brethren?

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910926]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910929]

Slow-Slow-Quick-Quick-Slow

In the second part of his examination of European convergence,

David Walker asks: if there is to be real integration, how much are the rich members prepared to pay in increased funds for social and regional support for the poorer brethren?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910929]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911003]

The Bear Unchained

Will post-Communist Russia successfully assimilate western liberal values, or could it revert to the autocracy and chauvinism of the past? Kevin Ruane considers the historical roots and volatile future of Russian nationalism.

ProducerZareerMasani

Contributors

Unknown: Kevin Ruane

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911003]

Unknown: Kevin Ruane

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911006]

The Bear Unchained

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911010]

The Mind behind the Cross

Over 50 national opinion polls will be published during the next general election campaign, supplementing the political parties' numerous private surveys. But

Peter Hennessy asks: how far do the pollsters know voters' views, and what effect does intensive polling have on our politics? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911010]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911013]

The Mind behind the Cross

Over 50 national opinion polls will be published during the next general election campaign, supplementing the political parties' numerous private surveys. But

Peter Hennessy asks: how far do the pollsters know voters' views, and what effect does intensive polling have on our politics?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911013]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911017]

Not in Front of the Children

With the Children Act coming into force this week, David Walker asks: do public and politicians increasingly prefer to leave sensitive social policy to the professionals? ProducerFrank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911017]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911020]

Not in Front of the Children

As the Children Act comes in to force, David Walker sks: do the public and politicians increasingly prefer to leave sensitive social policy to the professionals?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911020]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911024]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs.

Producer ZareerMasani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911027]

An in-depth look at currentaffairs.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911031]

Learning Curves

Britain has one of the most elitist systems of higher education in the world.

No society has made the transition to mass provision without strain.

Peter Hennessy asks what awaits the UK as it tries to double student numbers by the year 2000. Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911031]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911103]

Learning Curves

Peter Hennessy asks what awaits the UK as it tries to double student numbers by the year 2000.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911103]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911107]

Pros and Cons

Increasingly, doctors and teachers are coming under the control of lay executives, and the autonomy of accountants and lawyers is being questioned. David Walker asks: what is happening to professionalism as the professional managers take charge? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911107]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911110]

Pros and Cons

David Walker asks: what is happening to professionalism as the professional managers take charge?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911110]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911114]

Perestroika in the Desert

The collapse of the Soviet bloc has left its former

Arab allies searching for a new strategy for survival in an American-led world.

John Keay considers how far this is driving states like Egypt and Syria to restructure their political and economic institutions.

Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: John Keay

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911114]

Unknown: John Keay

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911117]

Perestroika in the Desert

The collapse of the Soviet bloc has left its former

Arab allies searching for a new strategy for survival in an American-led world.

John Keay considers how far this is driving states like Egypt and Syria to restructure their political and economic institutions.

Contributors

Unknown: John Keay

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911117]

Unknown: John Keay

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911121]

Teething the Watchdogs Whoever forms the next government, the task of reasoned criticism will fall on the House of Commons Select Committees.

Twelve years after their last reform,

Peter Hennessy asks: is it time to sharpen their bite? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911121]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911124]

Teething the Watchdogs Twelve years after the last reform of the House of Commons Select

Committees,

Peter Hennessy asks: is it time to sharpen their bite?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911124]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911128]

A Pleasing Prospect?

Together with his political opponents, John Major advocates creating a single environmental protection agency for Britain. But Dieter Helm asks: is a national, bureaucratic approach the best option for tackling the problems of - and the opportunities for - pollution control? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911128]

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911201]

A Pleasing Prospect?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920206]

L Dukes of York...?

The series returns with the first of two programmes on economic ups and downs. David Walker asks: when should the next recession be expected, and who or what should be blamed?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920206]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920209]

n Dukes of York..?

In the first of two programmes on economic ups and downs,

David Walker asks: when should the next recession be expected and who or what should be blamed?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920209]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920213]

Dukes of Hazard?

The second of two programmes on economic ups and downs.

David Walker asks: does the long wait for even a modest upswing inspire confidence in future global growth and the wealth it will create?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920213]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920216]

Dukes of Hazard?

Britain's recession, the country is told, is part of international economic slowdown. In the second of two programmes,

David Walker asks: does Britain's long wait for even a modest upswing mean that it can be sure of future global growth and the wealth it will create?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920216]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920220]

An Unnatural Practice?

Is coalition government as alien to Britain's political culture as many people assume, or could this country be on the threshold of a new politics of consensus at the top?

Peter Hennessy considers the shape of things to come.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920223]

An Unnatural Practice?

Is coalition government as alien to Britain's political culture as many people assume, or could this country be on the threshold of a new politics of consensus at the top? With Peter Hennessy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920223]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920227]

Sticks and Stones

Peter Hennessy chairs a discussion on the politics of language. Taking part:

Professor Bernard Williams , Renford Bambrough and Edward Pearce.

Producer Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920227]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Unknown: Professor Bernard Williams

Unknown: Edward Pearce.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920301]

Sticks and Stones

Peter Hennessy chairs a discussion on the politics of language.

(Broadcastiast Thursday)

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920301]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920305]

Full of Eastern

Promise?

As western managers look enviously at the booming companies run by their Japanese counterparts,

Peter Haynes asks: should we try to copy oriental methods, or is the answer to our firms' shortcomings closer to home?

ProducerSimon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920305]

Unknown: Peter Haynes

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920308]

Full Of

Eastern Promise

Peter Haynes investigates whether Western companies should copy Oriental methods.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920308]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920312]

Unsceptred Isles Are the UK regions farthest from Europe's golden core destined to decline? David Walker asks if we need new policies for the periphery. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920312]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920315]

Unsceptred Isles Are the UK regions farthest from Europe's golden core destined to decline? David Walker asks if new policies are needed for the periphery.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920315]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920319]

No Science Please, We're Politicians

Peter Hennessy asks: how good are government ministers at reaching or scrutinising costly scientific decisions?

How can their advice systems be improved? Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920319]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920322]

No Science Please, We're Politicians

Peter Hennessy asks: how good are ministers at reaching or scrutinising costly scientific decisions, especially on issues such as global warming?

How can their advice systems be improved?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920322]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920326]

Back Over There?

Is America First more than a rhetorical gesture of US politicians?

Professor Laurence Martin chairs a discussion on the practicalities of possible US disengagement from the military and economic spheres.

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920326]

Unknown: Professor Laurence Martin

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920329]

Back Over There?

Professor Laurence Martin chairs a discussion on the practicalities of possible US disengagement from the military and economic spheres.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920329]

Unknown: Professor Laurence Martin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920402]

Borderline Issues? David Walker asks how long old ideas about inviolable boundaries can survive the growing global interdependence of the 90s. Producer Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920402]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920405]

Borderline Issues?

David Walker asks how long the old ideas about inviolable boundaries can survive the growing global interdependence of the 90s.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920405]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920409]

Public Interest, Private Lives

Peter Hennessy examines the conflicting needs for openness and privacy in political life.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920409]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920412]

Public Interest, Private Lives

How much transparency can be expected in public life, especially during a general election, and do politicians conform to public expectations?

Peter Hennessy examines the conflicting needs for openness and privacy in political life.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920412]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920416]

In The Mood

David Walker considers how government policy may be affected by shifts in public attitudes to such issues as the environment and women's rights. Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920416]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920419]

In the Mood

Last in series.

People are rethinking the environment, health, safety and women's rights. David Walker examines the implications of these long-term shifts.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920419]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920514]

What's Left?

After socialism, social democracy; after social democracy, what? David Walker asks how and on what principles the Left might seek to re-invent itself.

Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920514]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920517]

What's Left?

In the first of a new series,

David Walker asks how the Left might seek to re-invent itself.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920517]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920521]

Bluehall, SWl?

British voters, politicians and officials have been accustomed to parties alternating in power. But, Peter Hennessy asks, what will a fourth successive

Conservative term mean for the ways in which we are governed?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920521]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920524]

Bluehall, SW1?

Peter Hennessy asks: what will a fourth successive

Conservative term mean for the ways in which we are governed?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920524]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920528]

Europe is undergoing one of its periodical crises of confidence. David Walker chairs a discussion on the kind of lead Britain should offer when it takes over the presidency of the Community in July. Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920528]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920531]

Europe In A Major Key? David Walker chairs a discussion on the kind of lead Britain should offer when it takes over the presidency of the European Community in July.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920531]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920604]

Tiger, Tiger.... Burning Bright Are the booming economies of East Asia converging into a new economic power bloc that could overtake the advanced industrial nations of the West? In the first of two programmes, John Keay examines the competing and complementary interests underlying the Far Eastern economic miracle.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920604]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920607]

Tiger, Tiger.... Burning Bright

John Keay presents the first of two programmes. Are the booming economies of East Asia converging into a new economic power block?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920607]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920611]

Tiger, Tiger - In the Shadows of the Night

In the second of two programmes John Keay considers whether economic success is enough to guarantee political stability and military security in East Asia, or could we see a new struggle for mastery? Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920611]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920618]

Down to Business

What exactly does British business want from the government? As the leadership changes at the CBI and the DTI, David Walker asks whether we are entering a new phase of cosy corporatism. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920618]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920621]

Down To Business

What exactly does British business want from the government - more or less? As the leadership changes at the CBI and the DTI, David Walker asks whether we are entering a new phase of cosy corporatism.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920621]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920625]

The Last Right

John Major is pledged to reduce Whitehall secrecy. But, Peter Hennessy asks, can Britain achieve genuine open government without a Freedom of Information Act?

Producer Chris Wescott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920625]

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Chris Wescott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920628]

John Major is pledged to reduce Whitehall secrecy. But, Peter Hennessy asks, can Britain achieve genuine open government without a Freedom of Information Act?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920628]

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920702]

Chaired by Peter Hennessy. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920702]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920705]

Chaired by Peter Hennessy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920705]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920709]

The Matrimonial State The institution of marriage is out of fashion. David Walker asks whether what's happening to the traditional, formal bonding of men and women is any business of the policy-makers Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920709]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920712]

The Matrimonial State

David Walker asks whether what's happening to the traditional bonding of men and women is any business of the policy-makers.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920712]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920716]

The Municipal Consumer?

Local self government has traditionally been seen as one of the bulwarks of British democracy. In recent years however, local democracy has increasingly been replaced by consumer choice. So, asks Vernon Bogdanor , does this amount to the weakening of the vote and strengthening of the purse?

Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920716]

Unknown: Vernon Bogdanor

Producer: Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920719]

The Municipal Consumer?

In recent years local democracy has been replaced by consumer choice. So, asks Vernon Bogdanor , is this a weakening of the vote and strengthening of the purse?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920719]

Unknown: Vernon Bogdanor

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920723]

Out of the Midday Sun? Despite the end of the empire and the passing of the Cold War, Britain's desire for a special world role lives on. Peter Hennessy considers whether ambitions are realistic or affordable for a medium-sized nation. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920723]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920726]

Out of the Midday Sun? Britain's desire for a special world role lives on. Peter Hennessy considers whether such ambitions are realistic.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920726]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921008]

Passing the Buck

Did Treasury economists get it wrong? To what extent should officials share responsibility with politicians for Britain's economic woes? In the first of a new series, David Walker audits the performance and mindset of the guardians of Treasury orthodoxy.

Producer Zareer Masani. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921008]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921011]

Passing The

NEW Buck

David Walker audits the performance and mindset of the guardians of Treasury orthodoxy. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921011]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921015]

Not Playing in Peoria Godfrey Hodgson examines why America's politicians seem to be part of her problems and how they might become part of the solution. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921018]

Not Playing in Peoria Godfrey Hodgson examines why America's politicians seem to be part of her problems.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921022]

Whither Welfare?

One of the most potent messages of the last election was "No more tax", so whither the Welfare State?

Andrew Adonis asks whether universal benefits might be replaced by new ways of targeting to help those most in need.

Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921022]

Unknown: Andrew Adonis

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921025]

Whither Welfare?

Andrew Adonis asks whether universal benefits might be replaced by new ways of targeting to help those most in need.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921025]

Unknown: Andrew Adonis

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921029]

Brittle Bonds of Friendship

Britain's economic, military and political future in Europe hinges on the German connection.

David Walker asks how the British people are to relate to a country about which many of them continue to have mixed feelings.

Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921029]

Unknown: Brittle Bonds

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921101]

Brittle Bonds of Friendship

Britain's economic, military and political future in Europe hinges on the German connection. David Walker asks how the British people are to relate to a country about which many of them continue to have mixed feelings.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921101]

Unknown: Brittle Bonds

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921105]

An in-depth look at public policy and political ideas at home and abroad.

Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921105]

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921108]

The programme that takes an in-depth look at public policy and political ideas at home and abroad.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921112]

Mittel-Europa Unlimited For Czechoslovakia,

Hungary and Poland, the transition to free markets is proving uneven and risky. Chris Cviic asks if the liberalising economies of central Europe would do better to find their own road to capitalism, instead of copying western models. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921112]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921115]

Mittel Europa Unlimited Chris Cviic asks if the liberalising economies of Central Europe would do better to find their own road to capitalism, instead of copying western models.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921115]

Unknown: Chris Cviic

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921119]

Through the Roof?

Growth is back in favour with the Government. But David Walker asks if increased national prosperity depends on the housing market, and a new bout of rising prices. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921119]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921122]

Through the Roof? David Walker asks if increased national prosperity depends on the housing market, and a new bout of rising prices.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921122]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921126]

A Place Apart

Northern Ireland remains one of the most violently divided parts of Europe, despite the politicians' efforts. So can there ever be a constitutional settlement in which both communities have their aspirations satisfied?

Brendan O'Leary assesses the options for progress in Britain's own ethnic conflict.

Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921126]

Unknown: Brendan O'Leary

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921129]

A Place Apart

Northern Ireland remains one of the most divided parts of Europe. Brendan O'Leary asks if there will ever be a settlement in which both communities have their aspirations satisfied.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921203]

A Class of Their Own?

Britain seems to be acquiring an American-style under-class, without job prospects, decent education and housing, or stable family relationships. Melanie Phillips considers the perils for policy-makers of ignoring this uncomfortable social reality.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921203]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921206]

A Class of their Own? Britain seems to be acquiring an American-style "underclass". Melanie Phillips considers the perils for policy makers of ignoring this uncomfortable social reality.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921206]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921210]

Hard Words in the Classroom

What educational thinking has inspired the Government's marathon effort to remake the schools? David Walker asks whether the Tories have finally killed the post-war progressive impulse in the classrooms. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921210]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921213]

David Walker asks if the Tories have finally killed the post-war progressive impulse in the classrooms.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921213]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921217]

The last programme in the series which examines issues of public policy. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921217]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930128]

1m

Cultivating the Nation

There's a National Heritage, a National Curriculum and a National Arts and Media Strategy. But does it add up to a vision of national identity? In the first of a new series, David Walker asks what government can and ought to do about the national culture.

Producer David Hendy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930128]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Hendy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930131]

Cultivating the Nation There's a National

Heritage, a National

Curriculum and a National Arts and Media Strategy. But does it all add up to a vision of national identity? David Walker asks what government ought to do about the national culture.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930131]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930204]

The New Masters?

The European Court of Justice overrides British MPs, forces ministers to change policy and even rules against

Jacques Delors. Paul Craig asks why the judges in Luxembourg are becoming so powerful and if they or Britain will decide how the country's future in Europe unfolds.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930204]

Unknown: Jacques Delors.

Unknown: Paul Craig

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930207]

The New Masters?

The European Court of Justice overrides British MPs, forces Ministers to change policy and even rules against

Jacques Delors. Paul Craig asks why the judges in Luxembourg are becoming so powerful and just who will decide how Britain's future in Europe unfolds.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930207]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930211]

Freedom for

Frankenstein?

With a growing proportion of scientific research being carried out by private companies, is there a danger that commercial considerations are eroding the openness and accountability of British science? Hugh Prysor -Jones asks if the Government's current review of science policy - its first in two decades - is already too late to stem the tide.

Producer Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930211]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor

Producer: Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930214]

Freedom for

Frankenstein?

With a growing proportion of scientific research being carried out by private companies, are commercial considerations eroding the accountability of British science? Hugh Prysor-Jones asks if the government's current review of science policy is too late to stem the tide.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930214]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor-Jones

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930218]

Bully for the Boys in Blue

The government is about to create a new structure for the police.

David Walker asks if the new order will cut crime, and considers its possible political consequences. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930218]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930221]

Bully for the Boys in Blue

David Walker asks if the government's new structure for the police will cut crime, and what the political consequences might be.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930221]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930225]

Greening World Trade Whether the goal is

"dolphin-friendly" tuna, or saving the rainforest, Western greens are increasingly advocating trade sanctions to eliminate environmentally unfriendly activities across the globe.

Frances Caimcross asks if the world trading system can be given a greener hue without opening the way to protectionism. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930225]

Unknown: Frances CaimcRoss

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930228]

Greening World Trade Frances Caimcross asks if the world trading system can be given a greener hue.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930228]

Unknown: Frances CaimcRoss

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930304]

Breaking Up is Hard to Do?

Some of the world's major corporations are finding their size a barrier to growth. Peter Haynes asks what makes some large companies more nimble than others and what future giant firms have. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930304]

Unknown: Peter Haynes

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930307]

Breaking Up Is Hard to Do?

Peter Haynes asks what makes some large companies more adaptable than others.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930307]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930311]

Rites of Passage The 1990s are fast becoming the decade of refugees and asylum-seekers. David Walker considers how claims for shelter in Britain should be assessed and the relevance of borders in a single European market. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930311]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930318]

The Revisionist

Tendency

Since its electoral defeat, Labour has gained a new leader and started reassessing policies. Hugo Young asks how far the revisionists should go, what their values are, and whether they can rescue Labour from permanent opposition. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930318]

Unknown: Hugo Young

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930321]

The Revisionist

Tendency

Hugo Young asks whether the new revisionists can hope to rescue the Labour party from permanent opposition.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930325]

Out of the Red

Russia is trying to pull itself out of its communist past. But with living standards falling almost as fast as the rouble, should Russia think again about western shock therapy to reform its economy? John Lloyd investigates whether market reforms should be intensified, modified or thrown out altogether. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930325]

Unknown: John Lloyd

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930328]

Out of the Red

John Lloyd investigates whether radical market reforms in Russia should be intensified, modified or thrown out altogether.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930401]

Losing Our Marbles? The problems of youth have been a recent preoccupation. But David Walker asks: how long before we need to worry about the coming age of the old, when the baby-boom generation retires on private pensions, while its parents grow ever older? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930401]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930404]

Losing Our Marbles? David Walker asks: how long before we need to worry about the coming age of the old when the baby-boom generation retires on private pensions, while its parents grow ever older?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930404]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930408]

Flexible Friends?

The world's most powerful lending institutions, the International Monetary

Fund and the World Bank, have been using their leverage to press major economic reforms on debtor countries. In the last programme of the series, Tony Killick asks whether such policies have been effective in the Third

World and how they should be improved. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930408]

Unknown: Tony Killick

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930411]

Flexible Friends?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930513]

The Commanding Heights?

As British government fragments in a welter of new quangos and agencies, David Walker asks: what powers and accountability do secretaries of state and other ministers retain? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930513]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930516]

The Commanding Heights?

David Walker asks: what powers and accountability do secretaries of state and other ministers retain?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930516]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930520]

When the Party's Over Political parties are usually seen as essential to the healthy functioning of parliamentary democracy. But many are heavily in debt, and fewer and fewer people are joining them. So is the "mass" party dead? Are members losing control to the professionals?

Sarah Benton asks: what happens to democracy then? Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930520]

Unknown: Sarah Benton

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930523]

When the Party's Over Is the mass political party dead? If so, asks

Sarah Benton , what happens to democracy?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930523]

Unknown: Sarah Benton

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930527]

Monarchs to Measure According to the opinion polls, the British public wants the monarchy to continue, but in a more democratic form.

Anthony King considers how far Britain's oldest institution needs to re-invent itself to survive the next century.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930527]

Unknown: Anthony King

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930530]

Monarchs to Measure Anthony King considers how far the monarchy needs to re-invent itself. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930530]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930603]

Social Europe? How relevant is Maastricht to the arrival in Britain of the EC's "social dimension"? David Walker asks how far the European style is already influencing jobs and pensions. Might

Europe itself now be going cold on employee rights? Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930603]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930610]

The Sleeping Giants?

City institutions invest much of the nation's savings, yet their challenges to poor company results and soaring executive salaries often seem muted.

Evan Davis asks: is ittime forthe money men to stir themselves and hold the boardroom bosses to greater account and, if so, how?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930610]

Unknown: Evan Davis

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930613]

The Sleeping Giants?

Evan Davis asks if it is time for the city institutions to stir themselves.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930613]

Unknown: Evan Davis

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930617]

Slouching towards Bethlehem

Are Britain's young people being brought up in an alarming moral vacuum? If so, what can be done to revitalise the agents of moral guidance without resorting to the rigid strictures of the past? Melanie Phillips examines how a common set of values might be provided for the next generation.

Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930617]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930620]

Slouching Towards Bethlehem

Melanie Phillips examines how a common set of values might be provided for the next generation.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930624]

More Equal than Others?

At a time when egalitarianism as a political force appears dead, equality continues to figure prominently on Britain's social agenda. David Walker examines the motives behind equal opportunity policies today. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930624]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930627]

More Equal than Others?

At a time when egalitarianism as a political force appears dead, equality continues to figure prominently on Britain's social agenda. David Walker examines the motives behind equal opportunities and what the policies mean in practice.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930627]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930701]

Now What, Chancellor?

The economy hovers between recession and recovery, there are issues of budgetary balance to be settled, and the questions of E R M membership and a European single currency are waiting in the wings. Peter Jay chairs a discussion analysing the problems involved in steering the economy through the 90s. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930701]

Unknown: Peter Jay

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930704]

Now What, Chancellor?

Peter Jay chairs a discussion analysing the problems involved in steering the economy through the 90s.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930704]

Unknown: Peter Jay

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930708]

Workshop of the World?

What will Britain's economic role be in the increasingly competitive world of the 21st Century? Can manufacturing ever again provide enough jobs to go round? If not, what takes its place? Frances Cairncross asks what strategy Britain, as a small English-speaking island off the coast of Europe, should adopt. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930708]

Unknown: Frances Cairncross

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930718]

All Sound and Fury?

Ian Davidson asks if there is sufficient agreement or the political will to make a common European foreign and security policy a reality.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930718]

Unknown: Ian Davidson

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930722]

Off With Their Heads!

Britain has a tradition of treating its intellectuals with scepticism and irreverence. David Walker asks if the price we pay for our suspicion of big ideas is political and cultural mediocrity.

Last programme in the current series.

Producer ZareerMasani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930722]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930725]

Off with Their Heads!

David Walker asks if Britain pays the price for its suspicion of big ideas. The last in the present series.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930725]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931007]

Beyond Our Means? With growii ig pre-budget speculation about higher taxes, spending curbs and pay freezes, Britain's budget deficit has replaced the recession as economic enemy number one. Stuart Simon asks if the government's overdraft is really out of control or whether it's a false alarm. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931007]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931010]

Beyond Our Means? Stuart Simon asks if the Government's overdraft is out of control.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931010]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931014]

More, Wiser and Wealthier?

The Government plans an increase in the numbers of people in higher education. Andrew Adonis asks whether expansion is a good thing, and what will it mean for students, universities and the economy? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931014]

Unknown: Andrew Adonis

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931017]

More, Wiser and Wealthier?

Andrew Adonis asks whether further expansion in higher education is necessarily a good thing.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931017]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931021]

A Mother's Work

Lack of decent childcare traps many mothers at home, or in low-paid part-time jobs. But Frances Cairncross asks whether government should help women go out to work when their children are small? And what help works best -forwomen, for their children, and for the economy?

ProducerNicolaMeyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931021]

Unknown: Frances Cairncross

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931031]

UnrnMon. Trade unions have been driven from political influence by 14 years of Conservative rule and deprived of economic power by high unemployment.

Hugo Young asks the TUC's new General

Secretary John Monks what he's learned from the 1980s and whether unions will matter in the 1990s. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931031]

Unknown: Hugo Young

Unknown: John Monks

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931104]

Stuart Simon asks how much can really be expected if the current GATT talks are successful and whether changes in the world economy require a new trade regime. Producer ZareerMasani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931104]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931107]

Trading Blows. How much we can really expect to gain from the current round of Gatt talks? Stuart Simon reports.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931107]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931111]

Tractors on the Lawn. British agriculture faces intensifying economic, social and political pressures from Whitehall, Brussels and further afield. Hugh Prysor -Jones asks what changes will be wrought on farming and with what consequences for the rural economy and way of life.

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931111]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931114]

Tractors on the Lam. British agriculture faces intensifying pressures from Whitehall, Brussels and further afield. Hugh Prysor-Jones looks at the consequences of change for the rural economy and way of life.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931114]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931118]

To Do No Harm?

A House of Lords committee is expected to report within weeks on whether the law prohibiting euthanasia should be changed. Melanie Phillips examines how Britain resolves this and other ethical issues such as abortion and embryo research.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931118]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931121]

With a House of Lords committee about to report on whether the law prohibiting euthanasia should be changed, Melanie Phillips examines how Britain resolves this and other ethical issues.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931121]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931125]

Paved with Good Intentions

What lies behind President Clinton's spectacular foreign policy reverses? Stuart Simon asks whether the world is too unpredictable to be managed, even by an unrivalled superpower, or whether America has simply failed to find the right goals? Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931125]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931128]

Paved with Good Intentions. What lies behind President Clinton's spectacular foreign policy reverses? Why has he failed to define a doctrine that sounds as cred,ble as those of his predecessors? Stuart Simon asks if the world is too unpredictable and complicated to be managed even by an unrivalled superpower, or whether America has simply failed to find the right goals?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931128]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931202]

Russian Roulette. As Russians prepare for their first post-Communist general election, Analysis discusses how western policy-makers should be addressing the outcome...

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931202]

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931205]

Russian Roulette. A look at how western policy-makers should be addressing the outcome of the first post-Communist Russian election.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931209]

Hugh Prysor-Jones asks if Paris and Frankfurt have fresh plans for financial cooperation which will threaten our wealth? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931209]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor-Jones

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931212]

Back to Haunt Us? Seen from London, monetary union is dead and buried. But Hugh Prysor-Jones asks whether Paris and Frankfurt have fresh plans for financial co-operation.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931212]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931216]

Should British Conservatism reinforce individual self-reliance and the amoral power of the market, or is the country now more receptive to older traditions? Stuart Simon reports in the last of the series.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931216]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931219]

As it reviews its values and beliefs, is British Conservatism at the crossroads?

Stuart Simon reports.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931219]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19941006]

Germany First?

Whoever wins this month's German elections will lead Europe's most populous, richest, and, increasingly, its most self-confident state. David Sells asks what defines Germany's identity. Producer Ingrid Hassler. Rptd Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941006]

Unknown: David Sells

Producer: Ingrid Hassler.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941009]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19941013]

Where Have All the Leaders Gone?

Denys Blakeway examines the crisis in political authority and asks whether effective leadership is still possible in an era of media sound-bites and constant opinion polls.

Producer Nicola Meyrick. Rptd Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941013]

Unknown: Denys Blakeway

Producer: Nicola Meyrick.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941016]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19941020]

The Regulatory State? After 15 years of Conservative government, businesses and privatised utilities increasingly find independent regulators dictating their prices, profits, even their business structure. What is the rationale for this form of intervention, and is there a risk that we are creating a powerful and unaccountable regulatory state?

Producer Michael Blastland. Rptd Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941020]

Producer: Michael Blastland.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941023]

The Regulatory State? Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941027]

The End of Geography

All governments and political parties appeal to the "national interest" to support their policies. But with the uncertainties of the Cold War behind us, and increasing economic globalisation, Susie Symes asks how countries should define their

"national interest" in the 1990s.

Producer Dennis Sewell. Rptd Sund 4.15pm TRANSCRIPTS: phone [number removed]

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941027]

Unknown: Susie Symes

Producer: Dennis Sewell.

Producer: Rptd Sund

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941030]

Susie Symes asks how countries should go about defining their

"national interest" in the 1990s. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941030]

Unknown: Susie Symes

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970123]

Free for All

Is the National Health Service safe? For decades, governments have poured money into it, but now both

Government and Opposition plan for almost no growth. Andrew Dilnot asks what the future NHS will look like. Producer Michael Blastland Repeated Sunday at 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970123]

Unknown: Andrew Dilnot

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970126]

Free for All

Is the National Health Service safe?

In the light of Government plans,

Andrew Dilnot asks what the NHS will look like in the future and whether it can remain free for all. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970126]

Unknown: Andrew Dilnot

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970130]

A Little Aid from Their Friends

Britain spends about two billion pounds a year on foreign aid. But who does it help? Ngaire Woods asks whether aid does more harm than good, and whether countries should try harder to resolve their own problems.

Producer Jane Beresford Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970130]

Producer: Jane Beresford

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970202]

A Little Aid from Their Friends

Ngaire Woods asks whether foreign aid does more harm than good,. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970202]

Unknown: Ngaire Woods

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970206]

Shop 'till You Drop

Britain is more than ever a consumer society: from food and style to culture and religion, we see life as a series of market choices. Bob Tyrrell asks whether the consumer revolution has improved our lives, or made us slaves to short-term self-gratification. Producer Anthony Dworkin

Repeated Sunday at 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970206]

Unknown: Bob Tyrrell

Producer: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970209]

Shop till You Drop

Bob Tyrrell asks whether the consumer revolution has improved our lives or made us slaves to short-term self-gratification. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970209]

Unknown: Bob Tyrrell

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970213]

Patents on Patients

Around the world, researchers are trying to patent human genes. Has science moved beyond society's capacity to hold it to account? George Monbiot examines the competing claims of ethics and scientific advance. Producer Ingrid Hassler

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970213]

Unknown: George Monbiot

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970216]

Patents on Patients

George Monbiot examines the ethics of trying to patent human genes. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970216]

Unknown: George Monbiot

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970220]

Turning the Tables

How strong is the case for more public investment in higher education? John Ashworth , former director of the LSE, asks whether we should subsidise university students less and use the savings to improve education for everyone else. Producer Jane Beresford Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970220]

Unknown: John Ashworth

Producer: Jane Beresford

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970223]

Turning the Tables

John Ashworth , former director of the LSE, asks whether we should subsidise university students less and use the savings to improve education for everyone else. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970223]

Unknown: John Ashworth

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970227]

Growing Doubts

While economic debate turns toward encouraging growth and worrying less about inflation, Peter Kellner examines the rise and fall of economic orthodoxies and asks if we really know what works. Producer Michael Blastland

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970227]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970302]

Growing Doubts

Peter Kellner examines the rise and fall of economic orthodoxies and asks if we really know what works. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970302]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970306]

Ruling Russia

As the leadership vacuum in Russia continues, Peter Kellner chairs a studio discussion about the country's presidency, the prospects for its future and Russian relations with the West.

Last in the series.

Producer Anthony Dworkin Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970306]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Producer: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970309]

Peter Kellner chairs a studio discussion about the future of Russia. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970309]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970403]

The return of the series examining the thinking behind public policy and changes in society. With the general election campaign fully under way,

Peter Kellner chairs a discussion with a panel of experts to discuss the economic, foreign and constitutional issues on which the election will be fought - and important questions that won't be part of the campaign. Producer Anthony Dworkin

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from

BBC NewsUne. PC Box 5080, London W12 6AJ. PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information. Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970403]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970406]

Peter Kellner chairs a discussion with a panel of experts on the issues on which the election will be fought. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970406]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970410]

The Public Purse

In the second of the special general election programmes, Peter Kellner chairs a discussion between politicians from the major parties and Andrew Dilnot , Director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, on Britain's economy. What are the real questions about tax and public spending, and how do the parties measure up? Producer Michael Blastland.

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from

BBC NewsLine, PO Box 5080. London W12 6AJ. PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970410]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Unknown: Andrew Dilnot

Producer: Michael Blastland.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970413]

In the second of the special general election programmes, Peter Kellner chairs a discussion on the economy. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970413]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970417]

Britain, Europe and the World The series which examines the thinking behind public policy and changes in society- in Britain and around the world.

In the third of the special election programmes, Peter Kellner chairs a discussion between politicians and Dr Ngaire Woods of University

College, Oxford, on Britain's role in the world. How divided are the parties on Europe, and how far has the debate overshadowed other aspects of foreign policy?

Producer Ingrid Hassler

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from

BBC NewsLine. PO Box 5080. London W12 6AJ PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information.

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970417]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970420]

Britain, Europe and the World

In the third of the special general election programmes, Peter Kellner chairs a discussion between politicians of the major parties and Dr Ngaire Woods of University College, Oxford, on Britain's role in the world. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970420]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970424]

How Britain Is Governed

The series which examines the thinking behind public policy and changes in society. As the general election campaign draws to an end,

Peter Kellner asks politicians and Prof Peter Hennessy if it is time for constitutional change. What are the differences between the parties on devolution, open government and the House of Lords? And how likely are these issues to affect the way people vote? Producer Anthony Dworkin

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from

BBC NewsLine. PO Box 5080. London W12 6AJ PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information. Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970424]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Unknown: Prof Peter

Producer: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970427]

How Britain Is Governed

Peter Kellner asks politicians and Professor Peter Hennessy if it is time for constitutional change. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970427]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Unknown: Professor Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970501]

A Separate Place

Frances Cairncross asks what the debate on children's rights tells us about the position of children in our society. Today's children wear adult clothes, watch adult programmes and sometimes commit adult crimes. Should they have more control over their lives, or would that destroy the family? Producer Ingrid Hassler

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from

BBC NewsLine, PO Box 5080. London W12 6AJ PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970501]

Unknown: Frances Cairncross

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970504]

A Separate Place

Frances Cairncross asks what the debate on children's rights tells us about the position of children in society. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970504]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970508]

The Battle Done

After a six-week general election campaign, the results are finally in. Peter Kellner assesses the significance of the 1997 poll and the prospects for the next five years.

Producers Michael Blastland. Anthony Dworkin Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970508]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Producers: Michael Blastland.

Producers: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970511]

The Battle Done

Peter Kellner assesses the election.

Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970511]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970515]

Basic Instincts

Michael Blastland investigates whether it is possible to replace political and social science with biology. A new discipline called evolutionary psychology is the latest attempt to understand human affairs using

Darwinian theory, and has reopened the age-old debate about the forces of nature and nurture. The variety of questions it seeks to ask is vast. He finds out how much of our behaviour evolutionary psychology can explain. Producers Michael Blastland , Anthony Dworkin Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970515]

Unknown: Michael Blastland

Producers: Michael Blastland

Producers: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970518]

Basic Instincts

Michael Blastland investigates whether it is possible to replace political and social science with biology. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970518]

Unknown: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970522]

Taming the Dragon?

The takeover of Hong Kong in July 1997 has been described as China's greatest challenge. The west hopes it will bring about more democracy and human rights. Ngaire Woods asks whether this is likely and whether Hong Kong will be a catalyst for China's political, social and economic transformation. Producer Ingrid Hassler. Rptd Sunday 4. 15pm TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from BBC Videos for Education and Training.

Woodlands, 80 Wood Lane , London W12 OTT Phone: (0181) [number removed]for more information

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970522]

Producer: Ingrid Hassler.

Unknown: Wood Lane

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970525]

Taming the Dragon? The implications for China of the takeover of Hong Kong. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970529]

The Next Steps

John Kampfner looks at the pressures on the new government and examines the policy choices involved in trying to realise its ambitions.

Producer Michael Blastland

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from BBC Videos for Education and Training,

Woodlands. 80 Wood Lane. London W12 OTT PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970529]

Unknown: John Kampfner

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970601]

John Kampfner on the new government. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970601]

Unknown: John Kampfner

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970608]

Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970612]

Splitting the State. Will the Government's plans for devolution lead to the federalisation of Britain or to its break-up? Professor Brendan O'Leary explores the implications. Producer Sheila Cook

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970612]

Unknown: Professor Brendan O'Leary

Producer: Sheila Cook

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970615]

Splitting the State. Professor Brendan O'Leary considers constitutional change. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970615]

Unknown: Professor Brendan O'Leary

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970619]

A Political Dream. In the first of two programmes, Ngaire Woods examines the arguments surrounding the Euro. Producer Ingrid Hassler

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from BBC Videos for Education and Training.

Woodlands, 80 Wood Lane , London W12 OTT PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970619]

Unknown: Ngaire Woods

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Unknown: Wood Lane

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970622]

A Political Dream. With Ngaire Woods. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970626]

An Economic Nightmare? Frances Cairncross examines the potential costs and benefits of monetary union. Producer Michael Blastland Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from BBC Videos for Education and Training,

Woodlands. 80 Wood Lane. London W12 OTT PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970626]

Unknown: Frances Cairncross

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970629]

An Economic Nightmare? Frances Cairncross examines the potential costs and benefits of monetary union. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970629]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19970703]

Whose Company? The free-market

Anglo-American model of business is held to have triumphed in Britain and become the envy of corporatist Europe. Should business take account of its role in national life? Bob Tyrrell asks whether a more caring capitalism is desirable and would be as efficient.

Producer Anthony Dworkin. Rptd Sunday 4.15pm TRANSCRIPTS: available for purchase from BBC Videos for Education and Training,

Woodlands. 80 Wood Lane, London W12 OTT PHONE: (0181) [number removed]for more information

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970703]

Unknown: Bob Tyrrell

Producer: Anthony Dworkin.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970706]

Whose Company? In the last of the current series, Bob Tyrell looks at the success of the free-market Anglo-American business model in Britain, and asks if it is efficient. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19970706]

Unknown: Bob Tyrell

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971002]

Taking the High Road

The Foreign Secretary has committed Britain to a more moral foreign policy. John Kampfner looks at what this will mean in practice and asks whether it could raise expectations that the Government is unable or unwilling to meet.

Producer Anthony Dworkin

Repeated Sunday at 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971002]

Unknown: John Kampfner

Producer: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971005]

Taking the High Road

John Kampfner looks at what a more moral foreign policy might mean for Britain.

Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971005]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971009]

Privatising Privacy?

Do we own our privacy? If so, can it be bought and sold? Invasions of privacy by paparazzi have captured headlines, but privacy matters to everyone in one way or another.

Frances Cairncross asks what it is, why we value it, and whether there are new ways of protecting it. Producer Michael Blastland

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971009]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971012]

Privatising Privacy?

Frances Caimcross looks at privacy and why it is so highly valued. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971012]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971016]

Working for Your Welfare

At the core of the Government's reforms of the welfare state is a commitment to getting an "underclass" back to work. But can there be jobs for everyone, and should people be compelled to take them? Andrew Dilnot looks at some of the dangers of making work the cornerstone of "new welfare". Producer Jane Beresford Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971016]

Unknown: Andrew Dilnot

Producer: Jane Beresford

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971019]

Working for Your Welfare Andrew Dilnot looks at the government's reforms of the welfare state and their commitment to getting people back to work. Repeated from Thursday

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Genome: [r4 Bd=19971026]

The Politics of Emotion

National tragedies have demonstrated a new openness among the British. Brian Cathcart asks whether the new mood is making Britain a better democracy or a more unstable one. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971026]

Unknown: Brian Cathcart

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971030]

Teachers on Trial

If good teachers are the key to raising standards, how can the government's new policies help schools to attract the good, motivate the mediocre and sack the bad?

Bethan Marshall asks how much can be achieved within current spending constraints and what lessons can be learnt from the independent sector. Producer Sheila Cook

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

TRANSCRIPTS: write to BBC Videos for Education and Training, Woodlands. 80 Wood Lane. London W12 On PHONE: (0181) [number removed]

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971030]

Unknown: Bethan Marshall

Producer: Sheila Cook

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971102]

Teachers on Trial

How can new government policies help schools attract good teachers, motivate the mediocre and sack the bad? Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971106]

Rights from Europe

The European Convention on Human Rights is being incorporated into

British law. Brendan O'Leary looks at the impact it could have on our national life and asks whether the rights it gives us are those we want. Producer Anthony Dworkin Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

TRANSCRIPTS: write to BBC Videos for Education and Training. Woodlands. 80 Wood Lane, London W12 OTT PHONE: (0181) [number removed]

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971106]

Unknown: Brendan O'Leary

Producer: Anthony Dworkin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971109]

Rights from Europe

The European Convention on Human Rights is being incorporated into British law. Brendan O'Leary investigates. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971109]

Unknown: Brendan O'Leary

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971113]

People Behaving Oddly

Every day we face choices - as consumers, investors or employees. A mass of political and economic decisions depends on the assumption that we choose in our rational best interests. But do we? Michael Blastland examines a growing reassessment of economic attitudes and behaviour.

Producer Ingrid Hassler

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971113]

Unknown: Michael Blastland

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971120]

Shake Hands and Be Civil

Now that doctrinaire socialism and unbridled capitalism are both discredited, the focus of politics is shifting to civil society, based on voluntary associations.

Ian Hargreaves asks if this means a shrinking role for the state.

Producer Zareer Masani. Rptd Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971120]

Unknown: Ian Hargreaves

Producer: Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971123]

Shake Hands and Be Civil

The focus of politics is shifting to civil society. Ian Hargreaves investigates. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971123]

Unknown: Ian Hargreaves

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971127]

Who Cares Wins

Can caring and tolerance really be the keys to regaining the public's trust? Peter Kellner examines the changing politics of William Hague's Tory Party. Producer Jonathan Brunert. Rptd Sunday4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971127]

Unknown: Peter Kellner

Producer: Jonathan Brunert.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971130]

Who Cares Wins

Peter Kellner examines the changing politics of the Conservative Party. Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971130]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971204]

People Behaving Oddly?

Every day we face choices - as consumers, investors or employees. A mass of political and economic decisions depends on the assumption that we choose in our rational best interests. But do we?

Michael Blastland examines a growing reassessment of fundamental economic attitudes and behaviour. Producer Ingrid Hassler

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971204]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971207]

People Behaving Oddly?

Michael Blastland examines a growing reassessment of economic attitudes.

Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971207]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971211]

The Best for the Brightest? Oxford and Cambridge are campaigning for more generous funding than other universities, arguing that it is worth paying more for excellence. But is it?

Frances Cairncross asks whether it is in the national interest to deliberately create an elite.

Producer Ingrid Hassler

Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971211]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971214]

The Best for the Brightest?

Is it in the national interest to give

Oxford and Cambridge more generous funding than other universities? Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971218]

Tiger, Tiger, Burning Out?

The tiger economies of the Far East suddenly look troubled. But how did countries we once hoped to emulate fall so swiftly out of favour with the financial markets? Peter Kellner examines the relationship between the real economies and recent market turmoil, and asks if it holds lessons for economic success. Producer Michael Blastland Repeated Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971218]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19971221]

Tiger, Tiger, Burning Out?

Peter Kellner asks how the tiger economies of the Far East have fallen out of favour with the financial markets.

Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19971221]
Go Green, Or Else!2007071920070722

The British government's dramatic targets for halving carbon emissions allow little more time than it took to stigmatise drink-driving.

And while opinion polls suggest that most people in Britain are worried about climate change, there's little sign of action on their part.

Camilla Cavendish asks how the government can make us greener.

Going To The Blogs?2005033120050403

The internet is becoming a key political battlefield, with thousands of people debating the issues on their own web pages.

Kenan Malik investigates.

Goodbye The Golden Eggs Of Banking?2011060620110612

Time was when the City of London and the financial services industry generally were the apple of most politicians' eyes.

The fabulous wealth they generated and taxes they paid seemed to set Britain on the road to lasting prosperity without having to worry about its manufacturing sector.

With the crash, the political consensus has turned.

Now, metal-bashing is back in favour and the bankers can do no right.

The ritual call, heard at least once a generation, for Britain's economy to be more like Germany's is echoing across the land again.

But is making things rather than financial innovation really the way to make Britain's economy grow faster? When we have a competitive edge in banking and managing money, should we cast it aside? And why should Britain's economy be the same as that of other countries?

Janan Ganesh of the "Economist" asks if we should be turning our back on the goose that has laid our golden eggs for so many years.

And, with no immediate signs that manufacturing is taking off on a bountiful new trajectory, considers if we should try to understand the City better and how it can assist Britain grow again.

Producer: Simon Coates.

Janan Ganesh asks if ending Britain's focus on financial services will make us richer.

Janan Ganesh asks if we should be turning our back on the goose that has laid our golden eggs for so many years.

And, with no immediate signs that manufacturing is taking off on a bountiful new trajectory, considers if we can instead use the pause in economic growth to puzzle out what we did wrong in financial services and how we can do better in the future.

Green Shoots From The Arab Spring2012111220121118

How the Arab Spring has affected the mindset of ordinary people in the Middle East.

With the downfall of the former Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak, political change has already happened in Egypt. But how has such a revolution affected the mindset of ordinary people in the region?

In this edition of Analysis, the writer, Christopher de Bellaigue, considers the consequences for Arab society of a new culture in which ordinary people openly question those in authority - not just in the political sphere but within the family and religious realm too.

The programme explores a number of examples: From an apparent new determination to resist paying bribes to public officials, through a greater desire to see active debate rather than passive obedience in the classroom, to the growth of salafists - conservative Muslims who advocate a return to the core texts of Islam and a less deferential attitude towards the traditional scholars.

Though not all these phenomena were unknown before the Arab Spring, the political revolution does seem to have fuelled their growth: Key to many appears to be the disappearance of personal fear - one unmistakable consequence of the demise of the Mubarak regime. Today, despite often remaining wary of the future, Egyptians are, it seems, fearlessly asserting their own views as never before, without seeking external validation.

Questions, however, remain: If a new, more assertive mentality is indeed emerging, who shares it - and crucially, who does not? Would such an increased personal conviction necessarily result in more pluralism, as is sometimes assumed in the west, or give greater voice to Egypt's innate social and religious conservatism? And what are the chances that it could survive the country's overwhelming economic and political problems?

Producer: Michael Gallagher.

Hague's Middle East2011062020110626

"The eruption of democracy movements across the Middle East and North Africa is, even in its early stages, the most important development of the early 21st century." These were the words of Foreign Secretary William Hague May 2011.

Events from Cairo to Banghazi have shaken the very foundations of the Middle East, and with it the West's longstanding friendships with Arab dictators.

But what will happen next?

In this week's Analysis, Edward Stourton meets Foreign Secretary Hague and explores the map of the new Middle East as seen from London, Washington and Brussels.

Amid the talk of massive economic investment, customs unions, and a newfound support for democratic transition, what will really change in terms of Western relations with the Middle East?

The "Arab Spring" came just as the world began to recover from the 2008 crash -- with oil prices already high.

Edward looks at how the economic pressures will shape our policy, and explores divisions within the EU -- with some nations afraid of opening up to the Arab world, while others are pushing for it.

Support for Israel has long been a cornerstone of Western interests in the region, but recent comments by British leaders and the US President about "1967 borders" have left many in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv seething.

In the new Middle East, what future do Britain and the US see for Israel and the Palestinians -- and will it change things enough to make a difference?

Western foreign policy on the Middle East has been through massive convulsions -- from die-hard "realism" that saw close relations with dictators to the "neo-conservatism" that called for the invasion of Iraq.

So what is now driving our new vision for the region?

Investigating Foreign Secretary William Hague's vision for the Arab world.

Events from Cairo to Benghazi have shaken the very foundations of the Middle East, and with it the West's longstanding friendships with Arab dictators.

Hezbollah2011101020111016

Owen Bennett-Jones asks whether Western politicians of both left and right have misunderstood the nature of the Lebanese shi'ite movement Hezbollah.

Owen Bennett-Jones asks whether Western politicians misunderstand Hezbollah.

Owen Bennett Jones looks at the Shia movement Hezbollah which has a big following in Lebanon but is regarded by some in the West as a terrorist organisation.

It has a militia with more weapons than many European armies and wants Islamic rule but is in government with Christian allies.

The British government draws a distinction between Hezbollah's military and political wings whereas the Americans do not.

The French government would like to see Hezbollah disarm but do not regard them as terrorists.

How the West sees the organisation and how it sees itself is central to stability in the Middle East but what exactly is Hezbollah and is it heading for another war with Israel?

Owen Bennett-Jones asks, what exactly is the Lebanese Shia movement Hezbollah?

How Gay Became Ok2015062220150628 (R4)

Why have British attitudes towards homosexuality changed so far and so fast? Less than 50 years ago, sex between men was a criminal act. Now they can marry. It's not just the law that has changed: we have. Surveys suggest that public opinion about homosexuality has undergone a dramatic shift over the same period. Jo Fidgen asks what drives this kind of change in collective attitudes.

Producer: Chloe Hadjimatheou.

Why have British attitudes towards homosexuality changed so far and so fast? Less than 50 years ago, sex between men was a criminal act. Now they can marry. It's not just the law that has changed: we have. Surveys suggest that public opinion about homosexuality has undergone a dramatic shift over the same period. Jo Fidgen asks what drives this kind of change in collective opinion.

I'm So Sorry2007042620070429

Why have apologies for past misdeeds become politically fashionable? Tony Blair has apologised for the Irish famine, but stopped short and instead merely expressed regret about the slave trade.

The Queen has apologised to New Zealand's Maoris and Pope John Paul II said he was sorry for the Crusades.

Kenan Malik considers whether people today really bear responsibility for the crimes of their ancestors, and who can say sorry on behalf of others.

Importing The Metropolitan Revolution2013110420131110

Matthew Taylor looks at the grassroots economic revolution being led by big cities.

In America, there is talk of a "metropolitan revolution" as big cities reinvent themselves. Matthew Taylor asks if Britain too can transform its economy by setting city halls free.

In America, there's a growing realisation that the old economic model, based on every city aiming for "a Starbucks, stadia and stealing business," has failed to revive urban economies. But now cities such as Denver, Colorado -- once famous for the oil money that inspired the soap opera Dynasty -- have turned a corner. This "Metropolitan Revolution" was led by local mayors who ripped up the old administrative boundaries and did creative things to diversify the economy and create jobs, such as building a vast new airports and offering incentives to hi-tech start-ups.

For this week's edition of Analysis, Matthew Taylor, chief executive of the RSA and a former insider in Downing Street under Tony Blair, sets out to see if these new ideas could hold answers for Britain's long term economic future. Cities are where the modern global economy happens, but ever since the decline of heavy industry, Britain's northern cities have performed below the national average. Now, key national and local figures, from Lord Michael Heseltine to Bristol's new Mayor George Ferguson, famous for his red trousers, are pinning their hopes for an economic revival on giving greater economic powers to city halls.

Speaking to a wide range of voices from both sides of the Atlantic, and combining wit with insights from urban geography, history and economics, Matthew asks: could Britain's great cities be the key to us all turning the economic corner?

Producer: Mukul Devichand.

In Defence Of Targets2009092120090927

As NHS targets fall out of political fashion, journalist Michael Blastland argues that they could be good for our health.

Targets, once seen by New Labour as the key to improving public services, look as if they may be on the way out.

The devolved health services of Wales and Scotland have already retreated from their previous target regimes, the Conservative Party has pledged to scrap them in England and there are signs that some of Gordon Brown's ministers are losing faith in them, too.

Why then does Michael believe that there is still a case for targets?

As NHS targets fall out of political fashion, Michael Blastland argues in their favour.

India, The Reluctant Tiger2008022820080302

India's economy is growing three times faster than that of western nations.

In the last seven years the country's middle class has doubled and is spending its new wealth on more and more consumer goods.

Dr Zareer Masani travels to his homeland to discover if this prosperity is filtering down to the mass of the population or simply creating a larger gulf between the rich and poor.

Inheritance20160215

Why does inheritance arouse such powerful emotions? Family, death and money make for gripping stories - just ask Tolstoy, Austen or Dickens - but our attitudes also reflect the way we feel about society, the state, and even ourselves.

Discussions tend to dissolve into rows about levels of tax but in this programme Jo Fidgen explores the values and intuitions that underpin our strength of feeling.

Producer: Joe Kent.

Inside Welfare Reform2014102720141102 (R4)

Economist Jonathan Portes assesses how well the government has implemented its controversial welfare reforms. The government describes the programme as "the most ambitious, fundamental and radical changes to the welfare system since it began".

When the Coalition came to power in 2010, welfare - not including pensions - was costing the country nearly £100 billion a year. Iain Duncan Smith, the secretary of state for work and pensions, was given the task of making work pay and - in so doing - taking millions of people off benefit and saving the country billions.

Influential figures from parliament, the civil service and one of Iain Duncan Smith's closest advisers offer revealing accounts of what's been happening during those past 4 years.

Economist Jonathan Portes asks whether these changes are a vital strategy to stem a welfare system spiralling out of control or - as some argue - nothing short of a fiasco, which has caused genuine hardship?

Producer: Adele Armstrong.

Examining the ideas and forces that shape public policy in Britain and abroad.

Inspiring Green Innovation2009070620090712

The dangers of climate change are well understood, but what innovations need to be nurtured to fight global warming? Tim Harford, The Undercover Economist, examines the different ways to inspire the creators and inventors who will lead the way in this field.

Inspiring the inventors who will lead the way in the fight against global warming.

Is America Doomed?2011062720110703

Justin Webb, the BBC's former North America Editor, regards the United States with affection and respect.

But he is worried that America is in denial about the extent of its financial problems and therefore incapable of dealing with the gravest crisis the country has ever faced.

A decade of tax cuts and increased public spending took the United States from an era of budget surpluses to one of growing deficits.

The Congressional Budget Office predicts that federal debt could reach 90 per cent of GDP within a decade.

The nation's partisan political culture, argue some, means its leaders are incapable of taking the necessary action to avert financial disaster and a loss of international influence.

Justin Webb examines the consequences of failing to deal with the growing debt and looks for any signs that the United States might start to tackle its problems before it is too late.

Interviewees include Diane Coyle, David Frum, Richard Haass, Jeffrey Sachs and Anne Applebaum.

Producer: Bill Law.

Justin Webb asks whether the United States is capable of averting economic meltdown.

Is Demography Destiny?2005031720050320

Societies constantly worry about their populations growing too fast or too slowly.

How accurate are such predictions likely to be, and do they influence eventual population size? Andrew Brown considers demography's role in our debate about the future.

Is God On Their Side?2005122920060101

From the Supreme Court to what should be taught in the country's schools, religious beliefs profoundly shape US politics on all sides.

And the sacred also affects American attitudes to world leadership, global problems and war.

Andrew Brown asks why Americans see themselves and so much of world history in religious terms, and where this outlook is taking the global superpower.

Is It Time For The Internet To Grow Up?2014070720140713

In its short lifetime, the world wide web has raised giants and monsters. It's transformed sections of the economy, from retail to publishing and the music industry. It has had a profound effect on journalism and the transmission of ideas. It has facilitated social networks which have penetrated deep into the private lives of millions of people around the world. It has even been held responsible for far-reaching political upheavals like the Arab Spring.

Some internet evangelists compare the web to the Wild West, a territory full of exciting opportunity that will lose its character and potential if it's brought under the rule of law. Others insist that the web is too disruptive to established institutions and practices and must be tamed. So, what do we want from the next 25 years of the internet? And how can we go about getting it?

Producer: Luke Mulhall.

Is Regional Policy A Waste Of Time2013060320130609

The gap between English north and south is growing. But does government have the answer? In the north-east of England, Alison Wolf discovers why 'regional policy' may be a waste of time. Does better infrastructure or state support for 'key' industries make a real difference? But there's a twist. Instead of everyone heading from north to south, there may just be a move back in the other direction. She discovers that individuals chasing quality of life, not government pushing its policies, will be what really decides the regions' future.

Presenter: Professor Alison Wolf

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Richard Vadon.

Is Sid Dead?2005041420050417

In the 1980s, privatisation promised to make Britain a share-owning democracy.

But how far did capitalism really spread? Diane Coyle investigates.

Is Sid dead? In the 1980s, privatisation promised to make Britain a share-owning democracy.

Is The Pope A Communist?2015060820150614 (R4)

Is Pope Francis a communist, as some of his critics claim? Edward Stourton investigates.

Pope Francis' critique of modern economics has made him an icon for the Left and prompted claims that he is a Communist. The leader of 1.2 billion Catholics has called capitalism, at best, a source of inequality and, at worst, a killer.

Edward Stourton examines the Pope's critique of the free market system and explores the origins of his thinking in Latin America and in Catholic Social Teaching. Is Pope Francis, as his critics claim, dragging his church to the Left and promoting a Marxist branch of liberation theology? And what does his insistence on seeing the world through the eyes of the poor mean for modern notions of charity?

We hear from the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols; corporate lawyer turned Catholic priest, Fr Augusto Zampini Davies; Chief Economist at The Heritage Foundation (a free market think tank based in Washington), Stephen Moore; Professor or Finance, Public Policy and Ethics at St Mary's University, Twickenham and Programme Director at the Institute for Economic Affairs, Philip Booth; Labour Peer Maurice Glasman; and Austen Ivereigh, author of The Great Reformer - Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope.

Producer: Helen Grady

Photo Credit: Tim Widden.

Islamists International2013030420130310

The Muslim Brotherhood is a global ideological network enjoying popular support across the Sunni Muslim world. It, and closely related Islamic groups, are well established across the Muslim world: from North Africa to the Middle East, Turkey, the Indian subcontinent and Malaysia. Christopher de Bellaigue discovers how this community of faith and politics has been influenced by the rise to power of its founding branch: the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.

Producer: Sue Davies.

The Muslim Brotherhood is the most well known branch of an ideological network which enjoys popular support across the Sunni Muslim world. The Islamic Movement encompasses political groups from North Africa, the Middle East, Turkey, the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. Christopher de Bellaigue discovers the ideological and personal links which hold together one of the world's most important political movements.

Jackanory Politics2008022120080224

Frances Stonor examines the increasingly popular method of delivering a political message by telling a story.

The narrative can be an effective communicating tool, but can it sometimes obscure the facts? Contributors include former political adviser Lord Gould, writer Robert McKee, psychologist Drew Westen, journalist Daniel Finkelstein and BBC Home Editor Mark Easton.

Just Culture2014110320141109 (R4)

Margaret Heffernan explores why big organisations so often make big mistakes - and asks if the cure could be the aviation industry's model of a "just culture".

In the past ten years, there have been a string of organizational failures - from BP to the banks, from the Catholic Church to Rotherham. In each instance, hundreds, even thousands of people could see what was going on but acted as though they were blind. Silence ensured the problems continued and allowed them to grow.

The conditions that create the phenomenon called "wilful blindness" are pervasive across institutions, both public and private. Wherever there have been cases of organisational failure you typically find individuals who are over-stretched, distracted and exhausted. They cannot see because they cannot think.

Businesswoman and writer Margaret Heffernan argues that the solution is a "just culture"; which means organizations that encourage people to speak up early and often when things go adrift, without fear of being silenced.

Contributors:

Alexis Jay, author of the report into child sexual exploitation in Rotherham

Ben Alcott, Head of Safety at the Civil Aviation Authority

Helene Donnelly, Cultural Ambassador, Staffordshire and Stoke on Trent NHS Trust

Bill McAleer, a former safety auditor for General Motors

Philip Zimbardo, the psychologist behind the famous Stanford Prison experiment

Producer: Gemma Newby.

Just Deserts2013012120130127

In the battle over rewards at work, workers grew accustomed to winning a healthy share of the spoils during the 1960s and 1970s - and to being accorded high status. Since the 1980s, however, the power of executives has grown and is now reflected in their own much higher financial rewards and enhanced esteem. What explains this shift in power - and will it last?

Michael Blastland asks why workers have appeared to be so weak as bosses have redressed the balance of power at work so strikingly in their own favour. Laws curbing trade union power, for example, so often cited as the explanation can, though, only be part of the reason. Investors - both owners and shareholders - have also lost out financially in relative terms as executives have grown wealthier and stronger.

So what explains the power of the executive class? Are there other trends at work which help explain the relative position of executives and workers? And if both workers and investors want to increase their share of the rewards how might they go about it?

Michael Blastland asks how likely investors and workers are to succeed in any fight to restore their influence when they face such a formidable and entrenched group of executives. He speaks to representatives of all three groups and also considers what business history and the experience of other economies teach us about the likely outcome of the struggle.

Producer Simon Coates.

Keeping The Free Market Faith2012100820121014

The financial crisis has made many on the political right question their faith in free market capitalism. Jamie Whyte is unaffected by such doubts. The financial crisis, he argues, was caused by too much state interference and an unhealthy collusion between government and corporate power.

Interviewees include:

Matthew Hancock MP, Minister for Skills and co-author of Masters of Nothing.

Luigi Zingales, author of Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity and a professor at Chicago Booth School of Business.

Producer: Helen Grady.

Jamie Whyte defends free market ideas in apparently troubled times for capitalism.

Interviewees include Luigi Zingales, author of Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity and a professor at Chicago Booth School of Business.

Keeping Us Afloat?2007111520071118

Frances Cairncross reports on the credit crunch and its effect on the world economy.

How much influence will be wielded by new global players such as India and China?

Kicking The Habit2008032720080330

Can We Kick the Habit?

Social historian Richard Weight asks why the problem of drug addiction has proved so intractable to a range of public policy approaches.

He asks if we have misunderstood the nature of addiction to hard drugs and whether we are simply managing drug abusers rather than trying to help them.

Experts and former addicts consider new approaches to the problem.

Killing Cows2015102620151101 (R4)

Carnivore and steak-lover Jo Fidgen attempts to work out whether killing cows for food can be morally justified

Many meat eaters believe animal suffering should be avoided. They buy higher welfare products or free range eggs and hope the animal they plan to eat has had a good life and a painless death. But if animal suffering matters, surely animal death does too?

Omnivorous Jo Fidgen explores the ethics of killing cows for food. She discusses cow psychology, fart spray and cannibalism with leading philosophers like Peter Singer and Jeff MacMahan. And she tests her own intuitions about meat eating as she looks a bullock in the eye before picking up some of his his minced and butchered body a few weeks later. And eating it.

While on this ethical journey Jo confronts big questions about where morals come from, what is bad about killing humans and how we decide what beings are worthy of our moral attention.

Producer: Lucy Proctor.

Knowing Too Much2009102620091101

As a campaigning investigative journalist, Martin Bright has devoted much of his energy into uncovering things people in power want to be kept secret.

He calls himself a 'freedom of information fundamentalist'.

But in this programme, he plays devil's advocate and asks if the truth is really always desirable or always in the wider public interest.

Through interviews with psychologists, intelligence officers, whistleblowers and academics, he explores the importance of institutional and personal secrecy, and asks what happens when these two areas overlap, or even collide.

Labour And The Bomb2016022920160306 (R4)

Jeremy Corbyn's opposition to the renewal of Britain's nuclear deterrent has opened up divisions within the Labour Party that run very deep. The issue will come to a head when Parliament votes on whether to replace the Trident weapons system, following a recommendation from the Government. While Labour formally reviews its position, will Corbyn be able avoid a damaging split that beset the party in the 1980s?

It was a Labour government which decided to make Britain a nuclear power. "We've got to have this thing, whatever it costs. We've got to have a bloody Union Jack on top of it," declared Ernest Bevin, Foreign Secretary in the postwar Labour government. Ever since that decision in 1946, the question of whether to keep 'the bomb' has divided the party between those who believe it is the cornerstone of Britain's defence policy within NATO and others who have long campaigned to rid the world of nuclear weapons. Twice before in Opposition the party has opted for unilateral disarmament, only for the policy to be reversed after a period of acrimonious debate and electoral defeat.

In this programme, the veteran political reporter John Sergeant examines Labour's troubled relationship with the bomb. Former party leader Neil Kinnock and other senior figures reflect on how the party discarded unilateralism in the late 1980s and offer advice on what lessons can be learned. Can Jeremy Corbyn overcome opposition with the Parliamentary Labour Party to changing the official policy of multilateral disarmament? Does his recent suggestion of maintaining submarines without nuclear missiles satisfy those who want Britain to disarm come what may?

Producer: Peter Snowdon.

Labour, The Left And Europe2012102920121104

Edward Stourton asks if Labour should re-evaluate its attitude to the EU.

The crisis in the eurozone means that fundamental changes to the European Union are on the agenda. Conservative politicians have called for a re-appraisal of the UK's relationship with a more integrated and potentially less democratic EU. Yet Labour's leadership is curiously quiet on the topic.

Edward Stourton talks to leading figures in Labour's policy debate and finds out what rethinking is going on behind the scenes.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Labour's New New Jerusalem - Is Labour Abandoning The State?2013052720130602

Mukul Devichand hears from leading Labour Party figures who want a radical new welfare settlement, saying the state itself is to blame for society's ills as much as the market.

The words of William Blake's Jerusalem were invoked by Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee when he launched his party's proudest achievement: the creation of a welfare state.

"I will not cease from mental fight, Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand, Till we have built Jerusalem, In England's green and pleasant land."

But some leading Labour Party figures no longer believe in the top down model that was meant to make real that vision of a "new Jerusalem". Mukul Devichand hears from leading Labour Party figures who want a radical new welfare settlement, saying the state itself is to blame for society's ills as much as the market.

This new cadre of Labour thinkers is known as "Blue Labour". Two years ago we made a programme about them. Then they were worried about the impact of immigration on blue collar communities.

Now they are part of Labour's inner circle: academic Maurice Glasman has been elevated to the House of Lords; Jon Cruddas MP is in charge of writing the party's manifesto; and Ed Miliband's widely applauded "One Nation" conference speech last year was written by "Blue Labour" godfather Marc Stears.

The post war welfare settlement, according to Lord Glasman, represented the triumph of those who believed that government could solve social problems. That victory, says Glasman, came at a price: "A labour movement that was active and alive in the lives of people became exclusively concerned with what the state was going to do."

The alternative, according to Blue Labour thinkers, is welfare delivered at local level rather than by a centralised state; and a benefits system that prioritises those who contribute over those who do not. "The key concept we use is incentive to virtue," Lord Glasman tells Mukul Devichand, "so we have to be judgemental."

Producer: Fiona Leach

Interviewees include:

Maurice Glasman

Labour Peer

Sir Robin Wales

Labour Mayor of Newham

Jeremy Cliffe

Britain Politics Correspondent, The Economist

Polly Toynbee

Guardian Columnist

Andrew Harrop

General Secretary, The Fabian Society.

Last Rites For The Church Of England?2014012720140202

Andrew Brown asks if the Church of England has become fatally disconnected from society.

Le Malade Imaginaire?2007032920070401

Despite remaining a tourist's idyll and a bon viveur's delight as well as boasting many of Europe's best-loved brands and cultural jewels, France is unhappy with itself.

Low economic growth, the remoteness and failings of its political class and the nation's diminished role in the EU have all led to social unease.

Quentin Peel asks if France has deep-seated problems that require radical reform by its next president or is just suffering from hypochondria.

Left Turn To Catholic Social Teaching?2012110520121111

Matthew Taylor examines Labour's interest in Catholic social teaching.

Catholic Social Teaching embodies a tradition of thought which goes back to Aristotle; yet its proponents say that it offers the sharpest critique of rampant capitalism in our present time. Charting a course through the dichotomies of capital versus labour, the free market versus welfare state, public versus private, its aim is to redraw the social and political landscape and put human dignity and virtue back at the centre. Matthew Taylor, former policy advisor to New Labour, ponders the tradition and asks what it might offer to post credit crunch polities which are looking for ways to regenerate.

There is no doubt that it has captured the policy zeitgeist. A whole programme of public lectures, seminars and events is rolling out to feed the demand for more information. Business people, academics and players from both Left and Right are attending, looking for an ethical alternative for our time.

So exactly what do its core principles, which include ideas like 'solidarity', 'subsidiarity', and the 'common good', offer practising Labour party politicians which they cannot find elsewhere? Jon Cruddas, currently responsible for the Labour Party's policy review, and Labour Peer Maurice Glasman, say they find Catholic Social Teaching 'inspirational'. On the Right, free marketers like Professor Philip Booth of the IEA, also point to its prescience. Is this more than a political fad? And will political enthusiasts for Catholic Social Teaching inevitably be forced to engage with issues such as abortion and euthanasia?

Presenter: Matthew Taylor

Producer: Sue Davies

Editor: Nicola Meyrick.

Let The People Decide?2007112920071202

From the European Union to abortion, calls for referendums abound across politics.

But are popular votes a good way of resolving contentious issues? In a studio discussion, Quentin Peel asks if plebiscites enable the voice of the people to be heard unequivocally.

Do electorates really end up deciding complex questions or do referendums simply let politicians off the hook?

Libya's New Leaders - Libya's Islamic Capitalists2011092620111002

With Colonel Gaddafi gone, what sort of political culture is likely to emerge in Libya? Hugh Miles looks at the political ideology of Libya's would-be leaders.

Hugh Miles investigates the political ideology of Libya's would be leaders.

Under Colonel Gaddafi, Libya was subject to the dictator's so-called Third Universal Theory.

Hugh Miles asks what sort of ideology is likely to dominate in post-Gaddafi Libya.

Western media have been keeping a close eye on Libya's governing National Transitional Council, and there have been warnings about splits between Islamists and secularists, and about Libya's tribal society.

But, as Hugh Miles discovers, amongst Libya's new ruling class there is broad consensus about support for one ideology: capitalism.

Gaddafi's idiosyncratic economic and political philosophy fused elements of socialism and Islam.

The suppression of free markets was at times taken to bizarre extremes with, at one point, the banning of the entire retail sector.

Support for capitalism is perhaps a reaction to the years in which entrepreneurship was suppressed.

Hugh Miles looks at the background of the new rulers and asks how Libyan Islamic capitalism might work.

Hugh Miles finds out more about Libya's new Islamic capitalism.

Life By Lottery2014022420140302

Should we use chance to solve some of our most difficult political dilemmas? From US Green Cards to school place allocation, lotteries have been widely used as a means of fairly resolving apparently intractable problems. Jo Fidgen asks whether the time has come to consider whether more of society's problems might be solved by the luck of the draw.

Producer: Leo Hornak.

Making Invisibles Visible2015061520150621 (R4)

The UK is the world's second largest exporter of services - and has been for some time. The surplus generated by these "invisibles" - everything from banking to public relations to whizzy new phone apps - helps balance the country's stubbornly high deficit in "visibles" or things.

Yet politicians talk continually about the need to rebalance the economy away from services. Linda Yueh finds this puzzling. As with other advanced economies, services comprise a very large proportion of our output - around three-quarters of the economy - and yet we spend a great deal of time worrying about a far smaller and long declining part of it: manufacturing.

It is understandable to want to reduce our deficit in goods, says Linda. But while we try to do that, she argues, we should also try to understand more about the reasons for our success in services - and how to maintain and augment it. In this edition of "Analysis", she finds out why it is difficult to make invisibles visible and why it is important for our future growth and wealth that we do.

Along the way, she discovers how innovation in services is distinctive, why services firms invest heavily in their staff and why the popular enthusiasm for bashing bankers is misguided. We have to start loving the people we hate, Linda argues. And by making the invisible sector more visible, she says, we can make that process easier and more credible.

Producer: Simon Coates.

Making The Best Of A Bad Job2013021820130224

David Goodhart considers whether the declining status of basic jobs can be halted and even reversed.

Successive governments have prioritised widening access to higher education to try to drive social mobility, without giving much thought to the impact this has on the expectations of young people who, for whatever reason, are not going to take that path.

But even in a knowledge-based economy, the most basic jobs survive. Offices still need to be cleaned, supermarket shelves stacked, and care home residents looked after.

The best employers know how to design these jobs to make them more satisfying. Are politicians finally waking up to the problem?

Contributors in order of appearance:

Caroline Lloyd, professor and industrial relations specialist at the University of Cardiff

Donna Braithwaite, supermarket worker

Bill Mumford, chief executive of care charity MacIntyre

Geoff Dench, sociologist and founder of the charity Men for Tomorrow.

Sir Peter Lampl, founder of the Sutton Trust

Andrew Oswald, professor of economics at the University of Warwick

Josie Zerafa, cashier at Iceland supermarket

Tracey Vella, cashier at Iceland supermarket

Sandra McNamara, store manager at Iceland supermarket

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

David Goodhart asks how low status jobs can be made to seem more attractive.

Successive governments have prioritised widening access to higher and further education to try to drive social mobility.

But even in a knowledge-based economy, the most basic jobs survive. Offices still need to be cleaned; supermarket shelves still need to be stacked; and care home residents still need to have their beds made.

In championing the pursuit of skills and qualifications, has government inadvertently made it more difficult to recruit people to do some of society's most essential work?

Maskirovka: Deception Russian-style2015012620150201 (R4)

'Maskirovka' is the Russian military strategy of deception, involving techniques to surprise and deceive the enemy. Lucy Ash looks back over its long history from repelling invading Mongols in the 14th Century, to its use to confound the Nazis in World War II, to the current conflict in Ukraine. Translated literally maskirovka means "a little masquerade", but it also points to strategic, operational, physical and tactical duplicity. When heavily-armed, mask-wearing gunmen - labelled the 'little green men' - took over government buildings in Crimea last year, was this a classic example of maskirovka in the 21st century? All nations use deception as a strategy in war, but Analysis asks whether any other nation has pursued guile as an instrument of policy so long and so ardently as Russia.

Producer: Katy Hickman.

Meet The Family2014101320141019 (R4)

Politicians love talking about families. But do they understand modern family life?

Politicians love talking about supporting families. But, asks Jo Fidgen, do they understand modern family life? And how far can or should the state change the way families live? There's endless focus on young children and childcare, while family care for the elderly is rarely mentioned. She hears from policy insiders, those who have to define families to make their businesses work, individuals facing extraordinary challenges as family life changes with society and across the generations.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Michael Pollan On Food2014092920141005 (R4)

What should we eat? Jo Fidgen talks to the influential American writer Michael Pollan about what food is - and what it isn't. In an interview before an audience at the London School of Economics and Political Science he criticises the way the food industry has promoted highly-processed products delivering hefty doses of salt, sugar and fat. He believes that the plethora of accompanying health claims have left us more confused than ever about what food really is, where it has come from and its impact on our health and the environment. His solution? To cook at home. He argues that this simple change will guarantee a healthy diet and stop us relying on big food companies to feed us. It is also, he says, a profoundly political act. But is it a realistic proposition for busy working families or simply a middle-class ideology?

Producer: Sally Abrahams.

Middle East: Too Soon For Democracy?2012052820120603
20120603 (R4)

Edward Stourton explores the prospects for post-revolution government, following the Arab Spring. Elections are being held, but can voters be sure autocratic rule is in the past?

Contributors, in order of appearance:

Aref Ali Nayed, Islamic theologian and Libyan ambassador to the United Arab Emirates.

Khaled Fahmy, professor of history at the American University in Cairo.

Marina Ottaway, senior associate of the Middle East programme at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Fawaz Gerges, Professor of Middle Eastern Politics and International Relations at the London School of Economics.

Timur Kuran, Gorter Family Professor of Islamic Studies at Duke University.

Eugene Rogan, lecturer in the modern history of the Middle East and fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford.

The Right Hon. Sir Paddy Ashdown, former UN High Representative to Bosnia.

Khalifa Shakreen, lecturer in the Economics and Political Science department at Tripoli University.

(Producer: Ruth Alexander).

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

Minds Of Our Own?2010031520100321

Policy-makers have long looked to science to help understand human behaviour and to influence it.

But what if science could actually read people's thoughts and intentions? That's the promise of the latest research from neuroscientists, who claim to be able to scan our brains for lies, broken promises and violent intentions.

But how reliable is the science of 'mind-reading'? How might it change our ideas about free will, responsibility and rehabilitation? And should we not be able to keep the thoughts in our head private? Presented by Kenan Malik.

What if science could read people's thoughts and intentions? Kenan Malik investigates.

Deborah Denno, professor of law at Fordham University in New York

Steven J Laken, president and CEO, Cephos Corp

Professor Hank Greeley, director, Center for Law and the Biosciences at Stanford University in California

Ray Tallis, philosopher and doctor

Rt Hon Iain Duncan Smith MP, chairman of the Centre for Social Justice

Professor Julian Savulescu, director of the Wellcome Centre for Neuroethics at Oxford University

Professor Geraint Rees, director of the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College, London

Paul Root Wolpe, Asa Griggs Candler professor of bioethics at Emory University in Atlanta.

Miserable Children2007041220070415

A recent UNICEF report prompted accusations that the UK is failing its children.

Is Britain breeding a uniquely unhappy youngest generation or are we allowing adult angst and an idealised image of childhood to distort our view? Andrew Brown investigates.

Modern Fundamentalism20041223

In our post-Marxist and supposedly secular era, strong beliefs seemed permanently out of fashion.

But modern forms of 'fundamentalism' are emerging in response.

Bruce Clark asks why certainty is still proving so attractive, and where the search for it might take us.

Morals Made To Measure19900126

Producer: STEEL, Fraser

Next in series: EURO DEFENCE CUTS

Previous in series: EASTERN VENTURES

Description

SBH:Morals Made to Measure - has the rise of the free market brought about a moral malaise? Presenter: David Walker.

PRE:Reel (22'24") Reel 2 (20'43") See script DTF:Script OTN:TLN004/90VT1004 TXN/TDT:R4 26-Jan-1990

Broadcast history

26 Jan 1990 00:00-00:00 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Fraser Steel (Producer)

William Rees-Mogg (Speaker)

Jonathan Sacks (Speaker)

David Marquand (Speaker)

Anthony O'Hear (Speaker)

Raymond Plant (Speaker)

Timothy O'Riordan (Speaker)

Anthony O'Hear (professor (spkr)) (Speaker)

Michael Campbell-Johnston (Speaker)

Brian Barry (Speaker)

John Gray (doctor (spkr)) (Speaker)

Notes: CAIRS 460120.

Mr Chips Or Microchips?2002122620021229

Bringing computers into schools has long been a central plank of government education policy - but how helpful is it? Frances Cairncross investigates.

Multiculturalism: Newham V Leicester20160222

How are councils in two of the UK's most multicultural places managing diversity? Back in the 1970s, the Labour party developed a model of working with ethnic minority and faith community groups to help new immigrants to Britain settle in. Presenter Sonia Sodha, a British Asian journalist, explores how this has worked in Leicester, a city often held up as a beacon of diversity. Has it led to more integration - or less? And does a radical new approach being trialled in Newham - the most diverse place in Britain - offer any lessons?

Sonia Sodha is chief leader writer of The Observer and a former Labour party aide.

My Dna *2008121120081214

Ben Hammersley investigates the predictive genetics industry, which advocates claim could extend a person's lifespan by 20 years.

Online companies can claim to tell people their chances of contracting a whole host of diseases and, with costs falling, such information is becoming much more accessible.

Ben examines the concerns of sceptics and asks whether this is information we really want to have and what the consequences might be for the medical world.

Nanotechnology2004123020050102

What could happen when we tinker with matter at the tiniest level - NANOTECHNOLOGY - has got royalty and even eminent scientists worried.

But the technology that some fear could bring so-called 'grey goo' also offers us huge opportunities in energy, electronics and biomedicine.

Natasha Loder asks if the potential of NANOTECHNOLOGY merits running risks with the unknown and how those exploiting it should be policed.

Nassim Nicholas Taleb: Downing Street Guru2012031220120318

Downing Street's favourite intellectual is Nassim Nicholas Taleb, author of the best-selling book The Black Swan. Janan Ganesh of the Economist investigates his appeal.

The ideas of Downing Street's favourite intellectual, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, examined.

Downing Street's favourite intellectual is Nassim Nicolas Taleb, author of the best selling book The Black Swan. Janan Ganesh of The Economist investigates his appeal.

The ideas of Downing Street's favourite intellectual, Nassim Nicolas Taleb, examined.

Neue Labour2012030520120311

Why Labour thinkers believe German society should be the model for Britain's centre left. Matthew Taylor, a former policy adviser to Tony Blair, presents.

Why Germany is providing the inspiration for a Labour rethink. Matthew Taylor presents.

Newham V Leicester20160222

Examining the ideas and forces that shape public policy in Britain and abroad.

No Escape20090601

Richard Weight asks why prison policy is so difficult to unlock and whether anyone has the key.

Crime is not getting any worse but the number of inmates has almost doubled in the last 20 years.

What is more, the majority of prisoners reoffend, with an annual cost to the Treasury of more than 12 billion pounds.

Featuring contributions from:

Jonathan Aitken, former MP and prison inmate

Professor Andrew Coyle, Professor of Prison Studies

Baroness Corston, author of the Corston report on women's prisons

Frances Crook, Director, Howard League for Penal Reform

David Hanson MP, prisons minister

Kenny MacAskill MSP, Scottish cabinet secretary for justice

Ex-offenders from the Open Book Project, Goldsmith's College.

No More Wars?2007072620070729

Patient diplomacy rather than military force is the new watchword of British foreign policy.

Philip Stephens investigates.

Non-riotous Behaviour2011091920110925

This summer's riots provoked much speculation about the factors which prompted so many people to break the law.

But philosopher turned commentator Jamie Whyte is more interested in understanding why this sort of thing does not happen more often.

Is it fear of arrest or is it morality that makes most of the people abide by the law for most of the time? In search of the causes of mass civil obedience, Jamie Whyte speaks to leading experts in the fields of philosophy, psychology and anthropology.

Contributors include:

Roger Scruton, philosopher and writer

Quentin Skinner, professor of intellectual history

George Klosko, political philosopher

Alex Bentley, anthropologist

Producer: Simon Coates.

Jamie Whyte asks why most people don't riot and civil obedience seems so powerful.

Nudge Theory In Practice2013032520130331

Politicians are wary of forcing us to do the things they think we should such as drinking less, saving more for our pensions or using public transport. But they are also reluctant to do nothing. The theories expounded in the book Nudge, published in 2008, suggested there was a third way: a "libertarian paternalist" option whereby governments made doing the right thing easier but not obligatory. Rather than making pensions compulsory, for example, governments could make saving for one the default option whilst preserving the right to opt out.

Nudge theory appealed to our better selves and to our politicians. The book's ideas were taken up by those inside government in Britain and the US.

One of the book's authors, Cass Sunstein, answers questions from an audience at the Institute for Government in London and tells presenter Edward Stourton how well he thinks his theories are working in practice.

Producer: Rosamund Jones.

Obama: Peacemaker Or Vigilante?20121001

When Barack Obama stood before a 200,000-strong crowd in Berlin in 2008 his declaration that "now is the time to build new bridges across the globe" was met with jubilation by a crowd which believed the future American president would pursue a gentler foreign policy, completely unlike that of George W Bush. This liberal enthusiasm extended to the Nobel Committee, which awarded Obama its Peace Prize in his first year of office. The man himself accepted the Prize, and the warm feelings, but did he ever intend to pursue the sort of foreign policy which his well-wishers in Europe and on the American left expected of him? And what - when set against their expectations, or indeed his own promises - has President Obama actually achieved on the world stage?

Interviewees include:

Bruce Riedel, former adviser on foreign policy to Barack Obama

Ann Marie Slaughter, former Director of Policy Planning for the U.S. State Department under Barack Obama

Daniel Drezner, Professor of International Politics at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University

James Fallows, The Atlantic magazine

Gregory Johnsen, Near East Studies Scholar, Princeton University

Jameel Jaffer, lawyer at the American Civil Liberties Union

Presenter: Mukul Devichand

Producer: Richard Knight.

Obama's Pentagon2009032620090329

Newsnight's defence correspondent Mark Urban asks if the Obama presidency will see substantial reform at the Pentagon.

During his campaign to become commander-in-chief, Barack Obama pledged to adapt 'US military capabilities for current, not Cold War, needs'.

Mark looks at whether the 'small war' strategists, those promoting 'non-kinetic' approaches such as better intelligence gathering and nation building are going to win out over the traditionalists who believe that the defence of America still lies in investing billions of dollars in planes, tanks and ships.

Officially Ignorant?2007032220070325

It is generally believed that the state is more intrusive than ever.

But amid the deluge of modern information, how well can top policy makers really grasp what is happening in our society and economy? Frances Cairncross investigates the black holes in official knowledge.

One Wales?2007102520071028

Mukul Devichand investigates the onward march of the Welsh language.

After 15 years of official protection and revival, the new coalition government in Cardiff intends to legislate so that even private businesses must support Welsh.

Yet the views of the English speaking majority are surprisingly mixed, caught between pride for a language they cannot speak and resentment of what they view as the creation of a new Welsh-speaking elite.

Orb And Spectre2005120120051204

The monarchy's virtues of tradition and continuity will be celebrated next year on the Queen's 80th birthday.

But beyond the respect accorded to the sovereign, what are the principles which will guide the monarchy's future? Richard Weight investigates.

Order! Order!2005031020050313

For centuries Britain has been a nation that likes a drink: in 1066 the invading Normans considered the Saxons a bunch of hopeless drunks.

The association between drink and street disturbances is long standing - but so is the link between alcohol and prosperity.

David Walker asks why Government plans to deregulate pub hours in ENGLAND have provoked a panic, and whether the freedom to drink will become a licence to drink to excess.

Paying The Piper *2008112720081130

Frances Cairncross examines what lessons must be learned from the credit crunch.

Frances Cairncross examines what lessons must be learned from the events of the credit crunch and the effects it has had on the capitalist system.

Peston And The House Of Debt2014100620141012 (R4)

Robert Peston tests the arguments made by the authors of a new book who claim the financial crisis was caused by exploding household debt - not by the banks. But are they right?

Now the BBC's Economics Editor, he witnessed at first hand every twist and turn of the financial crisis of 2007 and 2008. He first exposed the crisis at Northern Rock as well as revealing the failure of Lehman Brothers. This makes him the ideal interviewer to probe the arguments and conclusions of "The House of Debt", a radical new study of the recession and the lessons to be learnt from it. In discussion with the book's authors, Atif Mian and Amir Sufi, he subjects their arguments to rigorous scrutiny.

They challenge the conventional wisdom that the banks were to blame for the recession in the US and UK. They argue that the real villain was the doubling between 2000 and 2007 in total American household debt to $14 trillion. Much of this was owed by borrowers with the poorest credit ratings. When the house price bubble burst and incomes also fell, these households suddenly stopped spending and plunged the US economy into deep recession.

By this argument, the banks weren't the real problem. And yet, thanks in large part to their lobbying power, they received help which would have been better directed at helping indebted households. If correct, this means governments and central banks should fundamentally reappraise how they tackle future downturns, focusing much more on households and much less on bankers. For many, this may sound highly attractive. But does the new analysis pass muster with Robert Peston?

Producer Simon Coates.

Robert Peston, the BBC's Economics Editor, witnessed at first hand every twist and turn of the financial crisis of 2007 and 2008. He first exposed the crisis at Northern Rock as well as revealing the failure of Lehman Brothers.

This makes him the ideal interviewer to probe the arguments and conclusions of "House of Debt", a radical new study of the recession and the lessons to be learnt from it. In discussion with the book's authors, Atif Mian and Amir Sufi, he subjects their arguments to rigorous scrutiny.

The book challenges the conventional wisdom that the banks were to blame for the recession in the US and UK by suddenly curtailing loans to families and businesses to shore up their own positions.

Instead, "House of Debt" argues that economic meltdown resulted from the doubling between 2000 and 2007 in total American household debt to $14 trillion. Much of this was held by borrowers with the poorest credit ratings. When the house price bubble burst and incomes also fell, these households suddenly stopped spending and plunged the US economy into deep recession.

By this argument, the banks weren't the real problem. And yet, thanks in large part to their lobbying prowess with politicians, they received help which would have been better directed at helping indebted households.

If correct, this account of the crisis would require governments and central banks fundamentally to reappraise how they should tackle future downturns, focusing much more on households and much less on bankers.

For many, this may sound highly attractive. But does the new analysis pass muster with Robert Peston?

Planning Against Panic2005120820051211

Epidemics, natural disasters, terrorism government emergency planning has never seemed more urgent.

But in a real crisis, how could Whitehall seize practical and psychological control of an ever more individualistic society? David Walker investigates.

Playing The Global Game2003121820031221

As the dividing line between foreign and domestic policy disappears.

Quentin Peel asks whether Britain is equipped for change.

Political Prejudice2012091720120923

Michael Blastland on why your approach to politics might not be as rational as you think.

If you think that you are rational and unprejudiced, Michael Blastland hopes you will be open minded enough to listen to the evidence which suggests that you are probably not.

We might think our views about global warming, nanotechnology or the value of IQ tests are based on scientific evidence. But the beliefs we hold about these issues often says more about our ability to screen out the evidence we dislike that it does about the scientific facts.

Michael Blastland investigates the causes of our cognitive biases and our remarkable ability to not let the facts get in the way of deeply held belief.

Contributors include:

Jonathan Haidt, Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia

Dan Kahan, Professor of Law and Professor of Psychology at Yale Law School

Roger Scruton, philosopher.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Politics For Plumbers?2006041320060416

"I don't believe in isms", said David Cameron.

"We're beyond ideology", said Tony Blair.

Are we? Bob Tyrrell examines the apparent convergence of political parties, asking if we face a contest of competence.

Is this politics for mechanics and technocrats? If so, is a lack of explicit ideology a good thing?

Populism20150713

Who are "the people" - and who's keeping power from them? Eliane Glaser explores how across Europe and beyond, populist movements are claiming they can to put back politicians in touch with voters and reinvigorate democracy from the grassroots. From UKIP's millions of voters to the passionately engaged Scottish referendum, from the rise of nationalist parties in northern Europe to burgeoning left-wing movements like Syriza and Podemos further south, traditional politicians are feeling the public's wrath. But how much of the crowd-pleasing rhetoric can be taken at face value - and do politicians really now think of themselves as ordinary people?

Contributors:

Professor PAUL TAGGART, University of Sussex

Professor VERNON BOGDANOR, King's College London

DOUGLAS CARSWELL, UKIP MP for Clacton

SIRIO CANOS, Podemos

PETER OBORNE, journalist and author

Professor CAS MUDDE, University of Georgia

Producer: Polly Hope.

(Photo credit: AFP/Getty Images. Picture shows a woman holding a placard at a demonstration on 5th July 2015)

Pornography: What Do We Know?2013062420130630

What does the best evidence tell us about the effects of pornography? Jo Fidgen presents.

What do we really know about the effects of pornography?

Public debate has become increasingly dominated by an emotive, polarised argument between those who say it is harmful and those who say it can be liberating. Jo Fidgen puts the moral positions to one side and investigates what the evidence tells us. She explores the limitations of the research that's been carried out and asks whether we need to update our understanding of pornography. She hears from users of pornography about how and why they use it and researchers reveal what they have learnt about our private pornographic habits.

With pornography becoming increasingly easy to access online, and as policy-makers, parents and teachers discuss how to deal with this, it's a debate that will have far-reaching implications on education and how we use the internet.

Producer: Helena Merriman

Interviewees:

Professor Neil Malamuth - University of California

Dr Miranda Horvath - Middlesex University

Dr Ogi Ogas - Author of A Billion Wicked Thoughts

Professor Roger Scruton - Conservative philosopher and Author of Sexual Desire: A Philosophical Investigation

Professor Gail Dines - Wheelock College, Boston.

Public debate has become increasingly dominated by an emotive, polarised argument between those who say it is harmful and those who say it can be liberating. Jo Fidgen puts the moral positions to one side and investigates what the evidence tells us. She explores the limitations of the research that's been carried out and asks whether we we need to update our understanding of pornography. She hears from users of pornography about how and why they use it and researchers reveal what they have learnt about our private pornographic habits.

Precedents Or Principles?2014111720141123 (R4)

How far are we influenced by precedent in reaching decisions and how much by principles?

We firmly believe that our choices - about what we eat and how we vote - reflect the inner core of our being. But do those choices originate in principle - or simply because of what we have done in the past? Psychologist Nick Chater asks if precedent matters more than principles and discovers a complex interplay between the two forces which govern the choices we make.

Producer: Simon Coates.

Predistribution2013061720130623

is Labour's new policy buzzword, used by leader Ed Miliband in a keynote speech. The US thinker who coined the phrase tells Edward Stourton what it means.

Preparing For Eurogeddon2012021320120219

Europe thinks the unthinkable - what happens if the Eurozone splits. What would happen to the banking sector, how would a new currency be put in place, could the Euro survive? Policymakers across Europe are putting their contingency plans together. Reporter Chris Bowlby reveals their thinking.

Producer: Kavita Puri.

Europe thinks the unthinkable - what happens if the eurozone splits.

Europe thinks the unthinkable - what happens if the Eurozone splits. What would happen to the banking sector, how would a new currency be put in place, can contagion be halted, and more fundamentally could the Euro survive? Policymakers across Europe are putting their contingency plans together. We reveal what some of the preparations may be. Reporter Chris Bowlby runs through some of the scenarios of what may happen if a country were to withdraw, and crucially what would happen next.

Contributors: Dawn Holland, National Institute of Economic and Social Research; Aristotle Kallis, Political Scientist; David Marsh, author "The History of the Euro"; David Lascelles, senior fellow of the Centre for the Study of Financial Innovation; Mark Crickett De La Rue; and Larry Hatheway, UBS

Preserving Pakistan2009071320090719

International leaders have warned that the survival of Pakistan's government could be threatened by Islamic radicals.

Owen Bennett-jones discovers who the radicals are, why they have made such an impact and whether military action alone can ever defeat them.

Owen Bennett-jones investigates Pakistan's Islamic radicals.

Problems In The Pipeline2004121620041219

Fuel prices and carbon emissions are rising, and for the UK, self sufficiency in gas and oil is over.

However, much of the public don't seem not to care, even though there are strong objectors saying 'no' to wind farms and more NUCLEAR power plants.

David Walker looks at the hard decisions that have to be made - and soon - if we want to continue to drive, heat homes and switch on lights.

Profits Before Pay2012022020120226

Wages have failed to rise in line with profits since the 1970s. Duncan Weldon, chief economist of the TUC, goes in search of the possible causes.

Why has pay not risen in line with profits? TUC economist Duncan Weldon investigates.

It may come as no great surprise that many of us have experienced a wage squeeze, while the cost of living has gone the other way, since the financial crisis of 2008. However, as Duncan Weldon, a senior economist at the Trades Union Congress, points out, wages for most people in the UK began stagnating years before the crisis.

We tend to think of the early 2000s as a time of relative wealth: house prices were rising, credit flowed easily, the government introduced a generous tax credit scheme and people generally felt better off. But Duncan Weldon argues these masked the reality of what was going on.

Work done by the think tank The Resolution Foundation, which focuses on those on low and modest incomes, shows that there was almost no wage growth in the middle and below during the five years leading up to 2008 and yet the economy grew by 11% in that period. Others also point out that the share of the national income which goes into wages, as opposed to profits, has been decreasing since the mid-1970s. The argument is that less of the economic pie is going into the pockets of ordinary workers.

What is also clear is that a disproportionate amount of the economic wealth has been going to those at the top. The earnings of the richest few per cent have increased rapidly in the UK since the 1980s and that pattern accelerated in the last ten years. In the United States that process began earlier and has been more extreme.

Some economists argue that this is not a problem in itself as taxation, for example, helps to re-distribute the money to the less well off or those with disadvantages.

In Analysis Duncan Weldon asks why wages stopped rising in the years before the crash and what was the driving force for the squeeze?

Programme Catalogue - Details: 01 March 199019900301

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 08 March 1990

Previous in series: DOLLARS, DEBT AND DEPENDENCE

Broadcast history

01 Mar 1990 20:00-20:40 (RADIO 4)

02 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 01 March 199019900302

First broadcast on 1990-03-01

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 08 March 1990

Previous in series: DOLLARS, DEBT AND DEPENDENCE

Broadcast history

01 Mar 1990 20:00-20:40 (RADIO 4)

02 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 01 November 199019901101

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: STANDING ROOM ONLY

Previous in series: 25 October 1990

Broadcast history

01 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

04 Nov 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 01 November 199019901104

First broadcast on 1990-11-01

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: STANDING ROOM ONLY

Previous in series: 25 October 1990

Broadcast history

01 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

04 Nov 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 03 May 199019900504

First broadcast on 1990-05-03

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 10 May 1990

Previous in series: 05 April 1990

Broadcast history

03 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

04 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 05 April 199019900406

First broadcast on 1990-04-05

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 03 May 1990

Previous in series: TOWER OF BAUBLE

Broadcast history

06 Apr 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 05 July 199019900705

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 12 July 1990

Previous in series: 21 June 1990

Broadcast history

05 Jul 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

06 Jul 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 05 July 199019900706

First broadcast on 1990-07-05

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 12 July 1990

Previous in series: 21 June 1990

Broadcast history

05 Jul 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

06 Jul 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 06 December 199019901206

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 13 December 1990

Previous in series: 29 November 1990

Broadcast history

06 Dec 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

09 Dec 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 06 December 199019901209

First broadcast on 1990-12-06

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 13 December 1990

Previous in series: 29 November 1990

Broadcast history

06 Dec 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

09 Dec 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 07 June 199019900607

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 7/11, DEUTSCHMARK UBER ALLES

Previous in series: 31 May 1990

Broadcast history

07 Jun 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

08 Jun 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 07 June 199019900608

First broadcast on 1990-06-07

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 7/11, DEUTSCHMARK UBER ALLES

Previous in series: 31 May 1990

Broadcast history

07 Jun 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

08 Jun 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 08 March 199019900308

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 15 March 1990

Previous in series: 01 March 1990

Broadcast history

08 Mar 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

09 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 08 March 199019900309

First broadcast on 1990-03-08

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 15 March 1990

Previous in series: 01 March 1990

Broadcast history

08 Mar 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

09 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 10 May 199019900511

First broadcast on 1990-05-10

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 17 May 1990

Previous in series: 03 May 1990

Broadcast history

10 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

11 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1990-05-04.

Programme Catalogue - Details: 11 October 199019901011

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: NATIONALIST REVIVAL

Previous in series: 12 July 1990

Broadcast history

11 Oct 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

14 Oct 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 11 October 199019901014

First broadcast on 1990-10-11

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: NATIONALIST REVIVAL

Previous in series: 12 July 1990

Broadcast history

11 Oct 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

14 Oct 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 12 July 199019900713

First broadcast on 1990-07-12

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 11 October 1990

Previous in series: 05 July 1990

Broadcast history

13 Jul 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 13 December 199019901213

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 20 December 1990

Previous in series: 06 December 1990

Broadcast history

13 Dec 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

16 Dec 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 13 December 199019901216

First broadcast on 1990-12-13

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 20 December 1990

Previous in series: 06 December 1990

Broadcast history

13 Dec 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

16 Dec 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 15 February 199019900215

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: DOLLARS, DEBT AND DEPENDENCE

Previous in series: EURO DEFENCE CUTS

Broadcast history

15 Feb 1990 20:00-20:40 (RADIO 4)

16 Feb 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 15 February 199019900216

First broadcast on 1990-02-15

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: DOLLARS, DEBT AND DEPENDENCE

Previous in series: EURO DEFENCE CUTS

Broadcast history

15 Feb 1990 20:00-20:40 (RADIO 4)

16 Feb 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 15 March 199019900315

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: TOWER OF BAUBLE

Previous in series: 08 March 1990

Broadcast history

15 Mar 1990 20:00-20:40 (RADIO 4)

16 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 15 March 199019900316

First broadcast on 1990-03-15

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: TOWER OF BAUBLE

Previous in series: 08 March 1990

Broadcast history

15 Mar 1990 20:00-20:40 (RADIO 4)

16 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 15 November 199019901115

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 22 November 1990

Previous in series: STANDING ROOM ONLY

Broadcast history

15 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

18 Nov 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 15 November 199019901118

First broadcast on 1990-11-15

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 22 November 1990

Previous in series: STANDING ROOM ONLY

Broadcast history

15 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

18 Nov 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 17 May 199019900518

First broadcast on 1990-05-17

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: PURPOSE OF MUSEUM AND GALLERIES

Previous in series: 10 May 1990

Broadcast history

17 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

18 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 1990050319900503

03 May 1990

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 10 May 1990

Previous in series: 05 April 1990

Broadcast history

03 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

04 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 1990051019900510

10 May 1990

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 17 May 1990

Previous in series: 03 May 1990

Broadcast history

10 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

11 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1990-05-04.

Programme Catalogue - Details: 1990051719900517

17 May 1990

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: PURPOSE OF MUSEUM AND GALLERIES

Previous in series: 10 May 1990

Broadcast history

17 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

18 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 1990053119900531

31 May 1990

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 07 June 1990

Previous in series: PURPOSE OF MUSEUM AND GALLERIES

Broadcast history

31 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

01 Jun 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 20 December 199019901220

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 31 January 1991

Previous in series: 13 December 1990

Broadcast history

20 Dec 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

23 Dec 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 20 December 199019901223

First broadcast on 1990-12-20

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 31 January 1991

Previous in series: 13 December 1990

Broadcast history

20 Dec 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

23 Dec 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 21 June 199019900621

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 05 July 1990

Previous in series: 7/11, DEUTSCHMARK UBER ALLES

Broadcast history

21 Jun 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

22 Jun 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 21 June 199019900622

First broadcast on 1990-06-21

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 05 July 1990

Previous in series: 7/11, DEUTSCHMARK UBER ALLES

Broadcast history

21 Jun 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

22 Jun 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 22 November 199019901122

Next in series: 25 November 1990

Previous in series: 15 November 1990

Description

SBH:Diminished Responsibility? Lord Jenkins of Hillhead, Denis Healey and Enoch Powell discuss cabinet responsibility.

Is it still practical given the demands of modern politics? Will Mrs Thatcher's successor be able to restore it? Includes declaration from Healey: Harold Wilson an inadequate character and a bad prime minister.

Chairman: Peter Hennessy.

Broadcast history

22 Nov 1990 00:00-00:00 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Peter Hennessy (int)

Denis Healey (Speaker)

Roy Jenkins (Speaker)

Enoch Powell (Speaker)

Notes: CAIRS 510702.

Programme Catalogue - Details: 25 November 199019901125

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 29 November 1990

Previous in series: 22 November 1990

Broadcast history

25 Nov 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1990-11-21.

Programme Catalogue - Details: 25 October 199019901025

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 01 November 1990

Previous in series: NATIONALIST REVIVAL

Broadcast history

25 Oct 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

28 Oct 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 25 October 199019901028

First broadcast on 1990-10-25

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 01 November 1990

Previous in series: NATIONALIST REVIVAL

Broadcast history

25 Oct 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

28 Oct 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 29 November 199019901129

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 06 December 1990

Previous in series: 25 November 1990

Broadcast history

29 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

02 Dec 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 29 November 199019901202

First broadcast on 1990-11-29

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 06 December 1990

Previous in series: 25 November 1990

Broadcast history

29 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

02 Dec 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 31 May 199019900601

First broadcast on 1990-05-31

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 07 June 1990

Previous in series: PURPOSE OF MUSEUM AND GALLERIES

Broadcast history

31 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

01 Jun 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: 7/11, Deutschmark Uber Alles19900614

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 21 June 1990

Previous in series: 07 June 1990

Broadcast history

14 Jun 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Dirt Across The Border19960208

Producer: I.

HASSLER

Next in series: SCOTT REPORT DISCUSSION

Previous in series: POWER TO THE JUDGES

Broadcast history

08 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

11 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Dirt Across The Border19960211

First broadcast on 1996-02-08

Producer: I.

HASSLER

Next in series: SCOTT REPORT DISCUSSION

Previous in series: POWER TO THE JUDGES

Broadcast history

08 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

11 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Living Apart... ?19960222

Producer: M.

BLASTLAND

Next in series: LIVING APART? (2/2)

Previous in series: SCOTT REPORT DISCUSSION

Broadcast history

22 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

25 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1996-02-15.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Living Apart... ?19960225

First broadcast on 1996-02-22

Producer: M.

BLASTLAND

Next in series: LIVING APART? (2/2)

Previous in series: SCOTT REPORT DISCUSSION

Broadcast history

22 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

25 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1996-02-15.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Living Apart? (2/2)19960229

Producer: M.

BLASTLAND

Next in series: THE MORAL MARKETPLACE

Previous in series: LIVING APART...

?

Broadcast history

29 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

03 Mar 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1996-02-19.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Living With Clem Atlee19900603

First broadcast on 1989-09-05

Next in series: OUT OF THE COLD

Previous in series: 20 July 1989

Broadcast history

05 Sep 1989 20:30-21:15 (RADIO 4)

03 Jun 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1989-06-20.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Nationalist Revival19901021

First broadcast on 1990-10-18

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 25 October 1990

Previous in series: 11 October 1990

Broadcast history

21 Oct 1990 16:02-16:42 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Power To The Judges19960201

Producer: A.

DWORKIN

Next in series: DIRT ACROSS THE BORDER

Previous in series: WELCOME DEVELOPMENTS

Broadcast history

01 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

04 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Power To The Judges19960204

First broadcast on 1996-02-01

Producer: A.

DWORKIN

Next in series: DIRT ACROSS THE BORDER

Previous in series: WELCOME DEVELOPMENTS

Broadcast history

01 Feb 1996 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

04 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Purpose Of Museum And Galleries19900524

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 31 May 1990

Previous in series: 17 May 1990

Broadcast history

24 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

25 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1990-05-21.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Purpose Of Museum And Galleries19900525

First broadcast on 1990-05-24

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 31 May 1990

Previous in series: 17 May 1990

Broadcast history

24 May 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

25 May 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1990-05-21.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Scott Report Discussion19960218

Producer: S.

COATES

Next in series: LIVING APART...

?

Previous in series: DIRT ACROSS THE BORDER

Broadcast history

18 Feb 1996 16:15-17:00 (RADIO 4)

Recorded on 1996-02-15.

Programme Catalogue - Details: Standing Room Only19901108

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 15 November 1990

Previous in series: 01 November 1990

Broadcast history

08 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

11 Nov 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Programme Catalogue - Details: Standing Room Only19901111

First broadcast on 1990-11-08

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 15 November 1990

Previous in series: 01 November 1990

Broadcast history

08 Nov 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

11 Nov 1990 16:02-16:47 (RADIO 4).

Promises, Promises2010053120100606

We drink too much, pollute too much and exercise too little.

Smoking, drug-taking and anti social behaviour remain stubbornly high.

No wonder policy makers are very keen to find new and cost- effective ways of getting us to change our behaviour.

Governments are increasingly drawing on new academic thinking in psychology and economics- work closely associated with American behaviour-change gurus like Richard Thaler and Robert Cialdini.

And public pledges are seen as one of the most promising tools in the behaviour-change tool box.

But are they the panacea to tackle our social problems or are promises just made to be broken? Presented by Ben Rogers.

Contributors:

Tracy Gilbert, Acceptable Behaviour Agreement Coordinator, London Borough of Croydon

Liz Richardson, Research Fellow in Social Engagement, Manchester University

Robin Dunbar, Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford

John Spurr, Professor of History, Swansea University

Simon Burrall, Director of the think tank Involve"

Toby Ord, British Academy Post- Doctoral Research Fellow in Philosophy, University of Oxford

David Halpern, Director of Research, The Institute for Government, London."

Ben Rogers asks if getting us to make public pledges can change our behaviour."

Protectionism In The Usa2016053020160605 (R4)

Edward Stourton on the history and recent renaissance of American opposition to free trade

Edward Stourton examines America's long history of resistance to free trade, and asks why it has again become such a potent political force. Donald Trump's most consistent policy has been opposition to free trade agreements which he sees as unfair, particularly with China. On the Democratic side, Bernie Sanders has been equally opposed, if for different reasons, while Hillary Clinton has had to tack away from her previous support for free trade pacts. Edward looks back to debates from the 19th century to the 1990s to shed new light on these forces. And he asks whether the protectionist impulse is a natural reaction to globalisation's wrenching changes.

Producer: Smita Patel.

Public Virtue1999111519991121

Doctors, teachers and civil servants are under attack as `forces of conservatism'.

Tony Blair wants them to be more like the private sector.

David Walker asks if the public is at risk of losing its servants' prized professionalism.

Pulp Nation2003120420031207

Are we still ""dumbing down""? Felipe Fernandez Armesto asks if we are getting what we want and need from TV, newspapers and publishers.

Are we increasingly pandering to the lowest common denominators in the name of ""entertainment""? Or do we enjoy a richer cultural diversity than ever before?

Quantitative Easing: Miracle Cure Or Dangerous Addiction?2013102120131027

Could QE lead to another economic crisis? Liam Halligan argues that it could.

Quantitative Easing was the drug prescribed by economists to keep Western economies functioning in a moment of crisis. Sunday Telegraph economic commentator Liam Halligan argues that the policy of money creation has now become a dangerous addiction.

Interviewees include:

Dr Adam Posen, President of the Petersen Institute for International Economics in Washington DC

Stephen King, Chief Economist of HSBC

Jim Rickards, author of Currency Wars

Professor Richard Werner, Chair in International Banking at Southampton University

Dan Conaghan, author of The Bank: Inside the Bank of England

Dr Philippa Malmgren, former financial markets advisor to the US President

Producer: Phil Kemp.

Radical Economics: Escaping Credit Serfdom2011020720110213
Radical Economics: Yo Hayek!2011013120110206

Referendum Conundrums20150202

Scotland last year showed how dramatic referendums can be. So what would an in-out vote on the EU be like? What would be the crucial strategies for a winning campaign? The stakes would be huge for the UK, and if those who want a vote get their way, this could happen within the next few years. Chris Bowlby talks to key potential players and observers about their fears and hopes, lessons drawn from Scotland, and campaign plans already being made behind the scenes.

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

Repugnant Markets2007071220070715

Thousands of people die every year while waiting for a kidney; billions have a spare kidney.

There's the possibility of a trade, but buying and selling organs is widely regarded as unethical.

Tim Harford asks whether our objections to this kind of transaction are based on practical grounds, on ethics, or on sheer distaste.

Responsible Journalism2008070320080706

Former editor of the Today programme Kevin Marsh asks how the press can rediscover its public purpose in order to help citizens join the big debates and solve genuine problems at a time when sales and advertising are crashing and readers stopped trusting what they read in the newspapers a long time ago.

Many people resent smart editors telling them what to think and only buy their daily paper for the sudoku, celebrity gossip and TV schedules.

Rethinking The Middle East2011022820110306

The autocratic regimes of North Africa and the Middle East enjoyed many years of military, political and financial support from the United States government. Dr Maha Azzam looks at the recent history of US involvement in the region, including the brief shift in policy during the presidency of George W Bush, and the role that Israel plays in US/Arab relations. As violence and unrest spread throughout the region, will US policy vary state-by-state depending on its own interests or will President Barack Obama embrace the pro-democracy protests wherever they emerge? What expectations do the protestors have of American support and what levers can the US pull in order to assist them? And if it is seen to falter in its support for the protestors will this seriously undermine US influence in the long-term?

Dr Maha Azzam is an Associate Fellow of Chatham House.

Contributors

Dr Shadi Hamid, Brookings Institute, Qatar

Shashank Joshi, Royal United Services Institute, London

Elliott Abrams, Council of Foreign Relations, Washington

Roger Hardy, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington

Carl Gershman, National Endowment for Democracy, Washington

Jonathan Spyer, Global Research International Affairs Center, Israel

Abdel Moneim Abou el-Fotouh, Muslim Brotherhood, Cairo

Prof Khaled Fahmy, American University, Cairo

Alexandros Petersen, Henry Jackson Society, London.

The autocratic regimes of North Africa and the Middle East enjoyed many years of military, political and financial support from the United States government.

Dr Maha Azzam looks at the recent history of US involvement in the region, including the brief shift in policy during the presidency of George W Bush, and the role that Israel plays in US/Arab relations.

As violence and unrest spread throughout the region, will US policy vary state-by-state depending on its own interests or will President Barack Obama embrace the pro-democracy protests wherever they emerge? What expectations do the protestors have of American support and what levers can the US pull in order to assist them? And if it is seen to falter in its support for the protestors will this seriously undermine US influence in the long-term?

Maha Azzam examines the long term implications of the recent uprisings in the Middle East.

Revealing Religion2008032020080323
Revealing Religion20081116

Andrew Brown explores how believers and sceptics see the role of religion in thought and action.

Risky Business2003121120031214

Is fear of unproven risks to the environment and human health hampering technological innovation? Over the past decade, Europe's policy makers have become increasingly convinced that when it comes to protecting human health or the environment, it is far better to put innovations on hold rather than risk uncertain harm.

This so-called 'precautionary principle' has been used to delay the use of new products, such as genetically modified crops.

It has also been invoked to ban previously legal technologies and practices such as the use of hormones in milk production, despite the fact that to date they are not known to cause adverse effects in humans.

The precautionary principle is supported by environmental campaigners and consumers who believe that where there is a possibility of irreversible harm, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for inaction.

But can the costs of the better-safe-than-sorry approach outweigh the benefits? In the case of GM crops, for example, should the uncertain harm caused to the environment be given more weight than the more certain benefits their use might bring to poor farmers in the developing world? Presenter Diane Coyle asks whether the better-safe-than-sorry approach is encouraging the development of alternative, safer technologies or hampering scientific innovation.

Ritual Sexual Abuse: The Anatomy Of A Panic (part 1)2015052520150531 (R4)

David Aaronovitch of The Times traces the powerful intellectual influences behind what he sees as one of the most important cultural shifts of the past 40 years: from a society in which accusations of sexual abuse were wrongly ignored to one in which the falsely accused were crushed by a system where the mantra was "victims must be believed".

In the first of two programmes, Aaronovitch will examine the role played by unproven psychoanalytic theories which, from the 1980s, spread from the world of therapists in Canada and the USA to social work, medicine and then to law enforcement in Britain.

From the NSPCC to academia it was believed that children were being sexually abused in group Satanic rituals, which involved murder and animal sacrifice. The programme will explore how these bizarre ideas took hold, how they were related to mistaken psychotherapeutic practices, and how they resonate still.

The programme will look at the influences of four books which played a key role in influencing the intellectual and cultural climate. These are Sybil, Michelle Remembers, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and The Courage to Heal.

Producer: Hannah Barnes

Contributors:

Rosie Waterhouse - Investigative Journalist; Head of MA in investigative journalism at City University

Debbie Nathan - Investigative Journalist and Author

Tim Tate - Television Producer and Director

Sue Hampson - Former counsellor, and now Director of Safe to Say Trauma Informed Training and Consultancy

Roma Hart - Former Multiple Personality Disorder patient, who has retracted claims she was abused in childhood.

Ritual Sexual Abuse: The Anatomy Of A Panic (part 2)2015060120150607 (R4)

David Aaronovitch of The Times traces the powerful intellectual influences behind what he sees as one of the most important cultural shifts of the past 40 years: from a society in which accusations of sexual abuse were wrongly ignored to one in which the falsely accused were crushed by a system where the mantra was "victims must be believed".

In the second of two programmes, Aaronovitch re-examines the role played by unproven psychoanalytic theories which, from the 1980s, spread from the world of therapists in Canada and the USA to social work, medicine and then to law enforcement in Britain.

The programme explores the parallels between the belief in ritual abuse with some of the claims being made today about VIP paedophile rings and group murder.

Some of the mistakes of the past - such as the false accusations made against parents in the Orkneys and Rochdale of satanic abuse - have been acknowledged. But, Aaronovitch argues, without a profound understanding of how and why such moral panics arise we are unlikely to avoid similar mistakes in the future. And when such mistakes recur we risk an over-reaction and a return to a culture of denial.

Producer: Hannah Barnes

Contributors:

Rosie Waterhouse - Investigative Journalist; Head of MA in investigative journalism at City University

Debbie Nathan - Investigative Journalist and Author

Tim Tate - Television Producer and Director

Sue Hampson - Former counsellor, and now Director of Safe to Say Trauma Informed Training and Consultancy

Dr Sarah Nelson - Research Associate at the University of Edinburgh

Professor Richard McNally - Professor of Psychology at Harvard University

Anonymous case study.

Roberto Unger2013111820131124

explains why he thinks fellow left-of-centre progressives lack imagination.

Renowned social theorist Roberto Unger believes that left-of-centre progressives - his own political side - lack the imagination required to tackle the fundamental problems of society. In the run-up to the US presidential elections of 2012, he declared that Barack Obama "must be defeated". Professor Unger argued that President Obama had failed in his first presidential term to advance the progressive cause. There was, he maintained, effectively no difference between the Democrat and Republican political programmes.

In front of an audience at the London School of Economics and Political Science, Roberto Unger discusses with presenter Jo Fidgen the reasons for his critical appraisal of the progressive left in the United States and Europe. And he sets out what he believes its alternative agenda should be.

Roberto Mangabeira Unger is the Roscoe Pound professor at Harvard Law School. He served as a minister in the Brazilian government of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from 2007-2009. His books include: "The Left Alternative"; "Democracy Realised"; and "The Self Awakened". His new book, published next year, will address a new theme: "The Religion of the Future".

Producer Simon Coates.

Rolling Stones2009021920090222

Alison Wolf asks whether human beings have an innate need to travel and, if so, whether that raises profound questions for transport policy.

As we get richer, so we choose to travel faster, despite the damage it does to the planet.

But what does the wrong kind of travelling or no travelling at all mean for our personal health and happiness?

How should governments respond to this complex side of our psyche? Is it right to subsidise any form of transport or should towns and cities be designed in such a way that we are forced to abandon our cars?

Alison Wolf asks whether human beings have an innate need to travel.

Samuel Scheffler On The Afterlife2015062920150705 (R4)

The American philosopher Samuel Scheffler reveals a hidden force which motivates our actions: our belief in the continuation of humanity after our deaths. In an interview with Edward Stourton, plus a Q&A from an audience at the London School of Economics and Political Science, Scheffler proposes thought experiments which expose the importance of this conception of the afterlife. It is, he argues, this continued existence of the human race in general - and not just of our own descendants - which gives meaning and purpose to much of our lives. With references to Woody Allen, National Porn Shops and Martin Luther. Scheffler is professor of philosophy and law at New York University.

Producer: David Edmonds.

Scotland2011070420110710

No university tuition fees, free personal care for the elderly, reduced prescription charges.

In all sorts of ways, Scotland seems to have kept a level of public service the rest of the UK is denied.

How has this happened, and can Scotland continue to enjoy this as overall UK spending is cut? Will English resentment grow if Scotland is seen to be enjoying an unfair advantage? Or can the SNP persuade Scots that their economic vision will deliver a public service paradise? And how will all this flow into the increasingly urgent debate about Scotland's constitutional future after the SNP's recent electoral success? Instead of all the theoretical debate about Scottish independence, Anne McElvoy discovers the hard bargaining already underway about who gets the best UK deal, and who pays for it - a deal that will be crucial in deciding whether the UK will survive.

Presenter: Anne McElvoy

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

Anne McElvoy assesses the SNP plan to defy austerity Britain and keep Scotland different.

Scotland And The Union: Can Britain Be Rebooted?2014030320140309

Is there any such thing as unionism, and what is the case for the union?

On September 18th, Scotland will vote in a referendum on whether to become independent. Supporters have been setting out their visions of how Scotland could be transformed. But what about those who want to keep Scotland within the United Kingdom? They've picked away at potential practical problems with independence - on sharing the pound sterling, or joining the European Union. But while the future may be unclear for an independent Scotland, the alternative of staying British may be just as unclear.

Douglas Fraser asks if there's a grand vision for those who argue Scotland should stay in the union. Is it more than just an appeal to a shared history or institutions? Is the union fit for purpose in the 21st century? These aren't just questions for Scotland. They represent a challenge to the rest of the UK - how can democratic and economic power be distributed to tackle disaffection with politics and the centralising pull of London?

The programme follows an edition Douglas presented in July 2013 on Scottish nationalism.

Producer: James Fletcher.

Scotland's Radical Land Reform2015101220151018 (R4)

Euan McIllwraith explores why Scotland's land ownership is up for grabs and why now.

In June the Scottish Government introduced radical proposals for land reform. Local communities would gain a new right to ask the government to force a landowner to sell their land if they are deemed a barrier to sustainable development. The plan caused uproar amongst landowners. David Cameron's father-in-law, Lord Astor, claimed the SNP was staging a Mugabe-style land grab. Yet campaigners in the growing cross-party movement for reform see this as just the start of a generational mission to break up the most unequal pattern of land ownership in the developed world. Is this an attack on the right of individuals to hold on to their property - or a much-needed step towards sustainable development?

Euan McIlwraith asks why so few people own so much of Scotland, whether it matters, and how you can legitimately diversify ownership in a 21st century liberal democracy.

Producer: Liza Grieg.

(Image: The Scottish Highlands. Credit: Shutterstock)

Scottish Nationalism: From Protest To Power2013071520130721

Just what does the Scottish National Party want? And what could it mean for the UK?

Douglas Fraser investigates the SNP's long search for an independence vision that works. He talks to insiders about the party's turbulent past, torn, as one leader put it, between 'Jacobites and Jacobins'. How has the party tried to build a vision of Scottish identity that keeps pace with social change? Does it aim to preserve the old British welfare state, or try something different? What do its plans for continued close links with the rest of the UK mean for its vision of a separate Scotland?

Scotland may be diverging more and more from England, whatever happens in next year's independence referendum. With that vote fast approaching, where this debate is heading matters for everyone in the UK. The SNP's journey reveals much about this important change.

Presenter: Douglas Fraser

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Secrets And Mysteries2007041920070422

More resources than ever before are being devoted to combating terrorism.

But how good is the intelligence on the threat and what are the wider consequences for society?

Sir David Omand, until recently the Government's top Security and Intelligence Co-ordinator, talks to Peter Hennessy about what we know of the terrorist threat and how well organised the state is to confront and overcome it.

Sheikh Rachid Ghannouchi2012020620120212

is one of the world's leading Islamist ideologues and has done much to convert the Muslim Brotherhood to the idea of democracy and acceptance of equal political rights for non-Muslims. He is leader of Tunisia's largest political party but his influence extends far beyond North Africa. And until the Arab Spring he lived in Hemel Hempstead.

Owen Bennett-Jones examines his ideas and influence.

Producer: Mukul Devichand.

Profile of Rachid Ghannouchi, one of the world's most influential Islamist thinkers.

Sick Society?2012092420120930

In Britain, the health gap is growing - in the wealthiest parts of the country, people are living on average more than a decade longer than in the poorest parts.

An academic discipline which tries to work out why this health gap exists has also grown.

It's called social epidemiology. You've probably never heard of it, but the science has influenced governments of both the left and right. So what answers has it thrown up?

The most famous comes from the Whitehall II study of civil servants, led by Sir Michael Marmot, which found that people who are in high-pressure jobs, over which they have low control, are at greater risk of heart disease, because of the stress their lowly position causes.

The idea that how much control you have over your work and life affects your health has generated talk in policy-making circles about the need to empower people.

But the evidence is contested. When economists look at the same data, they see something different.

David Aaronovitch hears the arguments.

Contributors:

Sir Michael Marmot, professor of epidemiology and public health at University College London

Anna Coote, former UK health commissioner

Danny Dorling, professor of human geography at the University of Sheffield

George Davey-Smith, professor of clinical epidemiology at Bristol University

Johan Mackenbach, chair of the department of public health at Erasmus University, Rotterdam

Angus Deaton, professor of economics and international affairs at Princeton University

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

David Aaronovitch examines how our social environment influences our health.

Small States2009101220091018

Bronwen Maddox, chief foreign commentator of The Times, asks if small nations can survive as independent states.

Tiny states like Liechtenstein, Brunei and Monaco give hope to independence movements elsewhere that size does not matter.

Bronwen Maddox asks if the world's smallest countries are quite as independent as they appear and examines the difficulties of being small but truly sovereign.

Bronwen Maddox of The Times asks if small nations can survive as independent states.

Space Wars, Space Peace20160201

Chris Bowlby explores the shifting balance between two visions of outer space - as a place of harmony and as a zone of growing international tension. We may think war in space is a scenario dreamed up by Hollywood. But the world's top military minds now believe future wars will be fought both on Earth - and above it. Chris visits an arms sales fair, and hears how space now affects everything from how armies move, to how nuclear deterrence works. Could crucial satellites he hacked in an act of aggression, might space debris trigger a war? Why is China taking space security so seriously? And can the international cooperation which put astronaut Tim Peake into space survive?

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Steve Keen: Why Economics Is Bunk20120604

Newsnight Economics Editor Paul Mason interviews the controversial economist Steve Keen before an audience at the London School of Economics. Keen was one of a small number of economists who predicted there would be a major financial crisis before the 2008 crash. He argues that if we keep the "parasitic banking sector" alive the economy dies, and says that conventional economics provides an unwitting cover for "the greatest ponzi schemes in history".

Producer: Kavita Puri.

Syria And The New Lines In The Sand2013070120130707

Where the Arab Spring overthrew dictators, is the Middle East now dismantling the very 'lines in the sand' imposed by Britain and France a century ago? Edward Stourton investigates.

Syria: Inside The Opposition2013102820131103

Edward Stourton investigates the alternatives to President Assad.

Syria's opposition movements comprise a diverse range of political and armed groups. But how do they differ in terms of their ideology, their modus operandi and in their vision for a post-conflict Syria?

Edward Stourton investigates the numerous alternatives to President Assad and assesses which groups are gaining or losing influence on the ground after more than two years of bloody fighting.

The programme will hear from those in charge of the National Coalition - the Istanbul based group officially recognised by the UK government but dismissed by some as "the opposition of the hotels".

Ahead of the United Nations Geneva II negotiations, expected in late November, Edward Stourton will examine why, in a country with an overwhelming Sunni Muslim majority, a leader from the small Alawi minority community has managed to hang on to power.

Contributions from:

Monzer Akbik, Chief of Staff to the President of the National Coalition;

Walid Saffour, former Muslim Brotherhood activist and Coalition Representative to the UK;

Sheikh Mohammed Yaqoubi, Syrian Sunni scholar;

Raphael Lefevre, author of Ashes of Hama: The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria;

Aron Lund, Middle East analyst;

Faisal Irshaid, BBC Monitoring.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

Tea Party Politics2010030120100307

It's been described as the 'most vibrant political force' in America today, but what is the Tea Party movement and who are its supporters?

Launched in 2009 as a grass-roots protest group against deficit spending and big government, the Tea Party movement is now being seen by some commentators as a viable threat to the Republican Party as supporters seek to uphold what they see as real right-wing principles.

Author and journalist Gary Younge assesses the strength and influence of the 'tea baggers'.

Gary Younge assesses the strength and influence of the Tea Party movement in the US.

is sweeping across America.

Not genteel chat over cucumber sandwiches but a right wing protest movement against big government and high taxes, now widely regarded as the most vibrant political force in the United States.

Author and journalist Gary Younge investigates the tea party movement.

He finds out what sparked this grass roots insurgency, who the supporters are and assesses the potential impact of the tea party movement.

Gary is invited to a tea party rally in Little Rock Arkansas where he meets supporters who are angry with the political establishment particularly the Republican party.

If the Republican Party does not pay attention to the tea party folks, they're not going to win the next election", one delegate told Gary.

"We have to change the Republican Party and get more conservative, instead of the direction they've been trying to go over the last few years, which is leaning towards the middle".

The impetus for the launch of the tea party movement a year ago was the recent financial crisis and frustration at the bank bail-outs while ordinary people were losing their jobs, homes and savings.

David Frum, a former speech writer for George W Bush tells Gary that the frustration with the Republican Party began much earlier.

Over the last year the tea party movement has made its presence known with huge protests across the country.

If 2009 was the year tea part activists got angry, 2010 is the year they get political.

Now supporters have their eye on the mid-term elections later this year.

Gary meets Rand Paul, an eye surgeon who is standing in the Senate elections.

A few months ago he was a rank outsider.

Today, after some intense campaigning and the endorsement of Sarah Palin he is the front runner.

In several other campaigns the tea party movement is making an impact.

Ring wing pollster Frank Luntz warns supporters not to jeopardise their chances of success by getting too angry and stubborn.

Publisher and commentator Andrew Neil, who has long had a foot on either side of the Atlantic, tells Gary that there's a popular strand to American history and American politics which doesn't exist in the UK and which allows a phenomena like the tea party movement to merge: "I think it's the size of America and the diversity of America", Neil says, "that allows for grass root movements to grow up and become independent of New York or Washington".

Contributors:

Andrew Neil, Publisher and Commentator

Frank Luntz, Right wing pollster

David Frum, Author, journalist and former speech writer for George W Bush

Rand Paul, candidate for Senate in Kentucky, USA."

Testing The Emotions2011030720110313

Investigative journalist and author Fran Abrams looks at a popular but controversial programme designed to teach children emotional and social skills in schools.

The concept of emotional intelligence has almost become a global ideology.

It's taught, in one form or another, in around 70% of secondary and 90% of primary schools in England and is popular in Scotland and Wales too.

But what exactly is emotional intelligence, can it really be developed and how sound are its scientific claims?

With contributions from:

Dave Read

Workshop leader

Professor Roger Weissberg

President of CASEL

Professor Katherine Weare

Southampton University

Pupils

Bournemouth Park School

Professor Richard Layard

Labour peer

Angela Hutchison

Head, Bournemouth Park School

Professor Neil Humphrey

Manchester University.

Fran Abrams asks whether children need to be taught emotional and social skills in school.

The Alawis2013020420130210

Owen Bennett Jones looks at Syria's Alawis, the sect to which President Assad belongs.

The government of President Assad of Syria is under threat. So too is the secretive Shia sect known as the Alawis - or Alawites - to which he and many of the governing party and security officials belong.

Hostility towards the minority Alawi population is such that one leading commentator predicts they are likely to be the victims of the world's next genocide.

Presenter Owen Bennett Jones investigates the Alawis' origins, history and culture and asks how these once marginalised people came to power in a Sunni majority state.

He discovers that for many their fortunes changed fifty years ago when the Baath party seized power in a coup d'etat. Alawis were dominant among the army officers who took control. They set about modernising the country and rolling out a secular agenda.

Now, as Syria's revolution has morphed into a civil war, many Alawis believe their only choice is to kill or be killed.

Are the majority of Alawis right to be convinced that the Assad regime is all that stands between them and a return to second-class status, or worse? If the opposition wins in Syria, are warnings about pogroms against the Alawis alarmist, or inevitable?

Presenter: Owen Bennett Jones

Producer: Damian Quinn.

The Anxious Voter2005042820050501

John Kampfner asks why insecurity plays such an important part in the political process and whether it makes people more or less likely to vote.

The Beginner's Guide To Separation2007120620071209

Tensions between Holyrood and Westminster have increased since the Scottish elections.

But exactly how would an end to the Union be achieved, and who would decide what form it would take if the parties failed to agree? Chris Bowlby asks how any separation would affect the monarchy, the currency, the armed forces and Europe.

The Big Society2011021420110220
The Blessing Of Marriage2007112220071125

Camilla Cavendish asks what role the government should play in our relationship choices and the way we bring up our children.

Cohabiting couples and single mothers are predicted to outnumber married parents by 2031.

So why are both major parties trying to boost traditional forms of marriage through the tax and benefits system at a time of single-sex partnerships and increased rights for cohabiting parents?

The Colour-coded Prescription2005111720051120

Kenan Malik looks at the medical and social consequences of drugs being developed for specific racial groups - especially in the wake of American authorities having just licensed a heart drug to be used solely on African-Americans.

It's the first-ever racially specific medicine.

The Darwin Economy2011111420111120

In 100 years time, Charles Darwin will be viewed as a better economist than Adam Smith, according to Robert Frank.

In his new book "The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good", Frank argues that whilst Smith was correct to point out the benefits of competition, Darwin went further by showing how some times competition over rank could produce benefits to the individual at the expense of the group.

This insight, believes Frank, applies to the economics of human societies as much as it does to the animal kingdom.

Professor Frank explains his ideas to Paul Mason in front of an audience of economists, scientists and the free marketeers he criticises at the London School of Economics.

Robert H.

Frank is an economics professor at Cornell's Johnson Graduate School of Management and a regular "Economic View" columnist for the New York Times, and a Distinguished Senior Fellow at Demos.

His books, which have been translated into 22 languages, include The Winner-Take-All Society (with Philip Cook), The Economic Naturalist, Luxury Fever, What Price the Moral High Ground?, and Principles of Economics (with Ben Bernanke).

The Darwin Economy is published by Princeton University Press.

Paul Mason is the Economics Editor of BBC 2's Newsnight and is author of Meltdown: The End of the Age of Greed.

Robert Frank explains why he believes Darwin was a better economist than Adam Smith.

The Economist's New Clothes2009110220091108

Many have said that the near collapse of the global financial system exposed the failures of 30 years of economic thinking.

Stephanie Flanders, the BBC economics editor, examines the arguments raging within and outside the world of economics and asks what future students should learn from the 'great recession'.

Stephanie Flanders examines the arguments over the meltdown of the global financial system

The Economy On The Couch2004120220041205

We do odd things.

With pensions for example, we behave as if we won't get old.

That's a problem for economists and policy makers who typically assume we're rational.

Diane Coyle looks at what economics is now learning of the twists in our psychology, and the strange ways we behave.

The End Of Development2015030920150315 (R4)

Over recent decades, the richer world has poured money towards poorer countries, in the form of aid and loans for development over many decades. But is this top-down solution really effective? Anthropologist Henrietta Moore argues that the age of development is over, and that we need to move to new ideas about how to improve human lives. Professor Moore, who heads the Institute for Global Prosperity at University College London, says that the fatal flaw of "development" is that it is a concept invented by the global North and imposed on the global South. She speaks to students from across the world at Oxford University's Blavatnik School of Government, who and then faces their questions. The lecture is chaired by the school's dean, Professor Ngaire Woods.

Producer: Julie Ball.

The End Of The Pay Rise?2014071420140720

British wages have fallen since 2008. Paul Johnson asks if they will ever pick up.

Something strange has been happening in the British economy. For over six years now, wages have fallen for most of us, which is unprecedented in British modern history. And despite the return of economic growth, wages still have not picked up.

What has happened? And crucially is this a long term problem - is this the end of the pay rise? Paul Johnson, director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, explores the mystery of our falling wages and finds out how it is related to how productive we are, but also to how wages themselves are shared out between the top earners and the rest of us.

Producer: Estelle Doyle

Contributors:

** Nikki King, Honorary Chairman, Isuzu Trucks UK

** Andy Haldane, chief economist, Central Bank of England

** Jonathan Haskel, Professor of Economics, Imperial College Business School

** Paul Gregg, Professor of Economic and social policy, University of Bath

** Nick Crafts, Professor of Economic History, Warwick University

** Andrew Sentance, former member of Central Bank MPC

** Matt Whitaker, Chief Economist, Resolution Foundation

** Nicola Smith, Trade Union Congress

** Sarah Collyer, Peter Murphy, Hillary Rogers from Isuzu Trucks UK.

The Euro Nightmare2010070520100711

The Greek debt crisis has prompted calls for Greece to be thrown out of the Euro.

There has even been speculation that the single currency itself might not survive - the secret but influential Bilderberg group met in June this year to consider, it is said, the unthinkable - whether the Euro might be doomed.

It is a situation not envisaged by the Euro's architects who created no mechanism for leaving the currency or for its abolition.

Chris Bowlby looks at the likely fate of the Euro.

What wowill happen if it is abolished and what will it look like if it survives? Would Europe revert to having several different currencies and how far is German economic power, which the Euro was meant to contain, going to dominate the new European economic order.

Chris Bowlby is a BBC journalist who enjoys investigating the economic and political consequences of hypothetical events: his previous Analysis programmes have included examinations of the effects of a British exit from the European Union and of Scottish independence from the UK.

Chris Bowlby asks if the European single currency can survive the current crisis.

What will happen if it is abolished and what will it look like if it survives? Would Europe revert to having several different currencies and how far is German economic power, which the Euro was meant to contain, going to dominate the new European economic order.

The European Juggernaut2002120520021208

There is no great enthusiasm for political unity among EU states.

What does the future hold for a Union which may lose members as well as gain them?

The Financial Tsunami2009031920090322

Ngaire Woods considers how the financial crisis is affecting the world's most vulnerable people.

As global leaders prepare to meet in London to try to clear up the western world's economic mess, where does the global banking meltdown leave developing countries?

Ngaire Woods on how the financial crisis is affecting people in developing countries.

The Godless Continent?2005042120050424

Europe is supposedly the cradle of Western CHRISTIANity, yet the European Constitution omits any reference to God.

Turkey models its secular state on FRANCE, yet in its quest for EU membership finds the coolest reception in PARIS.

Quentin Peel asks if secularism is now Europe's defining characteristic and whether it is a growing cause of division with the UNITED STATES and the developing world.

The Gold Standard2012070220120708

As banks collapse and governments run out of money, the popular solution is to print more and more and expand bank balance sheets. But is there another way of fixing our economy? Would the financial system be more stable if each pound in our pocket was backed by gold? The Today programme's business presenter Simon Jack meets the so-called 'gold bugs' who predict the collapse of the paper system as well as those who argue that a return to the gold standard would be a huge mistake. Which makes more sense - placing your faith in a yellow metal or in money created at the push of a button?

Interviewees include...

Detlev Schichter: fellow at the free market think tank the Cobden Centre and author of the book Paper Money Collapse: The Folly of Elastic Money and the Coming Monetary Breakdown

John Butler: Chief investment officer at Amphora (an independent investment and advisory firm in London) and author of The Golden Revolution: How to prepare for the coming global gold standard

Lord Skidelsky: Cross-bench peer, Emeritus Professor of Political Economy at the University of Warwick and biographer of the economist John Maynard Keynes

Dani Rodrik: Professor of International Political Economy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and author of The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the future of the World Economy

Barry Eichengreen: Professor of Economics and Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley and author of Exorbitant Privilege - The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System

Dr DeAnne Julius: chairman of Chatham House and former member of the Bank of England's monetary committee

Lord Lawson: Conservative former Chancellor of the Exchequer

Producer: Helen Grady.

As banks collapse and governments run out of money, it seems the only solution is to print more and more and to expand banks balance sheets, adding to a mountain of debt. Is there another way of stabilising the world's money system? Would the financial system be more stable if currencies were pegged to gold? Simon Jack investigates.

The Idea Of The Caliphate2014102020141026 (R4)

How has the concept of an Islamic caliphate evolved and been expressed through history?

What is a caliphate? What ideals does such an Islamic state embody - and how could or should it be implemented? Analysis consults a range of voices to explore how the concept has evolved and has been expressed over the centuries. Edward Stourton talks to historians, religious scholars and political thinkers who offer their perspectives on caliphates of the past, the revivalist rhetoric of the present and the beliefs shared by many Muslims about its future return.

Contributors:

Prof Hugh Kennedy, School of Oriental and African Studies

Sheikh Ruzwan Mohammed, Sunni theologian and scholar

Rebecca Mastertron, Shiite commentator

Dr Reza Pankhurst, author, "The Inevitable Caliphate?"

Dr Caroline Finkel, author, "Osman's Dream: the History of the Ottoman Empire"

Dr Salman Sayyid, Leeds University, author, "Recalling the Caliphate"

Dr Abdou Filali Ansary, Aga Khan University

Presenter: Edward Stourton

Producer: Polly Hope.

The Iran-iraq War's Legacy2015100520151011 (R4)

Lyse Doucet asks how far the Middle East today is defined by the legacy of the Iran-Iraq war? The conflict - the longest convention war of the 20th century- exposed deep fault lines in a region still shattered by violence. Thirty five years after it began, Iraq has imploded. Syria too. And Iran is extending its influence. Lyse retells the story of the war, then is joined by a panel of guests to ask if the events of three decades ago can help us understand what's going on in the Middle East today?

Guests:

Professor Mansour Farhang : Former Ambassador to UN of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Sinan Antoon: Iraqi poet and novelist

Dr Haider al-Safi: BBC Arabic service

Professor Ali Ansari: Historian and Director of the Institute for Iranian Studies, St Andrews University

Producers: Mike Gallagher and Rozita Riazati.

The Jihadi Spring20140316

Owen Bennett-Jones asks if the real beneficiaries of the multiple failures of the Arab revolutions are the Islamist militants both of al-Qaeda and its increasingly violent allies. Does the West's tacit support for the reassertion of military control in Egypt send a powerful message to would-be Islamists - that they will never be allowed to achieve power through the ballot box?

Producer: Leo Hornak.

The Last Resort2002110720021110

In today's multicultural Britain and globalised society, what sort of patriotism is possible? Felipe Fernandez examines loyalty in a world of rapid change.

The Orange Book: Clegg's Political Lemon?2011022120110227
The Philosophy Of Russell Brand2014020320140209

In a recent Newsnight interview, the comedian Russell Brand predicted a revolution. His comments entertained many and became the most-watched political interview of 2013. But between the lines, Brand was also giving voice to the populist resurgence of a serious but controversial idea: anarchism.

The new "anarcho-populism" is the 21st century activist's politics of choice. In evidence in recent student protests, the Occupy movement, in political encampments in parks and squares around the world, it combines age-old anarchist thought with a modern knack for inclusive, consumerist politics.

Brand's interview was just one especially prominent example. The thinkers behind the movement say it points the way forward. Jeremy Cliffe, The Economist's Britain politics correspondent, asks if they are right?

Producer: Lucy Proctor.

The Prophet And The State2006032320060326

A confidential Home Office internal report warned the government, well before the 7/7 bombings, that radicalism amongst a minority of Britain's Muslim population had become a threat to security and community cohesion.

Andrew Brown talks to those advising the government to discover what its strategy is.

The Quantified Self: Can Life Be Measured?2013061020130616

Self knowledge through numbers is the motto of the "quantified self" movement. Calories consumed, energy expended, work done, places visited or how you feel. By recording the data of your daily life online, the life-loggers claim, you get to know who you really are.

So far this type of self-tracking is the obsession of a geeky minority. But through our smartphones and social networking sites more and more of us being drawn into this world by stealth. Frances Stonor Saunders asks what it means for our ideas about privacy and sense of self.

Producer: Fiona Leach.

Self knowledge through numbers is the motto of the "quantified self" movement. Calories consumed, energy expended, work done, places visited or just how you feel. By recording the data of your daily life online, the life-loggers claim, you get to know who you really are.

The Rise Of Executive Power2013012120130127

The Roof Over Your Head2007081620070819

With growing numbers of younger people struggling to find affordable homes, Gordon Brown has placed housing at the centre of his government's policies.

But can we really hope to revive the home-ownership revolution of the 1980s, and will that provoke new social tensions? Zareer Masani weighs the role of government against that of the market and asks how best we can ensure that the new homes we build go to those who need them most.

The Rule Of Law V The Rule Of Man2013072220130728

With huge concern over tax avoidance, tax officials are the latest to be given increased powers of discretion. They will be able to penalise people who have obeyed the letter of the law, but who have contravened the spirit of the tax code - as determined by the officials themselves, based on certain criteria. The use of official discretion is now applying across the UK's legal systems, from areas such as tax and finance to crime and hate speech.

Philosopher Jamie Whyte asks: is this growth in the Rule of Man undermining the Rule of Law? If officials can punish you, despite the fact that you followed the rules on the books, doesn't that raise the danger of injustice?

Even though few tears are being shed for tax avoiders, couldn't the lack of legal clarity lead to uncertainty? Would that drive business away from Britain? Jamie unravels the methods of sophisticated tax lawyers, and speaks to academic thinkers and legislators. He asks if we are we creating a culture where it pays to cosy up to officials. And he explores the deeper philosophy of the Rule of Law and whether it is being diminished in our uncertain times.

Producer: Mukul Devichand.

Even though few tears are being shed for tax avoiders, couldn't the lack of legal clarity lead to uncertainty? Would that drive business away from Britain? Jamie unravels the methods of sophisticated tax lawyers, and speaks to academic thinkers and legislators. He asks if we are we creating a culture where it pays to cosy up to officials? And he explores the deeper philosophy of the Rule of Law and whether its being diminished in our uncertain times.

The School Of Hard Facts2012102220121028

Fran Abrams examines the radical ideas of ED Hirsch set to reshape English education.

E.D. Hirsch is a little-known American professor whose radical ideas about what should be taught in schools are set to have a profound effect on English schools. A favoured intellectual of the Education Secretary, Michael Gove, Hirsch advocates a curriculum strongly grounded in facts and knowledge. He also believes that there are certain specific ideas, works of literature and scientific concepts which everyone should know so that they can be active participants in society.

Presenter Fran Abrams interviews Hirsch about his ideas. She considers their likely impact on English schools and speaks to the former English schools minister, Nick Gibb MP, who championed Hirsch's ideas when he was in government. He explains the reasons for bringing Hirsch's ideas across the Atlantic and how they could counteract what he describes as a prevailing left-wing ideology among teachers.

Fran also visits London's Pimlico Academy which is pioneering a "Hirsch-style" curriculum in its new primary school. She talks to the young women leading this experiment: Anneliese Briggs and Daisy Christodoulou.

Daisy was once dubbed "Britain's brightest student" after captaining the successful Warwick University team on "University Challenge". She discusses why she finds Hirsch's ideas so compelling. She also explains why, in her view, he stands in a proud left-wing tradition that champions knowledge as power, a view that contrasts with Nick Gibb's more right-of-centre take on Hirsch's ideas.

Fran also talks to Professor Sir Michael Barber, chief education adviser to Pearson and former policy implementation director to Tony Blair in Downing Street, and to a former leading member of the Government's expert panel on the curriculum, Professor Andrew Pollard.

Producer Simon Coates.

The Threat Of Thrift2009030520090308

After decades of easy credit, Chris Bowlby asks if the concept of thrift has lost its moral attraction and if its revival could further damage the economy.

Chris Bowlby asks if the concept of thrift has lost its moral attraction.

The Tiger Or The Tank?2005032420050327

Action on climate change is the new political imperative.

But, post-Kyoto, are radical steps to halt degradation of the environment consistent with our hopes of getting richer?

Dieter Helm asks if economic growth can be made globally sustainable or if our way of life is too precious to sacrifice.

The Trade Trap2005112420051127

Better trade normally brings wealth to rich and poor countries, and benefits consumers everywhere.

So why are crucial global trade talks in Hong Kong next month prompting such pessimism? Diane Coyle reveals how the deals done there might affect us all.

The Trust Game2003112020031123

In the wake of the Hutton inquiry, talk is rife about a 'trust deficit' in politics.

But how much trust does a democracy really need, and should it work both ways with politicians able to trust the public? David Walker asks if we are in danger of confusing healthy scepticism with system failure.

The Undeadly Sin2002112820021201

Recent corporate scandals have caused widespread public concern about business ethics.

But without greed, could capitalism survive? Diane Coyle investigates.

The Will To Power?2007082320070826

From supercasinos to drugs, the tide seems to be turning against socially harmful self-indulgence.

But is legislation the right instrument to curb our excesses? Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks whether the passing of self-discipline is to be regretted.

The World's Shifting Balance * *2008071720080720

Martin Wolf of the Financial Times analyses the crisis facing the global economy, now perceived to be unlike anything seen before.

A combination of financial shocks and booming commodity prices have confronted us with the simultaneous threats of inflation and recession.

But could the dynamism of the developing world pull rich countries out of the current slowdown?

The Wrong Road To A Warmer World2008040320080406

Kenan Malik asks whether we are approaching climate change and how to combat it from the wrong direction.

Government ministers and green lobbyists want to reduce global warming by persuading us to take drastic action to reduce our carbon footprint.

But might a better strategy be to accept that climate change is going to happen anyway and to adapt society to meet its challenges? And if so, why is no one talking about it?

They Already Know What You Want2004111120041114

Choice has become the political mantra for our public services.

But the practical limits on NHS patients deciding what care they want, with whom and where remain immense.

Bob Tyrrell asks why politicians are so reluctant to give us the choices we seek and how our health care would change if they did.

They're Coming For Your Money2013070820130714

Paul Johnson, the director of the widely-respected independent Institute for Fiscal Studies, has been looking at the latest projections for how much the government will spend in the next five years and how much revenue it will receive. Despite the recent announcement of further cuts in spending, tax rises look difficult to avoid.

Paul explores the reasons for this gap in the budget and asks what taxes could help to fill it. With tax avoidance and evasion now at the top of world leaders' agendas, he asks if the increasingly tax-averse companies sector can be made to pay more and how much the rich and wealthy could contribute. He also considers the taxation of our houses and pensions and whether more will be taken from them.

Then he focuses on the three levies which contribute the lion's share of government revenue - income tax, national insurance and VAT - and, with politicians, economists and tax experts, finds out how much we are all - young and old, better and worse off - likely to pay. He also drops in on a young family in Norfolk to discover what taxpaying voters think of the choices and what they will be expected to pay.

Among those taking part: Nigel Lawson (former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer); Kitty Ussher (former Labour Treasury minister); Bill Dodwell (head of tax policy at Deloitte); Julian McCrae (former top Treasury official now at the Institute for Government); Gavin Kelly (chief executive of the Resolution Foundation who worked during the Blair/Brown years in Downing Street and the Treasury); and Malcolm Gammie QC (a leading tax lawyer).

Producer Simon Coates.

Thought Experiments2009062820090629

Studies have shown that if the smell of fresh bread is in the air we are far more generous than otherwise.

In the past few years, a fascinating range of experiments has begun to shed light on the moral choices humans make.

Philosopher Janet Radcliffe Richards asks whether the results can tell us not just how we tend to behave, but how we should behave.

Three Score Years And Twenty2013031120130317

As more and more people look forward to ever longer life, Analysis examines what it's like to grow old in Britain and what we can learn from other countries facing the same challenge. We've heard much about the financial issues around pensions or health care. But it also poses more fundamental questions - is Britain a good society in which to grow old?

Will those precious extra years be a time of wellbeing or alienation and loneliness? And, do other parts of the world have strengths from which we could learn?

Chris Bowlby talks to those who have a unique perspective on this - migrants who came to the UK in the hope of better prospects. They can compare British society with other places they know as well. Many are now weighing up what to do when their working lives are over. And a number do not expect to stay here. Their children work long hours and live a distance away. The three-generation homes that supported their own grandparents as they grew old will not be an option for them. Many worry that they face a lonely future.

So is Britain a model for the future of a longer life? Or do those with a global perspective believe there are better places to spend your later years?

Contributors : Professor Sarah Harper (Oxford Institute of Population Ageing), Baroness Sally Greengross (International Longevity Centre) and Dr Chris Murray (Global Burden of Disease Study).

Producer : Rosamund Jones.

Thrifty Debtors2014072120140727

Has the downturn has made us thriftier, or are we stuck with high personal debt?

The downturn's made everyone worry more about money. But while we may want to be thriftier, Chris Bowlby discovers why we're stuck with high levels of personal and household debt. Credit has become a way of life and new technology makes it ever more accessible. We know we ought to save more for, say, old age, but pensions seem distant and a dodgy investment, while the government and others are desperate to encourage revived consumer spending. Borrowing to buy houses seems to many the best financial bet. Is there an alternative approach out there?

A wide range of voices from different communities explore the mixture of hard financial fact, psychology and morality that's shaped our financial behaviour in such a turbulent few years.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Time To Get Real2010071220100718

After the emergency budget, the main political parties have started to talk more frankly about how to plug the hole in the public finances.

But although the coalition has announced plans for more ambitious cuts than first envisaged, it's remained coy about the all-important details of where the axe will fall in government departments.

The Opposition attacks the new approach, although it too remains reluctant about identifying exactly where substantial savings can be made.

Going where the politicians seem to fear to tread, Michael Blastland asks some of the UK's most influential policy experts and politicians how the difficult decisions on what to cut should be reached.

He demands hard data on which activities should be curbed or abandoned altogether and how the sums will match the rhetoric.

Michael Blastland is the author of "The Tiger That Isn't: Seeing Through a World of Numbers".

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Michael Blastland asks policy experts for some honest answers about public spending.

Time To Rethink Asylum?2014060220140608

Tim Finch of the Institute of Public Policy Research asks if it is time for a fundamental rethink of the way we deal with refugees. He investigates the history of asylum as a political issue, the way asylum policy is implemented in the UK today, and discusses various views on how refugees could be handled in the future. Our current system was introduced in the early 2000s in response to public anger over allegations of bogus asylum seekers. Earlier this year responsibility for assessing asylum claims was removed from the UK Border Agency to the Home Office, amidst claims that the system was not fit for purpose. Why does asylum continue to be such a vexed issue?

CONTRIBUTORS

Tua Fesefese, currently seeking asylum in the UK

David Blunkett MP, Home Secretary 2001 - 4

Zrinka Bralo, Executive Director of the Migrant And Refugee Community Forum

Oskar Ekblad, Head of Resettlement at the Swedish Migration Board

Mark Harper, MP for Forest of Dean and Immigration Minister 2012 - 14

Roland Schilling, United Nations High Commission for Refugees Representative to the UK

Rob Whiteman, Director General of the UK Border Agency 2011 - 13

Producer: Luke Mulhall.

Tomas Sedlacek: The Economics Of Good And Evil2016012520160131 (R4)

What have the Book of Genesis and the movie Fight Club got to do with GDP? According to the radical Czech economist, Tomas Sedlacek, quite a lot. He believes notions of sin and belief recorded in ancient texts should influence our thinking about the contemporary economy - and he describes the biblical story of the 7 fat cows and 7 lean cows as "the first macro-economic forecast". He argues passionately that we need to make the economy work for us, rather than us working for the state of the economy. And he condemns the way most nations have got themselves hooked on debt, in a never-ending cycle.

Evan Davis interviewed Sedlacek,at University College London as part of the 100th anniversary celebrations for the School of Slavonic and East European Studies.

Producer: Hugh Levinson.

Tories: Nasty Or Nice?2014063020140706

Why have the Tories attracted the label 'the nasty party'? Tory supporter Robin Aitken explores why the phrase took hold, and why it matters in key national debates today. Senior and influential figures in the Tory party's recent history offer revealing personal accounts of what they believe and how the party is perceived by the outside world.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Analysis makes sense of the ideas and policies that change the world.

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith.

Tower Of Bauble19900329

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 05 April 1990

Previous in series: 15 March 1990

Description

SBH:Tower of Bauble - what does the British Honours system tell us about our society? Who determines merit and how? Could virtue be rewarded without status? Presenter: Peter Hennessy.

With Lord Annan, Joe Haines, MPs Tam Dalyell, Tony Benn and Julian Critchley; and others.

PRE:Reel 1 (22'25") Includes Haines explaining how he turned down a CBE, a peerage and a knighthood.

Reel 2 (21'40") See script DTF:Script and PasB OTN:TLN013/90VT1013

Broadcast history

29 Mar 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

30 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Anthony Benn (Speaker)

Tam Dalyell (Speaker)

John Walker (Speaker)

Julian Critchley (Speaker)

Tom Mcnally (Speaker)

Peter Hennessy (Speaker)

Noel Annan (Speaker)

Joe Haines (Speaker)

Tim Congdon (Speaker)

Robert Carr Of Hadley (Speaker)

David Carlton (Speaker)

Charles Regan (Speaker)

Notes: CAIRS 460089.

Tower Of Bauble19900330

First broadcast on 1990-03-29

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 05 April 1990

Previous in series: 15 March 1990

Description

SBH:Tower of Bauble - what does the British Honours system tell us about our society? Who determines merit and how? Could virtue be rewarded without status? Presenter: Peter Hennessy.

With Lord Annan, Joe Haines, MPs Tam Dalyell, Tony Benn and Julian Critchley; and others.

PRE:Reel 1 (22'25") Includes Haines explaining how he turned down a CBE, a peerage and a knighthood.

Reel 2 (21'40") See script DTF:Script and PasB OTN:TLN013/90VT1013

Broadcast history

29 Mar 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

30 Mar 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Anthony Benn (Speaker)

Tam Dalyell (Speaker)

John Walker (Speaker)

Julian Critchley (Speaker)

Tom Mcnally (Speaker)

Peter Hennessy (Speaker)

Noel Annan (Speaker)

Joe Haines (Speaker)

Tim Congdon (Speaker)

Robert Carr Of Hadley (Speaker)

David Carlton (Speaker)

Charles Regan (Speaker)

Notes: CAIRS 460089.

Travel And The Mind2007080920070812

How much do our increasingly exotic foreign holidays really improve our understanding of the world? British tourists now take over 44 million trips abroad each year, yet a glance at the British media reveals that public interest in serious analysis of other cultures seems to be lessening.

Richard Weight asks why our interest in foreign news coverage and serious travel reportage seems to be shrinking.

Trust2011012420110130

was the subject of moral philosopher Professor Onora O'Neill's acclaimed Reith Lectures in 2002.

Enron, political sleaze, the foot and mouth crisis, the Bristol heart babies scandal and the collapse of Equitable Life had contributed to a perception - challenged by Professor O'Neill - that we were living through a crisis of trust in our institutions.

Eight years on, the subject is no less topical and so Professor O'Neill returns to Radio 4 to be interviewed about her latest reflections on trust by Edward Stourton.

The intervening years have seen no let-up in the stream of highly publicised political scandals, financial crises and blunders by state officials.

Yet levels of trust have remained remarkably consistent.

Furthermore, argues Professor O'Neill, the public debate about building trust misses the point: we should be more concerned about levels of trustworthiness rather than levels of trust in society.

Attempts to restore trust in certain professions or organisations do little to help individuals with the practical difficulty of placing and refusing trust wisely.

In addition, she points to clumsy "accountability" schemes designed to raise levels of trust but which in fact encourage an increase in untrustworthy behaviour.

Edward Stourton discusses these notions with Onora O'Neill and explores their topicality.

Her arguments are also commented on and challenged by John Haldane, Professor of Philosophy at St Andrews University and current chairman of the Royal Institute of Philosophy.

Philosopher and former Reith lecturer Prof Onora O'Neill's latest reflections on trust.

Trust was the subject of moral philosopher Professor Onora O'Neill's acclaimed Reith Lectures in 2002.

Trust Me, I'm A Patient * *2008082120080824

Consumer-driven health care is a hot political issue.

But as patients, we demand treatments of unproven worth, regardless of cost, in an apparent frenzy of health anxiety.

Michael Blastland asks if patients are fit to take charge in what is being described as a historic shift in power.

Two-nation Britain2015032320150329 (R4)

Jeremy Cliffe of The Economist asks if our real political divide is between those who feel comfortable in liberal, diverse, urban Britain and those who do not - the cosmopolitans vs the rest. He argues that the success of UKIP is one sign of this division. At one end are the cosmopolitans - comfortable in diverse Britain, urban and socially liberal. At the other end are the non-cosmopolitans, who tend to be older, white, and socially conservative, This new divide poses a serious problem for the established political parties. How can they appeal to one side without alienating the other? And what role does the traditional left-right split play?

Producer: Lucy Proctor.

Unhealthy Expectations?2011053020110605

Is our NHS debate avoiding the key issue? The talk is of another reorganisation of the NHS and greater efficiencies enabling the NHS in England to face the future.

But the overall challenge goes much deeper, and the politicians dare not address it.

As well as the pressures of demography and inflation in health care costs, the health service faces what it has always faced - public expectation of ever better health care means an ever greater proportion of our national wealth has been spent on health.

Now it is said that this must simply stop.

But does this hope - one in a long history of so far unrealised hopes -simply obscure the more painful reality.

One way or another, privately or publicly, our health care ambitions have to be paid for, and we are failing to decide how.

In 'Unhealthy Expectations' Michael Blastland looks at how this problem has loomed for years but never been faced - at least not in open political debate.

He explores what the real choices are if constantly improved care is to be provided - and whether this must mean either much higher personal taxes or a population prepared to pay much directly for care.

Or is there a realistic way of squaring the circle of rising demand within fixed budgets?

If something has to give, then what? Will you give up your expectations?

How our health debate avoids the real issue - care costs, and we must choose how to pay.

United But Falling Apart?2002103120021103

Opinions in Europe are divided over Iraq, Israel and the International Criminal Court.

Can the EU maintain its unity and still keep the US on board?

Unsure About Sure Start2011071120110717

The Government says that despite budget cuts it is committed to Sure Start Children's Centres - one of the defining policies of the New Labour era.

But in this week's Analysis Fran Abrams asks what the service - loved by parents - has really done for their kids.

Fran Abrams asks what Sure Start - loved by parents - has really done for their kids.

Varieties Of Capitalism20140623

What is the best form of capitalism? The free-market form found in countries such as the UK and the United States, or the more collaborative model which is common across Northern Europe?

Some British politicians, from both the left and right, are somewhat starry-eyed when it comes to the way other countries run their economy and have even suggested the UK could improve its lot by importing practices found across Scandinavia and Germany. But is that remotely possible?

In this edition of Analysis, Britain politics correspondent for The Economist Jeremy Cliffe investigates the different forms of capitalism defined by the Varieties of Capitalism school - most-famous for the book of the same name published in 2001.

He begins by working out what makes a 'Liberal Market Economy' and a 'Coordinated Market Economy', and then digs deeper to find out how these different models formed in the first place.

He discovers a deep web of intertwined government institutions which have been shaped over decades and centuries by each individual country's culture. It turns out that transplanting a different way of doing things from one country to another is just not that simple - but does that mean politicians should just give up trying to do something different?

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith.

Vulgar Keynesians2013022520130303

Roberto Unger is an American-based thinker who is highly critical of the current ideas from left-of-centre politicians and thinkers about how to restore advanced economies to healthy growth. His devastating attack last summer on what he saw as the shortcomings of President Obama's plans for a second term made him an overnight internet sensation.

For Unger, what he calls "vulgar Keynesianism" - the idea that governments should spend more money to kick-start growth and create jobs - has little left to offer. It is unlikely to have a big enough impact and will disappoint both politicians and voters.

Instead, he argues, those who think of themselves as progressive need to think much more boldly and creatively. And this applies not just to ideas about the economy but also to politics and democratic institutions. What he sees as a drab, predictable - and failed - approach needs a complete overhaul.

In this edition of "Analysis", Tim Finch talks to Roberto Unger about his critique of left-of-centre thinking. He asks him to justify his criticisms of current ideas and to set out his alternative vision. Tim then discovers from figures on the left here in Britain how they react to Unger's approach and how likely it is that "vulgar Keynesianism" will give way to something new.

Producer Simon Coates.

For Unger, what he and others call "vulgar Keynesianism" - the idea that governments should spend more money to stimulate growth and create jobs - has little left to offer. It is unlikely to have a big enough impact and will disappoint both politicians and voters.

Among those taking part: Jon Cruddas, MP; Sonia Sodha; Tamara Lothian; Stuart White and David Hall-Matthews.

War Gaming Iran2012031920120325

Might a hot war with Iran be about to start? Israel could strike against Iran's nuclear facilities; Syria is in revolt; the world is on edge. Edward Stourton probes the West's options.

Could a hot war with Iran be about to start? Analysis probes the West's options.

Is hot war with Iran about to start? Israel could strike against Iran's nuclear facilities; Syria is in revolt; the world is on edge. Edward Stourton probes the West's options.

Could a hot war with Iran be about to start? Israel could strike against Iran's nuclear facilities; Syria is in revolt; the world is on edge. Edward Stourton probes the West's options.

War On The Professions2008042420080427

Alison Wolf asks if the idea of the independent self-regulated professional has become outmoded.

When we deal with lawyers, doctors, or other professions, are we enjoying a guarantee of truly professional service, based on ancient tradition and proud independence from outside interference? Or are we at the mercy of a highly effective closed shop, more interested in protecting its own members' interests than in serving society and consumers in the best way possible?

Wasted On The Young2006042720060430

Just how wide now is the generation gap when the whole family attends the same gig - and who's narrowing it? Richard Weight asks if the middle-aged and even older are shamelessly colonising youth culture and, if so, when they'll grow out of it.

Wasted Youth20120611

Many young school leavers have struggled to find work for years. Now the economic crisis has made things worse. Paul Johnson of the Institute for Fiscal Studies investigates the roots of the problem. He discusses the challenge faced by those - particularly boys - who dislike classroom learning, and the often chaotic transition from school to the world beyond. And he hears about the key importance of work experience at the earliest stage to enable young people to acquire the skills and attitudes employers want. But how much can be changed as employers hold onto their older workers during the downturn, leaving youngsters even further behind?

Interviewees include the youth unemployment and vocational education specialists Alison Wolf and Paul Gregg, employers and specialist trainers in Wiltshire, and the new Scottish minister for youth employment.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

What About The Children?2002111420021117

In the light of recent tragic events, how do we reconcile the conflicting demands of child protection and increased children's rights?

What Are Charities For?2013101420131020

Have big charities lost their philanthropic purpose? Fran Abrams investigates.

Charities have been drawn into the world of outsourced service provision, with the state as their biggest customer and payment made on a results basis. It is a trend which is set to accelerate with government plans to hand over to charities much of the work currently done by the public sector.

But has the target driven world of providing such services as welfare to work support and rehabilitating offenders destroyed something of the traditional philanthropic nature of charities? Fran Abrams investigates.

Producer: Mukul Devichand.

What Are We Fighting For?2008031320080316

The campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan have seriously stretched the armed forces and raised questions about Britain's use of military power.

What are the armed forces for and do today's wars justify asking young men and women to make the ultimate sacrifice?

Five years after the invasion of Iraq, Edward Stourton talks to those doing the fighting as well as the commanders and politicians back home who have had to make difficult decisions about their deployment.

What Did I Do To Be So Green And Blue?2006040620060409

David Cameron says the environment will be at the centre of Conservative policy.

But can he deliver? And what does this shift mean for the future of his party?

Camilla Cavendish of the Times asks the questions as the true blues go green.

For some prominent Tories, of course, there are no problems.

John Gummer, who is leading the party's review group about quality of life, says Conservatives have always been environmentalists, starting with Disraeli.

The concept of stewardship of the land for future generations is, he argues, central to conservatism.

Others aren't so sure.

Tom Burke, who advised three Conservative environment secretaries, says the party now faces a key choice between its support for free market economics and its commitment to the environment.

For Andrew Simms of the New Economics Foundation, the choice is starker.

He says Mr Cameron must choose between the recommendations of Mr Gummer's commission and those of the review group on competitiveness, led by John Redwood.

In a fascinating interview, Mr Redwood discusses his views on the environment.

On aviation, he sees two Tory impulses in conflict: environmental protection versus enterprise and consumer choice.

Camilla discovers another potential area of disagreement: Europe.

Apparently, 80% of British environmental legislation originates at EU level, yet Mr Cameron wants to withdraw his MEPs from their alliance with the European People's Party.

While Mr Cameron's shift in rhetoric has changed the party's image, tough choices remain if his words are going to be translated into concrete policies.

What Does Putin Want?2014060920140615

Edward Stourton investigates the Russian leader's geostrategic vision.

There's a new government in Kiev and Crimea is firmly in Russian hands. The political map of eastern Europe has changed dramatically in the last few months. But are Moscow's actions in the Ukraine crisis evidence of a long-term strategy to reassert Russia as a world power? Or are they the actions of a weakened government scrabbling to keep up with events?

Edward Stourton investigates whether Vladimir Putin, former KGB Colonel and holder of a black belt in Judo, is playing a strategic game of chess , or just a high-stakes game of poker.

Contributors:

Anne Applebaum, historian

Anna Arutunyan, author of The Putin Mystique

Mary Dejevsky, columnist for The Independent

Valery Korovin, Deputy Director, Eurasia Movement

Sir Roderick Lyne, former UK ambassador to Russia

Sergey Markov, Director of the Institute of Political Studies, Moscow

Vyacheslav Nikonov, Member of the Russian State Duma

Gleb Pavolovsky, senior political adviser to Boris Yeltsin and co-founder of the Foundation for Effective Politics, Moscow

Mikhail Smetnik, Official Moscow City Guide

Producer: Luke Mulhall.

What Is Money?2012032620120401

We dream about it, argue about it, worry about it, celebrate it, spend it, save it, we transfer it from one emotion to another. But what exactly is money? And why do we trust it? Frances Stonor Saunders takes a journey through some of the fundamentals of money.

During her journey she dips her toe into the world of quantitative easing. How is that money invented? Is it as real as the pieces of paper in our wallets? And she explores some of the reasons for the calls to return to a gold standard. Essentially, she tries to gain a better understanding of what this stuff which we call money is really about; how and why do we maintain our faith in it, or has it just become too complicated?

Frances Stonor Saunders asks a fundamental question - what is money?

What Is Wahhabism?2014021020140216

Since the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington DC, the ultra-conservative Wahhabi branch of Islam has often been cited by critics and commentators as the ideology of Islamic extremists around the world today. But can 21st Century terrorism really be blamed on the teachings of this 18th Century sect?

In this edition of Analysis, Edward Stourton asks what is - and what isn't - Wahhabism? He explores the foundation of this fundamentalist form of Islam, the evolution of its interpretation in Saudi Arabia, and asks what power and influence it has across the globe.

Founded by the Arabian scholar Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, this form of Salafi Islam sought to purify the religion by returning to its original principles. Ibn Abd al-Wahab was part of a broader Muslim reform movement which promoted a return to the texts of the Quran and Hadith and, controversially, questioned the teachings of Islamic scholars of the day, who formed part of a chain of knowledge stretching back centuries.

What is said to be a very literal translation of Islam is now an inspiration for modern-day Muslim hardliners, who view a binary world of believers and non-believers, strict social rules and adherence to Sharia law - but how close is this to the teachings of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab?

CONTRIBUTORS

Shaykh Dr Usama Hasan, The Quilliam Foundation

Abu Khadeejah, Salafi scholar

Prof Natana DeLong-Bas, Boston College, Massachusetts

Prof Madawi Al-Rasheed, The London School of Economics and Political Science

Shaykh Ruzwan Mohammed, Sunni theologian

PRODUCER: RICHARD FENTON-SMITH.

Founded by the Arabian scholar Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, this form of Salafi Islam sought to purify the religion by returning to its original principles. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was part of a broader Muslim reform movement which promoted a return to the texts of the Quran and Hadith and, controversially, questioned the teachings of Islamic scholars of the day, who formed part of a chain of knowledge stretching back centuries.

What's Housing Benefit For?20150921

Paul Johnson, director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, asks why Britain spends such vast sums on Housing Benefit - now £25 billion. He examines the history of these payments and how government funding for house-building has gradually changed into subsidies for rents, especially to private landlords. 40% of tenants in private housing receive Housing Benefit. Critics argue that these have distorted the market and failed to address the fundamental shortage of housing supply. Paul asks how we got here and whether anything can change.

Producer: Adam Bowen.

What's Wrong With Child Labour?2010092020100926

What is childhood for?

It is commonly seen as a time for play and learning, but should employment play a more important part?

Fran Abrams examines the subject of children at work in the UK, and asks why it is a phenomenon so little talked about.

She traces the history of child labour in this country, and explores modern-day notions of the 'priceless child' who ought to be immersed in education and shielded from harsh economic reality.

In protecting our children, she asks, are we causing them harm? And might the youth of Britain benefit from a revival of child labour?

Fran Abrams asks why the idea of children earning money causes such unease.

When Robots Steal Our Jobs2015030220150308 (R4)

Technology has been replacing manufacturing jobs for years. Is the same about to happen to white-collar work? Will new faster, smarter computers start destroying more jobs than they create?

Technologists and economists are now arguing that we are approaching a turning point, where professional jobs are becoming automated, leaving less and less work for humans to do. David Baker investigates the evidence and asks what this means for society, the individual and equality.

Producer: Charlotte McDonald.

Where Have All The Liberals Gone?2004112520041128

Right and left seem to agree that when it comes to law and order, we need more sticks and fewer carrots.

David Blunkett and Tony Blair argue that everything went wrong in the 1960s, thanks to the pernicious influence of weak-kneed liberals.

Paradoxically, however, we are now freer than ever when it comes to our private life.

Historian Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks whether the liberal consensus has vanished forever.

Who Are The Taliban?2010032220100328

While the fighting in Afghanistan continues there is talk, too, of a negotiated peace.

But do we really understand who the Taliban are, what they want and how they fit into Afghan society? Edward Stourton discovers what dealing with the Taliban would really mean.

Contributors:

Ahmed Rashid, Pakistani writer

Professor Malcolm Chalmers, Royal United Services Institute

Sam Zarifi, Asia Pacific director, Amnesty International

Thomas Ruttig, former UN political director, Kabul

Alex Van Linschote, Dutch writer

Michael Semple, regional specialist on Afghanistan and Pakistan

Felix Kuehn, writer

Horia Mosadiq, Afghanistan researcher, Amnesty International.

Edward Stourton discovers what a negotiated peace with the Taliban would really mean.

Who Decides If I'm A Woman?2013031820130324

A spat between feminist Suzanne Moore and transgender rights activists played out on social networking sites, and then hit the headlines when journalist Julie Burchill joined in too.

Jo Fidgen explores the underlying ideas which cause so much tension between radical feminists and transgender campaigners, and discovers why recent changes in the law and advances in science are fuelling debate.

Contributors:

James Barrett, consultant psychiatrist and lead clinician at the Charing Cross National Gender Identity Clinic

Julie Bindel, feminist and journalist

Lord Alex Carlile QC, Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords

Melissa Hines, professor of psychology at Cambridge University

Richard O'Brien, writer of the Rocky Horror Show

Ruth Pearce, postgraduate researcher in sociology at the University of Warwick

Stephen Whittle OBE, professor of equalities law at Manchester Metropolitan University

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

Who's Afraid Of The Bnp?2009092820091004

With the BNP hitting the headlines over their 2009 success in the European elections, Kenan Malik asks what the liberal response should be.

Is it simply enough to demonise this far-right party, or has the time arrived for us all to open up to a more sophisticated debate which allows for a greater understanding of what the BNP stands for?

Kenan Malik asks what the liberal response should be to the BNP's 2009 electoral success.

Why Can't We Stop Shopping?20051222

Every year there are more shops full of more things to buy, and every year the consumer buys them.

For most of the last decade we've relied on ever higher levels of consumer spending and borrowing to keep the world economy going.

But can this go on for ever?

Bob Tyrrell examines the future of consumption and looks what might happen to our economy if more of us decided we had bought enough.

Why Do American Police Kill So Many Black Men?20150706

Recent high profile cases of unarmed black men dying at the hands of the US police have sparked outrage, protests and civil unrest in several American cities. The deaths of Michael Brown, Eric Garner, Walter Scott and Freddie Gray are - some claim - evidence of long-standing problems with police racism and excessive violence. But what do we really know about what's happening? Helena Merriman explores the issues of racism, bias and police use of force. And the head of President Obama's taskforce on police reform, Charles Ramsey, tells us that fixing the problem will involve much more than just fixing the police.

Why Minsky Matters2014032420140330

Do the theories of Hyman Minsky provide a radical challenge to mainstream economics?

American economist Hyman Minsky died in 1996, but his theories offer one of the most compelling explanations of the 2008 financial crisis. His key idea is simple enough to be a t-shirt slogan: "Stability is destabilising". But TUC senior economist Duncan Weldon argues it's a radical challenge to mainstream economic theory. While the mainstream view has been that markets tend towards equilibrium and the role of banks and finance can largely be ignored, Minsky argued that in the good times the seeds of the next crisis are sown as the financial sector engages in riskier and riskier lending in pursuit of profit. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, this might seem obvious - so why did Minsky die an outsider? What do his ideas say about the response to the 2008 crisis and current policies like Help to Buy? And has mainstream economics done enough to respond to its own failure to predict the crisis and the challenge posed by Minsky's ideas?

Producer: James Fletcher.

Will George Be King?2015101920151025 (R4)

Edward Stourton examines the long-term prospects for the British monarchy.

Edward Stourton examines the long-term prospects for the British monarchy as an avowed republican becomes leader of the opposition. At least eighty per cent of the population affirm their belief in the institution, opinion polls suggest - a figure that has remained remarkably constant since the Queen, now the longest serving monarch, ascended to the throne. But how can we be sure that this support and the institutions that underpin the monarchy will remain by the time her great-grandson becomes King?

Within two or three generations the constitutional make-up of Britain could look very different. Could the monarchy withstand a series of upheavals such as the disestablishment of the Church of England, Scottish independence, a weakening of Britain's links with the Commonwealth and reform of the House of Lords (along with the remnants of the hereditary principle)? What if the institutional foundations on which the monarchy rests change irrevocably or disappear altogether? By the time Prince George is likely to become King, in the latter half of this century, social attitudes may have changed considerably. Is it safe to assume that the monarchy will survive? And what will attitudes towards this institution say about wider changes across British society?

Producer: Peter Snowdon.

Will They Always Hate Us?2015110920151115 (R4)

The Middle East conflict and other long-running international disputes have so far proved incapable of resolution by war or traditional diplomacy. So are the parties fated always to hate each other? Or might there be another approach that could be worth trying?

David Edmonds explores new ideas that psychologists are testing which could offer a way of tackling seemingly intractable disputes. These include understanding the real importance of sacred sites and how to negotiate about them, how to achieve empathy with opponents and the importance of how different sides understand historical events and how these then lastingly shape how different groups view each other.

The programme also hears from those with direct experience of conflict resolution and negotiation to understand how they react to what the latest research has to say. These include Senator George Mitchell, who was famously involved in talks over both Northern Ireland and the Middle East, and Jonathan Powell, Tony Blair's former chief of staff Jonathan Powell, author of "Talking with Terrorists".

Producer Simon Coates.

With Friends Like These2007110820071111

Why are people happy to disclose huge amounts of personal information online, especially to social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace? Ben Hammersley asks whether our notion of privacy has changed and what the consequences for society might be.

World Cities, Urban Nightmares?2008112020081123

Mukul Devichand asks if the megacities of the developing world are going to follow the model of London and New York, privileging a global elite and marginalising the poor.

He travels from London to Mumbai and Delhi to meet thinkers, planners, architects and city leaders and discovers that many of the world's biggest cities are making uncannily similar choices about housing and architecture as they compete to attract global companies.

You Can't Say That2015020920150215 (R4)

Does free speech include a right to cause offence? Many thinkers have insisted that it must - but debate has raged for millennia over where the limits to insult can be set. While some maintain Enlightenment values must include permission to shock, offend and even injure, there is a growing sense that rights must be balanced by responsibilities to one's community, in speech as well as action. And as technology has given each of us an worldwide platform to express any idea, anywhere, the potential for instant, global offence has only grown. How are we to define how much is too much - and what really distinguishes insult from injury? Edward Stourton speaks to historians, theologians and philosophers to explore the outer limits of free expression.

Producer: Polly Hope.

01The Big Society2010092720101003

Bigging It Up

The Coalition claims its Big Society is more than a slogan and its ideas are shaping key policies.

Anne Mcelvoy investigates the little-known genesis of David Cameron's big idea and examines what its roots reveal about how the government will go about doing less - and ensuring society does more.

Presenter Anne Mcelvoy

Producer Simon Coates

Editor Innes Bowen.

Anne Mcelvoy examines what the origins of the government's Big Society idea tell us.

02Whatever Happened To The Sisterhood?2010100420101010

Women will be hit disproportionately by the Budget cuts already announced by the government: A new study suggests that they will shoulder nearly three quarters of the burden, because they rely more on the state for benefits and are more likely to work in the public sector than men.

The state has reduced women's dependency on men, only to install itself as the new patriarch.

If the state shrinks, it will be women who will feel the difference

Is this what generations of feminists have fought for? Where is the sisterhood now, marching on the treasury?

Jo Fidgen goes in search of modern feminism in the rubble of the economy and asks whether being a woman is no longer a political state.

Anne McElvoy examines what the origins of the government's Big Society idea tell us.

Budget cuts will hit women three times harder than men.

Why aren't feminists protesting?

03The Spirit Level: The Theory Of Everything?2010101120101017

The Spirit Level is a book that aims to change the way you see the world.

It has impressed politicians on both sides of politics, with David Cameron and David and Ed Milliband all reportedly taking note of its message.

Packed with scattergrams and statistics, the book argues for more equal societies.

The authors, epidemiologists Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, make the case that countries with higher income inequality tend to have more health and social problems.

Equality, they say, is better for everyone.

But The Spirit Level has been accused of imbalance itself.

Critics from the right have launched a scathing attack, saying the book's methods and arguments are flawed.

So who is right? Mukul Devichand examines the evidence.

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

Is income equality really the great leveller? Mukul Devichand examines the evidence.

It has impressed politicians on both sides of politics, with David Cameron and Ed Milliband taking note of its message.

So who is correct? Mukul Devichand examines the evidence.

He speaks to: Professors Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, authors of The Spirit Level; Professor Peter Saunders, author of Beware False Prophets; Professor John Goldthorpe of Nuffield College, Oxford; Professor George Kaplan of Michigan University; Professor Angela Clow, of the University of Westminster.

04Turkey: Staying Secular Insha'allah2010101820101024

Turkey's increased economic and political importance makes it a place which outsiders need to understand.

Since 2002, the nation has been governed by the AKP, a political party with Islamist roots.

The AKP's time in power has coincided with improvements in Turkey's economic management, the rise of its international influence and a dramatic decline amongst its citizens of support for sharia law.

Outsiders tend to see Turkey as wrestling with a choice between Islamism and secularism.

However the nation seems able to live with - even prosper under - the apparent contradiction of a government with Islamist origins and a secular constitution.

Edward Stourton attempts to unravel the complicated reality of Turkish politics and get beyond the usual Western obsession with whether the Turkey's loyalties lie with the West or the Islamic world.

Edward Stourton investigates Turkish politics and the nation's place in the world.

Edward Stourton attempts to unravel the complicated reality of Turkish politics and get beyond the usual Western obsession with whether Turkey's loyalties lie with the West or the Islamic world.

He investigates the new elites that are shaping the country's future.

Will they help Turkey fulfil its dream of becoming a global power and the West's dream of a model Muslim democracy?

The programme contains interviews with:

Firdevs Robinson, an editor and Turkey specialist at the BBC World Service

Ziya Meral, a Turkish academic at Cambridge University

Ceren Coskun, a British-Turkish academic at the London School of Economics

Professor Henri Barkey from the Canegie Endowment for International Peace

Dr Soner Cagaptay from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy

Professor Binnaz Toprak, a social scientist at BoğaziÃi University in Istabul

Producer: Helen Grady.

05The Secret History Of Analysis2010102520101031

Analysis celebrates its 40th birthday by making its own history the subject of its trademark examination of the facts.

The Director General of the BBC, Mark Thompson, recently told the New Statesman that in decades past the organisation's current affairs output had displayed a left wing bias.

He could not have had in mind the early years of Analysis.

"We tried to avoid received opinion like the plague," says the programme's founder editor George Fischer.

He required his producers to look at issues from scratch and to go beyond the bien pensant agenda.

In doing so they spotted issues that others missed.

Amongst the themes they identified as important were the depth of Thatcherite project before the term Thatcherism was coined; the tensions likely to emerge in the feminism movement; and the potential for disaster in Zimbabwe if expectations over land reform were not fulfilled.

The programme's willingness to question fashionable assumptions attracted some accusations of political bias.

Was that fair? Michael Blastland, an Analysis producer from the 1990s and now a regular presenter, looks back at the programme's history and meets some of its early staff and contributors.

Contributors:

George Fischer, founder editor of Analysis

Ian MacIntyre, founder presenter of Analysis, later a Controller of Radio 4

Rt Hon Tony Benn, former contributor to Analysis

Gillian Reynolds, radio critic, The Daily Telegraph

Michael Green, former Analysis producer, later a controller of Radio 4

Caroline Thomson, former Analysis producer, now Chief Operating Officer for the BBC

Fraser Steel, former Analysis producer

Hugh Chignell, Associate Professor of Broadcasting History, Bournemouth University

Lord Griffiths, former Analysis contributor

Producer: Linda Pressly.

Analysis celebrates its 40th birthday by revealing the secrets of the programme's past.

Amongst the themes they identified as important were the depth of the Thatcherite project before the term Thatcherism was coined; the tensions likely to emerge in the feminist movement; and the potential for disaster in Zimbabwe if expectations over land reform were not fulfilled.

Follow Analysis on Twitter: @R4Analysis

Ian McIntyre, founder presenter of Analysis, later Controller of Radio 4

Rt Hon Tony Benn

Michael Green, former Analysis producer, later controller of Radio 4

Lord Griffiths

06Defence: No Stomach For The Fight?2010110120101107

To take successful military action, you do not only need soldiers, aircraft or warships.

The support of the society and political leadership is crucial in sustaining armed action.

Yet public involvement in current debates about the future of the military has been very limited, as old ideas of 'leaving it to the professionals' prevail.

So what happens when society becomes divorced from the business of defending itself? In liberal Britain, some sections of society seem more and more alienated from military action.

Using force clashes with modern concerns about human rights and risk-avoidance.

New forms of media have cut through the more sanitised protrayal of war in the mainstream media, adding to public concern.

And politicians, scarred by the unpopularity of recent military actions, noting the grief which every single casualty prompts, are likely to be ever more wary of future warfare.

Within the military too there is change, and friction.

New technology is taking armed action further away from old ideas of heroism and codes of conduct.

These days lawyers sit in army headquarters challenging military decisions.

Many in the military appear frustrated by what they see a lack of popular and political understanding of their role.

In this programme Dr Kenneth Payne, military specialist at King's College London, explores how deep these tensions run, and what they mean for Britain's military future.

He asks too whether Britain's experience is different from that of other countries, such as the US.

Contributors include distinguished military historian and commentator Hew Strachan, former soldier and senior politician Lord Ashdown, and Professor Nancy Sherman of Georgetown University.

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

With future defence under scrutiny Kenneth Payne asks: are we losing the will to wage war?

New forms of media have cut through the more sanitised portrayal of war in the mainstream media, adding to public concern.

Contributors include distinguished military historian and commentator Hew Strachan, and former soldier and senior politician Lord Ashdown.

07Criminal Rehabilitation: A Sub-prime Investment?2010110820101114

Ken Clarke has promised a "rehabilitation revolution" in which private investors will fund projects aimed at cutting the re-offending rate.

If the projects succeed, the investors will profit.

But will so-called 'social impact bonds' and payment by results work where so much has failed? And will investors really want to risk their shirts on getting prisoners to go straight?

Interviewees include the Justice Secretary, Rt Hon Kenneth Clarke MP.

Emma Jane Kirby investigates Ken Clarke's promised "rehabilitation revolution".

If the projects succeed, the government will pay those investors a return.

But if the projects fail, the investors will lose their shirts.

You can see why the idea is attractive to ministers.

In a period of spending restraint - and with a huge and hugely expensive prison population - a 'payment by results' system promises to fund rehabilitation projects from future savings.

But will it work? After all, rehabilitation is hardly a new idea.

And so far, it seems, most attempts have made little difference.

So the question is whether a new way of paying for criminal rehabilitation might deliver better results.

There's unrestrained excitement among some of those working with offenders.

And deep scepticism among some criminologists.

Emma Jane Kirby investigates.

Interviewees include: the Justice Secretary, the Rt Hon Kenneth Clarke MP; criminologists Professor Sir Anthony Bottoms and Professor Carol Hedderman; Geoff Mulgan from the Young Foundation; the welfare expert Professor Dan Finn; Toby Eccles from Social Finance; and Rob Owen, chief executive of the St Giles Trust.

Producer: Richard Knight.

08The Deserving And The Undeserving Poor2010111520101121

Presenter Chris Bowlby asks whether a state welfare system can ever distinguish between those who deserve help and those who do not.

As the recession bites and public spending cuts loom there have been calls, on both sides of the political debate, for a re-moralisation of welfare.

Some say that the entitlement culture has gone too far, others that the hard-working poor should not be footing the bill for those who choose not to take a job.

When did the language change and what does a change in vocabulary really mean?

And even if desirable can distinctions between welfare recipients be made in practice? If there are time limits on the receipt of welfare will more people end up better-off in work or worse-off unable to work?

Analysis will look at what history can teach us about making moral distinctions between the poor - both when the economy is booming and when it's contracting.

And what of those, such as the children of welfare recipients, caught up in the debate : can it ever right to reduce the money which may give them a better future?

Producer : Rosamund Jones.

Presenter Chris Bowlby examines the concept of the undeserving poor.

Contributors :

Will Hutton

Executive vice-chair The Work Foundation

Author Them and Us

Mark Harrison

Professor of Economics, Warwick University

Tim Montgomerie

Co-founder Centre for Social Justice

Editor, ConservativeHome

Hazel Forsyth

senior curator, Museum of London

Jose Harris

Emeritus Professor of Modern History, Oxford University

Alison Park

Co-editor British Social Attitudes Survey

Philip Booth

Editorial and Programme Director, Institute of Economic Affairs

Gordon Lewis

Community Project Manager, Salvation Army

Rod Nutten

Volunteer, Salvation Army

Wolfie

Client, Salvation Army

Major Ivor Telfer

Assistant Secretary for Programmes, Salvation Army UK and Republic of Ireland

Presenter : Chris Bowlby

202C01Once Upon A Time In Whitehall2002070420020707

Does scenario planning work, and should government policy be guided by plans for hypothetical future contingencies? Ian Christie investigates.

202C02Flirting With Fascism?2002071120020714

Parties of the far right are enjoying a comeback across much of Europe.

Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks why voters are prepared to dally with Fascism.

202C03Cells, Souls And Scientists2002071820020721

Should we be manipulating our cells to create a race of better humans? Kenan Malik investigates how far the biotechnological revolution is taking us.

202C04Miraculous Mandarins2002072520020728

As the government's emphasis on delivery is subjected to constant scrutiny, David Walker asks if our civil service can cope with increasing expectations.

202C05The Expired Mandate2002080120020804

John Kampfner asks why Europe is powerless to intervene in the Middle East peace process.

202C06Home Economics2002080820020811

Frances Cairncross reports on the current boom in house prices and asks how much we should worry about its effect on the economy.

202C07Follow The Leader2002081520020818

Stock market falls frequently precede economic slowdowns, but will the recent trend prove an exception? Diana Coyle asks if the current pessimism is justified.

202C08Facing The Fats2002082220020825

Recent scientific research questions the established wisdom that fat is harmful.

Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks whether we are confusing health with aesthetics.

203A01Interesting Times2003030620030309

David Walker asks if the idea of Britain's ""national interest"" has any validity in our globalised, US-dominated world.

203A02Strange Bedfellows2003031320030316

Thirty years after the sexual revolution, Margaret Doyle asks why we are still so keen to invite the state to interfere in our private relationships.

203A03Neurotic Nation2003032020030323

More of us are turning to counselling or chemical fixes for our unhappiness.

203A04A Silver Lining2003032720030330

As conventional wisdom tells as we're doomed to an impoverish future, Diane Coyle asks whether the economic solution lies with young people.

203A05Home Time2003040320030406

Frances Cairncross asks what's driving the fashion for flexible working, whether it's a good idea, and whether it can last if there's a recession.

203A06Thinking In Public2003041020030413

Kenan Malik asks whether we need to revive the public role of intellectuals, especially at times of national crisis.

203A07Great Expectations2003041720030420

This month sees tax increases to fund the National Health Service.

Julian Le Grand asks if Labour's promise to improve public services is on track.

203A08Neurotic Nation?2003042420030427

Counselling is one of the fastest-growing industries in Britain and more and more of us are turning to chemical fixes like Prozac or Ritalin for our unhappiness, or our children's anti-social behaviour.

But is our mental health really getting worse? Felipe Fernández-Armesto asks whether modern life is driving us crazy - or whether we're just becoming a nation of neurotics.

203A09With Friends Like These2003050120030504

European hopes for a common foreign and security policy have suffered their worst blow ever as a result of the Anglo-American war against Iraq and Franco-German opposition to it.

Is it time for Europe's pro and anti-Atlanticists to go their separate ways? Bruce Clark weighs the costs of a split and asks if a reconciliation based on long-term common interests is still achievable.

203C01Only Human2003071020030713

Is there anything unique about humans? Studies of apes and other primates have shown that we are not the only beings capable of morality, altruism and superstition.

So how does society justify giving certain rights to all humans which are not extended to any animals? Felipe Fernandez-Armesto investigates what it is to be human and whether there is a coherent case for treating a clever chimp worse than a person.

203C02Europe's Vision Thing2003071720030720

Undaunted by its divisions on Iraq, the European Union is planning the next ambitious steps in its future.

Quentin Peel asks whether Europeans share the vision and values to make a larger and more complex Union work, and who will pull the strings under the new Constitution?

203C03The Numbers Game2003072420030727

Asylum and migration continue to be loudly and hotly debated.

But hasn't the argument been mealy-mouthed, as ministers and their critics on left and right decline to be precise about either principles or numbers? David Walker asks why both public and policy-makers have allowed fundamental questions of rights, identity and collective choice to be obfuscated.

203C04The Rain In Spain2003073120030803

Is economic success determined by climate rather than culture? Do temperate conditions produce richer economies? Diane Coyle investigates.

203C06Home Alone2003081420030817

Surveys suggest that within twenty years, 40 per cent of us will be living alone.

While caring family man David Beckham is one of our chief male icons, aren't we really living in the age of Bridget Jones, finding it harder than ever to find lasting relationships? Kenan Malik asks whether our culture - so keen to encourage greater openness about feelings and emotions - in fact undermines the creation of permanent relationships.

203C07Democratic Deficits2003082120030824

Democracy can produce illiberal regimes, civil war and corruption.

Yet in the West, the term democracy has become almost synonymous with liberalism, peace and good government.

As the US attempts to set Iraq on an uncertain path towards democracy, Frances Cairncross asks whether the West is sufficiently questioning of majority rule and whether other values, such as the rule of law, might be better guarantors of peace and freedom.

203C08Manners2003082820030831

As we become a more culturally and ethnically diverse society, the very concept of behaving according to an agreed code of manners seems antiquated to many.

But is this just a licence for boorish, selfish and yobbish behaviour? Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks if civilised society can survive without rules for showing mutual respect and consideration.

203C09Safe As Houses?2003090420030907

With its plans to help key workers find affordable homes, liberalise the planning laws and make our mortgages more like those in other European countries, the government wants the housing market to achieve much wider political goals.

David Walker asks if these efforts at reforming the notoriously sensitive world of property will work - and what they might mean for all of us who own homes.

204A01Look After Yourself2004030420040307

The Government says we should all be taking more responsibility for our health and public health professionals are keen to show us how to modify our lifestyles accordingly.

But how easily can the nation's health be improved by exhortation and education? And is it any of the government's business what we eat or how we live? David Walker assesses the effectiveness of health promotion and asks whether it's likely to deliver better and more equitable health outcomes.

204A02Bending The Golden Rule?2004031120040314

With budget deficits soaring in the UNITED STATES and Europe, might Britain also join in the borrowing spree? So far the Chancellor of the Exchequer has set strict limits on how much the Government can borrow.

But Diane Coyle asks if politicians are losing control of public finances, and why it could be dangerous if they are.

204A03Open Door Migration2004031820040321

An open door to disaster? However politicians differ, there is cross-party consensus that Britain needs a managed migration policy.

But is it any longer feasible or desirable for governments to control migration flows? Is it time to think the unthinkable, remove controls, and let the market decide how many people come in? Kenan Malik asks whether leaving immigration to the free market would solve our problems - or be an open door to disaster.

An open door to disaster? Is it any longer feasible or desirable for governments to control migration flows? Kenan Malik asks whether immigration should be left to the free market.

204A04The News From Here2004032520040328

Do we still need rules governing the impartiality of broadcast news? Tim Gardam reflects on the growth of news outlets and asks if regulation designed to prevent bias is still necessary or even workable.

Where once we worried that a small number of broadcasters could wield too much influence for the democratic good, can we now expect the market to be better at achieving balance?

204A05A Tricky Inheritance2004040120040404

Inherited wealth has long been a cornerstone of British society, and high house prices mean much more can now be passed on.

Frances Cairncross asks what will happen to inheritance as family relationships change and older people take on more financial commitments.

204A06Public Honours2004040820040411

The public honours system is under scrutiny as never before.

Reviews at the highest level are currently underway, but instead of trying to reform this anachronistic system, would it be better to abolish it altogether? Bob Tyrrell finds out what purpose the honours system serves and asks whether it's a reliable indicator of what and whom we value most.

204A07Ethnic Divorce2004041520040418

Ethnic cleansing - the use of force and intimidation to make an area ethnically 'pure' - is often regarded as an evil only one step removed from genocide.

We believe that all ethnic groups should be able to live peacefully side-by-side.

But is this practical in places like Kosovo when two populations really can't live together? We think that divorce is better than murder, so are there ever times when dividing warring populations is the only answer to a civil war? Andrew Brown asks whether the international community should sometimes accept ethnic separation, or even help bring it about.

204A08Fear And Voting2004042220040425

Can democracy defeat terrorism? Or does it risk its own destruction in the attempt? Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks how western democracies and their voters can combat a terrorist threat that appears to have no negotiable ends, without eroding their own fundamental values.

204A09New Cities For Old2004042920040502

Our old industrial cities have been declining for decades - but now some, like MANCHESTER, seem to be bouncing back.

Could they be models for other British provincial towns, and is the key to success a new "creative class" of yuppies, artists and gay entrepreneurs? Diane Coyle asks whether there's real substance to this urban renaissance, and who will be the losers.

204C01Making Our Minds Up2004070820040711

Britain has long excelled at failing to decide about Europe.

Bob Tyrrell explores the instincts and influences that will shape the choice we make.

204C02Give And Take2004071520040718

In the past, giving used to be a matter of conscience and receiving was regulated by hoary tradition.

But for the first time in 400 years, the Government is trying to come up with a new legal definition of charity.

David Walker asks if our wealthy, pluralist and largely irreligious society can ever agree on who should give to whom, let alone where the boundary between public benefit and private concern should be drawn in the 21st century.

204C03Sanctions: Persuasion Or Punishment?2004072220040725

Directed against South Africa, they received world-wide support.

Against Iraq they were condemned for bringing misery to the innocent.

When and why are 'sanctions' effective? Taking the examples of South Africa, Iraq and Zimbabwe, Diane Coyle analyses how sanctions have been used over the last two decades - and looks at some of their unforeseen consequences.

204C04Who Owns Culture?2004072920040801

From the Elgin Marbles to Aboriginal skulls, many of the collections in British museums are the products of empire.

Now there are growing demands for the 'repatriation' of artefacts.

Most controversial is the question of human remains: for some, they're objects to study, for others, ancestors to bury.

Kenan Malik asks whether the clash between cultural identity and scientific rationality could spell the end for our universal museums and their role as custodians of the common inheritance of everyone on the planet.

204C05Protecting Privacy2004080520040808

New technologies - everything from camera phones to Internet shopping - link people in liberating ways.

They also threaten our personal privacy.

Frances Cairncross explores the new boundary between public and private life.

204C06The Appliance Of Violence2004081220040815

The modern state has traditionally been defined by its monopoly of lawful violence.

Is this being eroded in Britain and elsewhere, as private security firms take over work from of the police and the prison service; and why is government moving into new areas of control, such as smacking of children? Andrew Brown asks where the balance of legitimate force lies and how it's shifting.

204C07Just Wars Or Just More Wars?2004081920040822

The Persian Gulf, Kosovo, East Timor and Iraq have all shown that there is no longer an agreed means of telling if a war is just.

And now terrorism, pre-emptive action and how we confront tyrannies have made matters even more complicated.

Felipe Fernández-Armesto asks if we still need a concept of just war and, if so, what practical form it can take?

204C08Catch Them Young?2004082620040829

Nursery for under-threes makes children aggressive, smacking causes long term emotional damage, bottle feeding increases the risk of obesity and parents need to be taught parenting skills.

The early years are crucial, we're told.

But is it true? Kenan Malik asks whether the scientific evidence is reliable enough to justify policymakers' preoccupation with catching them young to save society trouble later on.

204C09Some More Equal2004090220040905

Many British employers are facing criticism and legal challenges for allegedly failing to offer equal opportunities to sexual, ethnic and other groups.

The conventional wisdom is that discrimination has economic costs and stops us getting the best person for the job.

But is it that simple?

Diane Coyle weighs political correctness against profits in the arguments for more equality and diversity at work.

205C01Unscrambling Europe's Eggs?2005070720050710

The French and the Dutch pushed Europe's Humpty Dumpty off the wall; Eurosceptics are exultant.

So is this the moment to declare the whole project dead? In the first of two programmes about the future of Europe, Quentin Peel asks: how could we unscramble the Brussels omelette and reverse 50 years of integration?

205C02Or Saving Europe's Bacon?2005071420050717

Tony Blair wants a great debate about Europe's purpose.

Its voters are fearful of unemployment, immigration and ever-widening borders.

In the second of two programmes about the way forward for Europe, Quentin Peel asks: can the enlarged EU still offer the safety, democracy and prosperity for all that its founders once dreamed of?

205C03The Theology Of Terrorism2005072120050724

In the wake of the London bombings, Edward Stourton reveals a debate within Islamic thinking on the use of violence.

Whilst some young Muslims are being drawn into support for terrorism, a number of former jihadists now regard their old beliefs as un-Islamic.

Even within the militant camp, there are now deep divisions.

Could Islamic scholarship succeed where Western anti-terrorist tactics have failed?

205C04Love Thy Neighbour2005072820050731

New Localism is in fashion.

We now have a Cabinet Minister for communities; politicians of all parties talk of making local services more accountable to local people.

But recent initiatives, from Anti Social Behaviour Orders to High Hedge Legislation, don't seem to encourage neighbourliness, and do whinges about cracked pavements constitute real civic engagement?

David Walker examines the prospects for community in an individualistic age.

205C05Ba Uk2005080420050807

Britain is second only to the United States in the number of overseas students we attract to our universities.

But can we sustain our share in the face of new competitors, and are we in danger of short-changing our own home students in the race for the extra funding which overseas fees provide? Frances Cairncross assesses the pros and cons of being a leader in the global higher education market.

205C06The Right End Of The Stick?2005081120050814

From diplomacy to personal relationships, from business dealings to team sports, mutual understanding seems mandatory.

Yet all too often it breaks down, leading to wars, sundered friendships, lost customers and defeated heroes.

But how is it that we fall victim to confusion so often? In a studio discussion, Felipe Fernández-Armesto explores why misunderstanding matters and if it is something we want and need to do.

205C07The Asset Effect2005081820050821

All 21-year-olds should get £50,000 from the government: so says one of the gurus of the new philosophy of asset-based welfare.

New Labour is listening attentively to the argument that giving people assets makes them healthier and more entrepreneurial.

The danger, however, is that the lucky recipients will just blow the cash.

Stephanie Flanders asks whether the government should be giving people lump sum handouts and whether it really is the key to creating social justice.

205C08Flirting With Armageddon2005082520050828

Global nuclear disarmament seems to have been replaced by the targeting of 'rogue' states like Iran and North Korea.

And yet, the danger of nuclear armageddon could be more real today than at any time since the Cuban missile crisis, with even a local nuclear exchange engulfing the rest of the world in a catastrophic radioactive fall-out.

Zareer Masani asks if it's time for a new process of multilateral disarmament and whether Britain should be ready to give up its own nuclear deterrent.

205C09Goodbye Autocratic Allies2005090120050904

What sort of governments would free and fair elections produce in the Middle East and North Africa? Recent indications suggest that Islamist, anti-Western parties would fare better than the liberal secularists.

But the United States government seems prepared to accept the will of the Middle Eastern people: it is now putting pressure to reform on those unelected regimes it previously supported.

The British government has given the policy its cautious support.

The Cairo-based writer, Hugh Miles, assesses the risks of replacing autocratic allies with democratic foes.

206C01A Healthy Meltdown?2006070620060709

Unaffordable pay rises, staff cuts, huge deficits and postcode lotteries - the headlines suggest that the NHS is in crisis and the government's reforms are making matters worse.

But is some 'creative destruction' necessary if the NHS is to become more responsive to patients?

Bob Tyrrell asks whether the perception of meltdown is actually a sign that the reforms are starting to work.

A Healthy Meltdown?

206C02Yankee Doodle Dandy20060716

Opposition to policies and political trends in Washington has been growing elsewhere in the world.

Yet consumption of American culture continues unabated abroad.

Felipe Fernández-Armesto explores why there is so little anti-Americanism beyond the political, and if Britain wins or loses by it.

206C03Control Orders2006072020060723

: David Walker asks whether individualism is diminishing the ability of government to reassure us that someone is in control.

Control Orders: David Walker asks whether individualism is diminishing the ability of government to reassure us that someone is in control.

206C04Searching Questions2006072720060730

With ever more sophisticated search engines and smarter websites, Diane Coyle investigates the battle for our attention in the 'information society'.

206C05Over A Barrel2006080320060806

With world energy prices now high and global demand - especially from fast-growing China and India, as well as the West - showing no sign of abating, it's a good time to be holding reserves of oil and gas.

But perhaps it's less good to be like Britain - dependent on energy from countries which have been adversaries rather than allies.

Quentin Peel asks what a seller's market in fuel means for our future security; and if Russia, Iran and regimes from Africa to Asia have got us over a barrel of oil - and a gas pipeline?

206C06Workers Of The West, Retire?2006081020060813

Many Western companies are shifting investment and jobs eastwards, particularly to the dynamic young economies of China and India, with their huge reserves of cheap labour.

Could we soon see a world divided along new lines - producer countries in the East and consumer countries in the West? Zareer Masani asks whether that could mean mass redundancies in this country and, if so, whether we can survive as the affluent consumers of cheap imports.

206C07What China Wants2006081720060820

How will China use its economic muscle on the world stage? Carrie Gracie asks if we can trust China's promises of a 'peaceful' rise to superpower status.

206C08The Gnome Zone2006082420060827

Although as many as four out of five of us live in suburbs that hasn't stopped suburbia being mocked for its alleged pretensions and conservatism.

But has the rot now really set in as official alarm grows about the state of our suburbs and the lifestyles pursued there? Richard Weight asks how far we understand our core habitat and if this pioneering British idea about how to live in modern society can still work.

206C09Victims Or Villains?2006083120060903

Kenan Malik asks how we can tackle society's confusion about masculinity, with manliness close to becoming a dirty word.

206D01The Class Barrier2006110920061112

David Walker asks what class means in Britain today.

Has social class become the inequality that no longer dares to speak its name?

Now even Labour politicians attack inheritance tax, one of the principal means of preventing the passage of wealth across generations, and media mockery of the cult of celebrity suggests that these days class is more about taste than wealth.

206D02Do Mention The War!2006111620061119

In recent weeks, Western security services and even senior military figures have blamed Anglo-American foreign policy, and the Iraq War in particular, for our failure to isolate extremist jihadism from moderates.

Zareer Masani asks whether the West can ever get it right as we tread the minefield of Muslim grievances against us, and considers how best we might rethink our foreign policy towards the Islamic world.

206D03Frontiers Too Far?2006112320061126

NATO is fighting for its future in Afghanistan while the unpopularity of the Iraq war has hit new heights.

But if the US retreats, does Europe have the manpower, resources and political will to fill the gap in the Middle East, Africa or Afghanistan?

Quentin Peel considers whether NATO is the right instrument to play global policeman and asks if Europe can rethink its defence and security strategy for a world in which America is in retreat.

206D04Training Minds2006113020061203

Ruth Scurr asks whether changes in the payment of university tuiton fees are altering our view of higher education and sets out to discover what students, teachers and society now expect universities to deliver.

206D05Stick Or Twist2006120720061210

Richard Weight explores the conflict between the money that gambling generates for the government and concerns about the social damage it may cause.

206D06March Of The Monstrous Regiment2006121420061217

For the first time in history, the brightest women in western societies can take up any occupation or career they please.

While this has brought enormous benefits, the downsides are only just emerging.

Alison Wolf asks whatever happened to sisterhood, female altruism and bringing up children.

206D07Spoilt By Choice?2006122120061224

We take choice for granted in everything from hospital care to the latest gadgets, changing suppliers and brands when we're unhappy or just bored.

So when some of us freely admit we would dump our partners for £1million, is this just the next logical step or personal gratification going far too far?

Bob Tyrrell asks how far we now regard loyalty as anachronistic and what exactly we win and lose by being more selfish.

206D08Telling Muslim Stories2006122820061231

Since 9/11, Britain's media has grappled with a real sense of cultural dysfunction, and the fault-line is ethnicity and religious extremism.

Has reporting of the Iraq war abroad and the terrorist threat at home damaged the trust of ordinary Muslims in the mainstream news media? And does it matter if it has?

Charlie Beckett explores whether it's journalism's role to foster social cohesion and whether journalists have been questioning enough - or are knowledgeable enough - about Muslim matters.